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SEPTEMBER 1985 

USA $4.00 

CANADA S4.S0 

A CWCn PUBUCAT10N 



REVIEWED: 



Supercross/XT 



Supermod4 



Uttle Brother 



micro 



the magazine for TRS-80* users 



MAKING 
CONNECTIONS 

3 Easy Ways 
To Transfer 
Your Files 

MODEL 4 OWNERS! 

At Last, a Basic 
Cross-Referencer 



SUBROUTINE 

SANDWICHES 

Hardin Brothers 
Gives You 
His 10 
Favorites 

WHO NEEDS 
THE MAC? 

Try Our Hi-Res 
Paint Program! 



'74470"65947 





>».. 




THE PALANTIR OFFICE SERIES 

NO-NONSENSE SOFTWARE FOR NO-NONSENSE HARDWARE, 
AT A NO-NONSENSE PRICE NO BULL! 



The Palantlr Office Series... 

valuable, no-nonsense software lools 
thai funclion compaiibly across ihc 
entire Tandv line. 

THE Word Processor is designed 
for microcomputers but gives vou the 
feci and features of a dedicated word 
processor. It includes MailOui. ific 
most powerful file merge feature on 
the market ioda\ 

THE Speller is u fiisl and eas\ 
spelling ikLcket supplied uilh a 
60,000 word diciionan.. THE Speller's 



abilil\ lu "guc^s" (he spelling ul n 
suspccl word is uncanny, 

THE Filer is iwi aiiia/iiiiilx clever 
data rn.iiKigcinciii pruj;rani ihal is the 
periecl cumpanion lo TH K Word 
Processor for storing and retrieving 
an> kind of information you need. 

THE Indexer is like having vour own 
personal librarian in your computer. 
It scans \oiir disks and instanil\ 
displays ail occunences of a najTic. a 
phrase, oraiiylhing else you need to 
find wiihoui having it) wade through 
direclories ur print-outs. 



The Palantlr Office Series does 
what It's supposed to do and does It 
well. 

Ask your Tand\ dealer to show you 
the Palaniir advanced demonstration. 

The nn-non^ensc Office Scries is 

dvailiihlc ihiTiugli 
l-Apress Oidci 
Srituvaic at \ou[' 
TuirK dealer. 




PALAHJTIR SOFTWARE 

12777 JONtS ROAD SI ITl 100 HOUSTON I KXAS 77070 

CALL TOLL Fkhli 1 t(U0-.^6ri-1747 I\ CANADA I ^00-2^S-0025 

L\ TEXAS CALL 7 I 3-955-8880 



NO BULLI 



Circle 288 on ReaOer Service card 



Did you know? 

Only one spelling checker: 

• works with both Scripsit and Superscripsit. 

• integrates with all other popular word processing programs as well. 

• requires no special document placement! Even runs on a single drive system. 

• displays its dictionary so that you can Tind the correct spelling of words. 

• offers integrated Hyphenation Option and Grammar & Style checker. 

Electric Webster 

SPELLING CHECKER AUTO-HYPHENATION = GRAMMAR CHECKER 



Displays C orrect Spellings: If you don't 
know the correct spelling of a word. 
E W will look It up for you. and display 
the dictionary. 

Verifies Corrections: If you think you 
know the correct speUing of a word. 
FW will check It for you before mak- 
ing the corrections. 

Hyphenates Automatically: (Optional). 

Inserts discretionary hyphens through- 
out text. 

Grammar & Style Checker: (Optional). 
Identifies 22 types of common errors. 
Makes suggested corrections with the 
stroke of a key. Runs within EW. 

50,000 Word Dictionary: Uses only 
2Va bytes per word; add as many words 
as you wish. 

Fast Correcting: In as little as 30 sec- 
onds, Electric Webster can return you 
to your Word Processing program, 
with your text fully corrected and on 
your screen. 

Integrates: with WordStar, Dcskmatc. 
Spellbinder, Volkswriter, Open Access, 
Allwrite. Newscript, I ,a/y Writer. Sup- 
erscripsit. Scripsit. Electric Pencil. 
Copy Art. Powcrscript. Zorlof. and 
I.e.Script (specify). Begins proofing at 
the stroke of a key; returns you to 
word processing automatically. 

When urdering, stipulate word proces- 
sing program and operating system. 

Ciicle 45 an Headet Service card. 



"The ( adillac" 
of spelling checkers 

— 80 Microcomputing, 9/82 




ACCLAIMED: 

"Electric Webster is the best. Just read 
any review in any magazine and I don't 
believe that you will find even one dis- 
agreement to that statement." CIN- 
TVG. Cincinnati's Users Group Mag. 
4IH3 

"The most helpful program I've found 
is Electric Webster. After looking at 
nine proofreading programs. I've set- 
tled on Wehster , , ." Creaiive Comput- 
ing H/fi.i 

IhnilKiioiMiyn not putilnhMlby IhcotipiulpuMwhenof IH-A«Fr'i 



Performance "Excellent"; Documenta- 
tion "Good"; Ease of Use "Excellent"; 
Error Handling "Excellent". Info 
World. HI 82 

"Electric Webster, a fantastic spelling 
and grammar checker "HO Micro4j85 

Nowsee 
for yourself I 



U} Before \ou Buy: 

FDf ihe stcund straight year, 80 
Micro readers ha\e voted Elec- 
tric Wtbsler the #1 Spelling 
checker. Eind out for yourself how ac- 
curiile. fast and easy proof-reading can 
be. lor only the $5 cost ol postage, 
materials and handling, we will send 
you a special llectric Wehster demon- 
stration disk that worksjust like Wcb- 
sicr. hut prootsonly half the alphabet. 
With It. vou'll get a coupon worth S5 
towards the purchase of I-lcctric Web- 
ster 

low PRICES: 

IRS-SO. Model I IllorlV S 89.95 
V. Correcting Feature SI49.95 

Hyphenation S 49.95 

(irammar & Style Checkers 49.95 

{ I' M. PC DOS. Model I0<)0 2()0<) 
f lectric Webster, 

w Correcting hcaturc, $169.95 

Hyphenation, and (irammar 




Cornucopia Software 

POST OFFICE BOX 6111, ALBANY, CALIFORNIA 94706, PHONE (415) 524-8098 



ClKiTie l?6 on Reac]«< Ser-ice tdto 



J/VG 



THE SOURCE OF TRS-80 SOFTWARE! 

IF YOU BOUGHT YOUR SOFTWARE ELSEWHERE. YOU PROBABLY PAID TOO MUCH 

JMG is one of the largest sources of TRS60 software around. We specialize in software for Models 
I. Ill, and 4. Our prices are tfie best, and if you find a better price then well beat il! (see pricing 
policy) As well, we support tfie programs we sell. Our software is only all top-quality, and our 
99% satisfaction rate speaks for itself With the best prices, selection, and support all on your 
side, you cant lose! Model 4 owners; All Model 3 programs we sell will work on the Mod 4 
in "III vKyofSQ.' Remember that JMG now offers FREE SHIPPING on all orders to the continental 
U.S. or Canada of over $25! 



PRONTO 



Sppciticaliy designed loi ine i2eK TRS-M Model 4/4P. Window conlfolier program wilh 

rrany applications includes 

Models 4/4P (List S50 00) $46.50 



PASCAL-80 



Easiesi veision ol Pascal to learn' Editor and Compilei are already m memory Nearly com- 

Dleie suDset of siaoOard PASCAL 

Models I/Ill (List $79) $59.50 



PUBLIC DOMAIN DISKS 



Public Oomain Disk (specity /»1 - *7) Each S9.M 

Public Domain PacHage '1 - »4 S34.S0 

P,,Dlic Domain Package '1 - «6 S49.50 



MACRO TYPING 



Typng Tuior Presents ieile' seouences, words, sentences and times your typing speed 
aiC decks your accuracy 

Models I/Ill S24.M 



POWERDOT II 



"The twsl ntgOtesoluiion bii-image graphics program on the market lor lUe TRS-80 " Your 
screen becomes a window on your larger lull-page d'awmg board AUTODRAW leature 
for lines and circles POWERDOT tl is 100% Machine Language (Please Specify pnnler 
when ordering ) 

MODELS I/Ill . $29.50 



POWERMAIL PLUS 



Very possibly Ihe Dest rnailing hsl program available lor the TRS-80. Exlremely 
advanced and yei very simple to use Wnllen in lOC^'o Machine Language tot 
Ihe quickest operating speed H desired, your records can easily span multiple 
drives. Also, you can convert existing files from many other mail systems tor 
use with PowerMail, An exciting price break tot an exciling product' 

MODELS I/Ill or 4 $98.50 

with Teit Merge option $128.50 



PfiCKf^GE DEAL! 

** MTERM ** 



* * 



MSCRIPT 
DOSPLUS IVa 




SUPERCROSSXT 

Designed specifically for Iranstemng 

data and program tiles between 

TRS-80 disks and EtiosG ot 

other computers 



■ff/l^di 



W 



Modeli l/lll or 4 
wilh Convirt Batic 



SM.M 
option $112.50 



WORD PROCESSOR • SPREAD SHEET- GRAPHICS 
• DATA BASE • & MORE! 



A complete operating system has just become very 
affordable! This new deal offers an operating system 
thai IS much faster and easier to use than TRSDOS. Not only 
IS DOSPLUS IVa itself very user-frlendly. it also offers a built-in 
menu driving system, and of course. GREATLY enhanced 
BASIC Other included features ol DOSPLUS IVa are: Text 
Editor, Linker. Assembler; Directory Verification/Repair, Disk 
Mapping, and File & Disk Editing. As if that is not enough, you 
now also get MSCRIPT with your purchase of DOSPLUS IVa. 
That's right, one ot the easiest and most convenient to use word 
processors goes with your purchase. Also. MTERM Smart Ter- 
minal (one of the best full featured TRS-80 terminal programs 
available) is included in this deal. In addition to all of the 
remarkable features of MTERM, it will also enable you to log 
on to local Bulletin Boards and tell your friends about this fan- 
tastic deal' 

DOSPLUS IVa / MSCRIPT / MTERt^ Package Deal 
Models 4/4P (List S329.85) S159.50 



'This integrated software package for the Models 
'4MP combines many functions to become one of the 
best software deals available for the TRS-80. Includ- 
ed are Word Processing, Spread Sheet Analysis (which pro- 
vide a full range of mathematical functions). Relational Data- 
base Management (allows merging, multiple selection 
cntena. restructure of DataBase. Multiple Sorting etc.), Spell- 
ing Checker (55,000 word dictionary, correction feature, abili- 
ty to create personal and professional dictionaries). Bar Chart 
Graphics (created directly from Spreadsheet data and sup- 
ported on any printer), and finally. Data Encryption, If you 
are worried about learning T-Maker. worry no longer. It has 
excellent documentation and comes equipped with a Tutorial 
on the disk. Not only is it a great program . but it is also on 
SALEM' 

Models 4/4P (List $299) SIM. 50 



LE SCRIPT 



Great printer support, full Model 4 support and 
much more! On a 128K Model 4, you can have 
over 90K of text buffer for use on a single 
(lie Model 4 features available while running 
in Model III mode By tar LeScnpt is our 
■nosi popular program' 

Models l/lll or 4 (List S129.95) S94 50 



WORD PROCESSING 

PACKAGE DEAL 

LeScnpt and Electnc W/ebstBf 

logelfier" Needless to say, these two 

great programs work excellently 

together' 

W P Package (List $279.90) . S199 50 



ELECTRIC WEBSTER \ 

Includes 50,000 word dictionary Features fast check- j 
ing, interactive correcting and personal dictionary, 
expansion (Specify computer and word processor 
when ordering) 

Electric Wet)ster (Models l/lll or 4) 
(UsI $149.95} $119.50 

[Grammar or Hyphenation options 
(UsI S49.95) Each S38 50 



jm 



Top of the list for this month are the great specials we have for Model 
4 owners: check out the incredible packages we've been able to put 
together on T/Maker and Dosplus IVa. Also, for you Infocom fans we have 
the newest release. CUTTHROATS (for Model 3 mode only, folks). Plus 
our regular assortment of top quality stuff for the TRS-80 Models I. Ill 
and 4. Coming next month: new hardware to allow monitoring of dairy 
farms; yes folks, we're talking cow chips here. 



APPLICATIONS/BUSINESS 

PROGRAM (LIST) JMG 

T Makei (Model 4/4P| (299 D0| S194 M 

Pomerdot II ( 59 50| S 29 M 

POWERMAIL PLUS (150.00) S 9B 50 

POWERMAIL PLUS w/Txl Merge (175.00) SI 28 50 

LESCRIPT (129 95) S 94 50 

LESCRIPT CP/M (199.951 SI 49 50 

LESCRIPT MS/OOS (199-95t S149 50 

ZOHLOF II ( 69.951 S 49 50 

MSCRIPl ( 79.951 S 54 50 

LAZYWRITEH - (12500) S 99.50 

TYPEITALL (129.95) S 99.50 

PowerScrlpt (New Venion) ( 39 95) S U 50 

ELECTRIC PENCIL ( B9 00) S 79 50 

TEXTPRESS (49-951 S39.50 

ELECTRIC WEBSTER (149.95) J1I9.50 

E W. Opiions (eachi ( 49.95) S 38 50 

E W MS/DOS (Includes Oplionsi (169 95) S 149 50 

Dalagraph ( 73.95) S 69.50 

Mumlard & Disk Indeier ... ( 39.95) S 34.50 

Howe s System Diagnostic ( 99 95) S 89.50 

J h Ms Disk Drive Analyier - I ( 89.00) S 84.50 

J & Ms Disk Drive Analvier - III ( 79.00) S 74.50 

ENBASE Data Base Manager (140 00) S129 SO 

EDIT (Models I/Ill) ( 40 00) $36 50 

Home Accountant (Model III) ( 79 95) S 59.50 

VersaLedger ll (Models l/lll) 1149.95) S134.50 

Versa Series (Models Iflll). etch ( 99.95) S 89 50 

TAS s ZMAIL Mail List | 29 95) I 24 50 

DOSPLUS 3 5 (Models l/lll) I 69.95) S 59 50 

DOSPLUS IVA (Model 4MP) (169 9S| S119 SO 



UTIUTIES 

Alcar C Compiler (Hit 250 00) S B4.S0 

Alcor Mulll-Bssic Compiler. (titt 250.M) S 84 50 

TFCBBS S 99.50 

Super Ulility 4;4P S W.SO 

Super Ulillly 3 2 1 &S.SI 

Supercross XT S 94.58 

Supercross XT w/CnvBasic S112,50 

Edas ' PROCREATE S 69.50 

PROMTO (Model 4/4P) S 46.50 

DSMBLR III / PRODUCE $ 23.50 

OIS' n' DATA l/lll S 37.50 

OtS' n DATA (Model 4MP) S 46.50 

TASMON Monitor (Models l/IIIM) S 34.50 

PASCAL SO Compiler S 69.S0 

PASCAL 80 For CP/M S 36.50 

CNVBASIC (Models t/IIIM) S 27.50 

Mooel 4 TOOLBELT $ 39.50 

PRO'ESP Utililv Set (Model 4/4P) \ 23.50 

6.2 Plus Enhancements | 31.50 

ALE - Assembly Language Editor S 31-SO 

M-ZAL Macro Assembler (Model III) S 79.50 

Mumlord s Instant Assembler S 44.50 

Instant AssemUier (Model 4/4P1 S 59.50 

ZEN Attemtilar J 34.50 

Howes Monitor »5 $ 19.50 

LC / PROLC Compiler $114.50 

S8E Compiler S H.W 

ACCEL 3/4 Compiler S IB.aO 

ZBASIC Compiler S 79.50 

MUITIDOS Version 1.7 $ 78.50 

MLtLTIDOS (Model 4/4P) S B9 50 

Laiycomm Terminal $ 29 50 

Disk Term Terminal S 59 50 

MTERM Smart Terminai S 59.50 



GAMES 

SUPREME RULER PLUS $26.50 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR 129 50 

NUCLIEK 114.50 

APE 11450 

SIFTER SHIFTER $1.50 

BATTLE OF ZEIGHTV $ ».50 

FOREST FIRE DISPATCH $26 50 

WARRIORS AND WARLOCKS (O&D Adventure) $39 50 

THE bookshelf" 

ROM ROUTINES Oocumenled SU-50 

Model III Assembly language $15 50 

The C Programming Language $17.50 

Programmer s Guide to TRSDOS i $17 50 

TRS 80 Disk and Other Mysleriet $16 50 

Basic Decoded and Olher MyHeriei $23 50 

TRSDOS 2 3 Decoded $23 50 

Macriine Language Disk I/O $23 50 

The Custom THS-80 $23 50 

How To Do II On the TRS-BO $23 50 

Basic faster and Better $23.50 

BFBLIB or BFBOEM Oitki aKh $16.50 

Basic Disk I/O $23,50 

DFBLDAD OIU $23.50 

CONVERSION PROGRAMS 

BASIC 3 to 4 CONVERT 

Model 4r4P ONLY (list $49.95) $31.50 

BASIC 4 to 3 CONVERT 

Models l/lll (hsl S49.95) $39.50 

BASIC GW CONVERT 

MODEL 4/4P ONLY (list S99.95) 109 M 



ORDERS & INFORMATION: 
(416) 575-2867 

Use this number (or ordefing and for technical 
information Phones are usually staffed Monday 
to Saturday, 10 A.M. to 7 P.M. 


MONTHLY SPOTLIGHT 

ALCOR MULTI-BASIC COMPILER 

uses TRSDOS, LOOS. NEWDOS, DOSPLUS, or MULTIDOS 

tt IS a THS-80 BASIC compaiiDle compiler Versions tor Models 

i/lllM II supports advancad language (ealores, eg rtiulti-line 

pfoceOu rest unctions, recursion, dynamic string managenwnl 

elc Includes *u" screen teitl editor and advanced development 

package 

Models l/lll or 4 (lisl $250) U4.50 


inFoconv 

CUHHROATS 

An out-of-the-way Island! Ship- 
wrecks! Sunken Treasurel and 
possibly a Cutthroat who would 
rather slit your throat than share! 
All this could be yours... 

Mode) III Only $34.50 

Standard Level" . . Eacit 534,50 
PLANETFALL WITNESS 
(NCHANTER HITCHHIKEHS 

Intarmtdlile Level' Eacti S3S SO 
ZOflK It ZOflK III 
SOflCERER INFIDEL 

"Very Oitllcult Level ' . Exh U? SO 
DEADLINE STARCRDSS 
SUSPENDED 


OUR PRICING POLICY: 

We will beat any legitimate price adveriised 'or any 
product mat we carry If you 'ind a lower price 
adveriised, our price will be Si.OO less, under the 
same conditions (eg same shipping and other 
charges, etc). To receive the lower pnce you mctt 
menlion the local ion o' the other aa when ordering 


TO ORDER: 

We accHpl ufders by phuin; or (imh. When 
ordering please specify ihe Model of TBS-80 
that you own, the exact pfOQram(s) wanted, and 
Ihe method o1 payment. We accept Check. 
Money Order, VISA, MasterCard. (For Electhc 
Webster please mention your word processor.) 
AH prices are listed in U.S. Funds. 


OUR GUARANTEE: 

We sell only top-qualily software ll, 
however, you are unsatisfied with a producl 
you have purchased from JMG. you may 
return il (in good condition) within 10 days 
for a re'und. less a $2.50 handling charge 
tor programs under 550 ($5 00 for programs 
over $50) We also ask that you send us a 
'•^ner slatmq the reason lo' vou! '"fu-n 


y/YC7 //V/FPAyl l/iyM^l 


3235 LOCKPORT ROAD 
NIAGARA FALLS. NY 14305 

OR 


THE FINE PRINT: 

ReoDlar shipping in conlmentai LIS and Canada is 
FREE lour choicf; of methcM]) COD orders add S2 M 
lo cover COD costs PCs accepted for gov't & schools 
add $S00 handling charge Overseas orders will be 
charged actual shipping costs speciV surface or air 
Al! [jrif.ns suPject lo changt; *ilhouf notice 




710 UPPER JAMES ST. 

HAMILTON. ONTARIO 

CANADA L9C 2Z8 

Phone: (416) 575-2867 



Circle 392 on Reader Service card. 



Now 

I Dell r& She J^eUr Jlork Sxme$ 

Crossword Puzzles Run On Your C-omputer. 



Sim r Anhur W\ nnr van ilic 
llrsi iTiKsmird pu/7le m j I'M'.i 
nev.sp,\fHri. miliiiins ti( 

Ameiii jii\ havt l)f(iinie<if\oi*-(l 
|.)U7vl<' solvers. N(»* ii>u (ati in- 
1. hallenncii In [he hcsi (riiiswuid 
pii/ylfsfrcini cither rbt" New 
Yiirk Times or Dell an vmir per 
SDnal ( iMTipitlel. 

Ami vnii laii (In it uilli .ill llu' 
(.iiTneiiicluc ciimpillt'is oiler: 



■\\k li >i hinis. < hcrk answers, 
(■rjs<'. Vive partial pii/./lcs and 
niutli iiUJie. Beginners lan use 
(^iimpiiier Ot)SSt*ord.s to 
iK'tcitiir aiiomplished pu/ylers. 
t.xpens t at) icst their skills— 
eien iiiai<ii wits witli Irii-iuK in 
niitii'siv 

t'.M h (liskectc oHins Willi :(n 
liii/zles aiiil sells tor oiiK $1^1.!)'). 
Order li< nil lor S-'-t ''.'' aiul save 



$.') Sali-sta< tiim is tmcondi 
liiinallv guaranteed jor'MI diivs 
I roll I llie ilale cjI pun base Semi 
ailieikiii rimnevi«dei toConi 
puiei < Tosswords. P.O.B (ilH)l(l, 
San Oiego. CA 92HHi. Add S'^'-il 
lor jMisiage liikI handling;. ti'.M 
ilriE nia residems add li'^i sales 
lax). VV( will ship(U).l)., iir viiu 
I an t li.nge the puzzles [o y<ini 
MasfeKl.iidorVISA: 



CaU 800-325-1289 

California residents caU 619-224-3788. 

We'll deduct $.75 from the handling charge to cover California calls. 



"2001" 



ACROSS 

1 - H..iinn {))<■ 

I IcilluilH 
Clllll'll lit] <■ 

8 - \lis Rolim 

Mill's 

il.iu^hlri 
14 - \^dLliIlil■ 

16 - Tails Ota 

t otnpuii-rs 
iHak('ii{) 

17 - ll means 

wet I He 

18 - UiUlcss 

19 - ■L'lltir' 

I ompuK I 

20 - (uitmal 

put Mills 

21 - ILne 

itinner 
23 - I'l e 

ru I upicd 

26 - (.niiK'st in 

ilic 1 1 iiiiin \ 

27 - H.v.ii.ii 

n|HlaliJi, 
III l.ii^l.ind 

31 - (.Diitiu lan 

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32 - ll m.ans 

dusi 

33 - I'lik (loni 

tile pai k 
35 - ( oiii|ii.Ui 

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38 - 



47 - Tail nl 
1 11 U 

49 - l.iltleone 

50 - C onipiilei 



tiiid 



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line l)\ liiiel 

39 - Solver's 

roiile-- 

40 - \'ouiiji 

i.ihes 

41 - /odiai H|ie 

42 - ■■Jimr' 

e.iiih.om 
iiiunli alion 
links 
44 - San Kiaii 
I istii 

\ii i>oi t; 

M.ln. 



'■■3HI1'" 

ptliu-in 

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51 - Kniulale 

Nainhijtpe 
53 - IVwav hil 

sign 

55 - llighesi i.it 

iDL's liimi 
l.hnd's 

56 - I sc(i 111 

iileiililv an 
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60 - ( eilaiii 

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il 

2 - Xiilliiiig. HI 

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3 - lli^;hesi 

points 

4 - liiiii.niik 

and Mai n 

5 - Kal.iiluiis 

liiid 

6 - < >>lle<lion 

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poems 

7 - I he 

iu'|)llew ill 

Dom/i-tii's 

Don 
I'asijtiale 

8 ' OldFiendi 

I Clin 

9 - Walesa ol 

I'olaitd 



10 - 

Horn"' 

1 1 - KiiipUi\s a 

iioiibk' 
sliiioting 
lei iiniipie 

12 - Wonliti 

the 

I'ostniairs 

Creed 

13 - Kilter veil ll 
15 - Sni-iH the 

liter in 
untie II I 
("preeee 

17 - BandUadi I 
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22 - Aioiii- 
piilei 
laiijjiiaKe 

24 - Agveemem 

25 - ln_ . 



Is 28- 



29 - 

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35 - 

36- 

37 - 

38 - 

40- 
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light liiilli: 48 

.Uil'i 50 

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et al. 

AKI. 

alliliatr 

Banks' liusi 

i.esv \l,lii 

Ro^■s,site 

r.liiiled 



45 
46 



54 - 



55 - 



27 - 



lall):Uil. 

Lmkol 
"I tniihlr- 
weeds" 



lialt 

Nemo's 
niilii'ii 
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Waldfii on 
■■Liiu 
(^laiil " 
IWrnliai ll 
nl-'llie 

King.it 
(.ollletU 



56 
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Most 
Ilheialed 

})U(lklllsl 

Hitiei Rod 

Australian 

irv 

All less 

Rowlands 

Kxi laiii.i- 

lion Ironi 

Down 

I lidet 

lolalv 

Al.hi. 

Qiiiik 

^^■SK 

naitu' 
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eve sine 
t nder 
sgaiiil. as a 
joke 




Svsiern rt-quirfiiicnis; !Sk— IRSHII* I. Ill, & IV: IIIM* I'C iir 
coiiipaiililf (e.g., IinHl\ 1000^) .■\pplc*lls:(:(iiiiii»)(inrf*; .Aiaii'^. 

Piiti liasf the pu/ylfs or < in le tlif Re;idcr Service number and we will 
send viiti ilie answers in ihisoripnal ( '.omputer Oosswords pua-le. 

QDMPUTEF QFCSSWCFaS 



*Rcgisiered Trade Mark 



KAOiMNt; rKt:iiN()L(K;V(:t)Mi'ANV 



PUBLISHER 
Peter Hutchinson 

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 
Eric MaJoney 

MANAGING EDITOR 
ftter E. McKie 

SENIOR EDITOR 
Ft ne lope Hamblln 
REVIEW EDITOR 
Ryan Davls-Wrlghl 

COPY EDITOR 

Toidy Nelson 

TECHNICAL EDITORS 

foadford N. Dixon 

Mare -Anne Jarvela 

Keith Johnson {Load 80) 

Dave Howell 

Beverly Woodbury 

PRtXJFREADER 

VInoy La ugh ner 

EDITORIAL ADMINISTRATION 

Carole MaclocI 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Hardin Brothers 

David Engelhardt 

John B. Harrell HI 

Terry Kepner 
Thomas L. Qulndry 



ADVERTISING SALES 

SALES MANAGER 

William Smith 

SALES REPRESENTATIVE 

Michael Wozmak 

1-800-441-4403 

WEST COAST OFFICE 

1060 Marsh Road 

Menio Park. CA 94025 

415-328-3470 

SALES REPRESENTATIVE 

Allsson Walsh 

ADVERTISING COORDINATOR 

Judy Walker 

ADVERTISING SECRETARY 
Cathy Berry 

MARKETING/PROMOTION DIRECTOR 
Jane Buiierfleld 




The iBfl bfKKet, (, replacas Ihe up anu* u»»d by Radio 
Stiack lo Indlcala ejponsntlatlon on our prinlouta. When on 
lering prooramfl pubUstieO In SO Utcro. you should maka Ihis 
ChaiQ*. 

ao tormala Its progiam listings to run 6*<haFaclBr3 wide, 
Ihe way ttiey look oo your video screen. This accounts tot 
Ifwi occasional wrap-around you will notice in our proaram 
listings Don'l let II Iti'Ow you. particularly whor onleimfl as- 
semtiiy listings. 

Aftkle submissions trom our rsa<ters are welcomed and erv 
iXHjraged. Inquires should be addressed to SulxniiBions Ed- 
itor, 80 Pine Street, Peterborough, NH 03458. Include an 
SASE tor a copy of "How to Write For SOMrcro ' PaymsiH lor 
accepled articles is made at a rate of approiimataly tSO per 
printed page, all rights are purchased 
'TRS-SO, Scrips H, and TRStXJS are trademarKs o1 Radio 
ShacK, a divleton ol Tandy Corp 



80 Micro (ISSN -0744- 79681 Is publlstwd monthly Dy CW Com- 
munlcalions/Peleiboioijflh Inc., BO Pine St., PelertMtough, 
NH, 03458 Phone: 603-924-9471. Second class postage paid 
at Pele(tx>rouBh, NH, and additional mailing ofticas (Cans. 
dian second class mail regislralion number 9563 I SuOsciip- 
tkm rales in US are 12* 97 lor one year. 136 for two years, 
and (53 lor three years. In Canada and Mexico SZ7.97— one 
year only, U.S. funds drawn on a U.S. bank Nationally dis 
tributed try Inlemalkmal Circulation Distributors. ForBign 
subscriptions (surface mail), M4.97— one year only, U.S. 
funds drawn on a U.S. tiank Foreign subscriptions (air mail) 
please tnguire In Sout^ Africa contact SO Uicio P 0. Boi 
782B15. Sandlon. South' Africa 2146 All subscription con-e- 
Spondence should be addressed to 80 Micro, Subscription 
Department, P.O. Box 981, Farmlngdale, NY 11737. Please 
Include your address labei with any correspondence. Posl- 
master: Send address changes lo 80 Micro, Subscription 
Services. P.O. eo«981, Farmingdale, NY 11737 Send Cana- 
dian changes of address to 80 Micro, P O. Boi 1051 , Fort 
Erie, Ontario i.2A 5t4B, Canada Relum postage guaranteed 



Entire contants ©i:i7pyri|]nr 1965 b/ CW CowmuntcttionsJ 

Peleitwougn Inc No can ol this publication may be fBpnnlod, 
or reproduced by any rrmans, wilhout prior wntlon permisston 
from trie putKiSher. All programa are putJiShed for personal 
use only. All rights reserved 



4 • 80 Micro, September 1985 



September 1985 




IV 


•^^^^5^ 










^ 


^ ^^^^^H 

\^^^^ 


fill'' 


■1 





page 36 




micro 



Features 



36. You Can Get There from Here 

by tirndjord N. Dixon 

What i( takes to transfer files from one computer to another. 

41. The Perfect Host 

by Bennett Shulman 

Step-by-step instructions for using Memdlsk to transfer 

data at high baud rates. 

(Model 4) 

48. My 10 Favorite Assembly-Language Subroutines 

by liardin Brothers 

The author serves up an assortment of input and screen- 
handling routines to merge with your Basic programs. 
(Models III and 4; Load 80) 

56. Drawing in Detail 

by Jim Abbassian and Glen E. Sparks 
Draw on our MacPaint-style graphics editor for classy high- 
resolution designs. 
(Models ill and 4; Load 80) 

66. A Basic Programmer's Best Friend 

by Raynjond Pelzer 

Debugging is less of a bore with this cross-reference utility. 

(Model 4/4P; Load 80) 



Departments 


6. 


Load 80 Directory 


86. 


Basic Takes 


8. 


Side Tracks 




by Richard Ramella 




by Eric Moloney 


90. 


The Next Step 


12. 


Input 




by Hardin Brothers 


14. 


Feedback Loop 

by Terry Kepner 


94. 


Spreadsheet Beat 

by Doug Peterson 


21. 


Pulse Train 








by Bradlhrd N. Dixon 


102. 


Express Checkouts 


25. 


Reader Exchange 




The Oflix Personal Office 


29. 


Reviews 




IDEA! 




edited by 




HomeworD 




Ryan Davis-Wright 




Inside CP/M Plus: A 




Supercross/XT 




Guide for Users 




Accounts Receivable 








Little Brother 


112. 


Tidbit #27 




Teach Your TRS-80 Tb 


118. 


New Products 




Program Itself 




edited by 




Brainstormer 




Mare-Anne Jarvela 


76. 


Project 80 


125. 


MS-DOS New Products 




by Roger C. Alford 




edited by 


82. 


Dave's MS-DOS 
Column 




Mare-Anne Jarvela 




by Dave Rowell 


128. 


Ask Tandy 



80 Micro, September 1985 • 5 




Load 80 gathers together selected 
programs from this Issue of 80 Mi- 
cro and puis them on a magnetic me- 
dium for your convenience. It is 
available on tape or disk, and runs on the 
Models, i. III. and 4. 

Load 80 programs are ready to run. 
andean save you hours of time typing in 
and debugging listings. Load 80 also 
gives you access to Assembly-language 
programs if you don't have an editor/as- 
sembler. And. It helps you build a sub- 
stantial software library. 

Using I^oad 80 Is simple. If you own a 
tape system, load the Load 80 tape as per 
the Instructions provided. If you own a 



Model [ or 111 disk system, you boot the 
Load 80 disk and transfer the files to a 
TRSOOS system disk according to sim- 
ple on-screen directions. If you own a 
Model 4. copy tfie Model 4 programs 
from the Load 80 disk to your TRSDOS 
6.x disk using the COPY command. 

Not all programs will nm on your sys- 
tem. Some Model 111 programs, lor in- 
stance, will run on the Model 4 in the 
Model 111 mode, but not in the Model 4 
mode. You should check the system re- 
quirements box that accompanies the 
article to find out what system configu- 
ration individual programs require. 

If you have any questions about the pro- 
grams, call Keith Johnson at 603-924- 
947 1 . Yearly subscriptions (o Load 80 are 
$199.97 for disk, or $99.97 for cassette. 
Individual loaders arc available on disk 
for $21.47 or on cassette for $n.47. In- 
cluding postage. To place a subscription 
order, or to ask questions about your 
subscription, please call us toll free at 1- 
800-343-0728 between 9 a.m. and 5 
p.m. Or. you can write to Load 80. 80 
Pine St.. Ftterborough, NH 03458. 



Directory 


Subroutines 


An icon-driven graphics editor. 


Article; Mv 10 Favorite Assembly- 


Language: BaslcG. 


Language Subroutines (p. 48). 


Cassette filespecs; F. G. H. 1. J. 


Systems: Model 111. 32K RAM; 


Disk filespecs: HEMBRAN3/BAS. 


Model 4. 64K RAM. 


REMBRAN4/BAS. SCRNGRID/ 


Ten input and screen- handling 


BAS. HEXAGON/BAS. COM- 


subroutines. 


PUTE R/BAS. 


Languages: Disk Basic. Assembly. 




Cassette fllespecs: B. C. L1ST4, D. 


Line 


Disk niespecs: LISTl/BAS. 


L1ST2/BAS. LIST3/SRC (source 


Article: The Next Step (p. 90). 


code). LIST4/SRC (source code). 


Systems; Models I and III. 32K 


LIST5/BAS. 


RAM. Radio Shack EDTASM. 




A line-drawing subroutine and 




sample Basic program. 


Crosscheck 


Language; Disk Basic. Assembly. 


Article: A Basic Programmer's 


Cassette filespecs: LINE. K. 


Best Friend (p. 66|. 


Disk filespecs: LINE/SRC [source 


System: Model 4/4P. 64K RAM. 


code). LINE/BAS. 


A Basic cross-reference program. 




Languages: Disk Basic. Assembly. 




Cassette lllespcc: E. CROSS. 


Report Card 


Disk niespecs; CROSSCHK/BAS. 
CROSS/SRC (source code). 


Article: Spreadsheet Beat (p. 94). 
Systems; Models 1 and 111. 48K 
RAM. VisiCalc. 


CROSS/CMD (object code). KEY- 


WORDS/ASM (source code). 




Calculate students grades 




based on tests, assignments, and 


Rembrandt 


class work. 


Article; Drawing in Detail (p. 56). 


Disk filespecs: RI'TCARDA'C. 


Svstem: Model III. 64K RAM: 




Model 4. 64K RAM; hlgh-rcsolu- 




tlon board. 





ART UtKECTDK 

Bclh Kromme* 

PRODUCTION srPERVISOR 

Dion Owcns'KannFr 

PRODUCTION ASSISTANT 

JancI Brown 

AD/ORAPHICS PRODUCTION 
Gar>- l-iiHVi 



GRAPHIC SERVICES MANAGER 

Dennis Chrtsienstn 

MANliFACTURING MANAGER 

Su«an Gross 

FILM PREPARATION SUPERVISOR 
Kolwn M Vllleneuvc 

TYPESETTING SUPERVISOR 
Linda P. Canale 



CHAIRMAN 
Jamps S. Povfv 

PRESIDENT 

Debra Wpthprbcc 

VICE PRESIDENT/FINANCE 

Roger Miirphv 

ASSISTANT GENERAL MANAGER 

Malt Smllh 

ASSISTANT TO VP/FINANCF. 

Domlnlqiit- Smith 

DIRECTOR OF CIRCULATION 

William P Howard 

CIRCUL.AT10N MANAGER 

Frank Smllh 

DIRECT AND NEWSSTAND SALES MANAGF.R 

Ratno WIrdn 

I 800.'M3O728 

DIRECTOR OF CREDIT SAl.ES 

AND COLLECTION 

William M Boyer 

EXECUTIVE CREATmC DIRECTOR 
Christine De»iiri-ni(H-s 

FOUNDER 
Wayne Green 



Cover photofrftph by WbitCPackcrt Pbotograpbr 



so Ukio a a meinMi ol Iha CW Coniinunicalions<lnc (foup 
ine MoiU'i WigMt puDWMf ot MfnpuMr-ratMM mHnnalion 
Trie gitH4> puMtfiM 6' conipuM< puCifccaMns « 20 nuioi 
courniies Nne rrMhon people tao one or more ol iPie 
group'i publicetiona eacn rnonlti Memben of rrw grct^) m- 
cluda ArganHna t CompuMnaDrid'Anjenriiu. Asia i Jha Attan 
ComtHMmoM. Aianta't CompomwoiU AutntM. Aaana- 
Dan PC WoM. MkcNwtf ma CtacAWW. Biurs DalaNews 
and MeraMMb. Cnnai omti Coitipuitnioha. DemuM's 
CampultnioilillDanmtt*, PC mvlif and njn(Cenii no i t im). 
Fwtxia't IMm. France i LB Uona» InlennafiqM. Gouen |Ap- 
plel vd OPC (leMi and DvlnOuliQUf. Oerniany i ComptMr- 
noclm, UkmeonvUlBrwtK. PC MM. SpnnwvMarW. CW 
EOiIcnCSe'Mnar. CompiMi fluain— i. Run and itfVto'a, Haly't 
ComfHUennoiia Rafa. and PC MaoaWis; Jean's CompiMr- 
•Kiniit Japan Mew<»'9 ConvuWnwmM«J«co and Cornpu- 
UunOo The Neffierlands' Coinpulfneiia Brneka and PC 
Wyw Btnalia. Nonoy't Cempultrmrkl Norg*. PC MOALO 
and Am fCommodorat. Saudi Aiaba*i Saudi ConvManHMl. 
Span'! CompunnNinOClpana.MicroMMmauPC Mbnt). Com- 
moaon \MKttS. Swedan'i ConvMarStradan. UHaoOatan. and 
Svenaka PC Hie UK's CoopiMr Umtgnmnl: Ccrnputf 
Urms. PC SuNMM HCfU md Coaipotm Buttntt Europe; 
VerHiueia'3 ComptMrmoiU ManenMia; the US' Ccmpufr- 
HonU. HOT CoCo. mC-Oar. InlaliMona klacWarla. Micro Atei*ei- 
MtrrU. PC MMd, Run, 73 Magazine, Facta PuMcaOoni. On 
CommuninaBons. and SO Micro 



Probiami witti Sutitcriplkuis Sand a deecrlpiton ol the prol> 
lem and your cutiani and(o' most leceni addreaa la SO Micro. 
Subscription Depart inefl I. P.O. Ban BSV FarminQdaia, NT 
t1737 

Piobitmi nrirn taadaoClrou«rM)f). AddfeMcariBSpondence lo 
Load ao. BO Pine SI.. PMMwrougri. NH 03458 
^robiemi mth AdVarAaer* Sand a deKHplion ol Itw proOlem 
and your currant addtMi to. SO Uicro. Rl lOt & Elm Street, Pa- 
lBft»'ougn, NM 034ie. ATTN Rita B Rivard, Customer Service 
Man«ger It urgent, call 1«00-Mt.4«03 
Cnanga ot AOdiaaa. Send old laMi or copy ol old addiess and 
new eddiMSIO^KIMICO. PO Boi981. Farmingdale. NV 
11373 PlaaaaolvsalBnt weeHs advance nonce 
Uicrolilm. Tliii publication rs available m microlorm Irom Uni. 
veisily Mic'olllms International United Slates address 300 
North Ztb Road. Oapt P R.. Ann Arbor. Ml 48106. Foreign ad- 
dress. 16 Bedloid Row. Depl P R., LorKlon. WCtR4EJ. Eng- 
land 

Dealeri Contact Raino Wiiein Retail Sales Manager SOMiCO. 
Pine St . Peterborougn NH (U4SB |B0O| 343-0728 



6 • ao Micro. September 19B5 



Circle 204 on Reader Service card 




All MOO III fxatjiam^ specrfiei) m lhi% ad will tun on the Model 4 (in (he MOO III mode) 

WE WILL NOT BE UNDERSOLD! 



ELECTRIC WEBSTER 

WITH CORRECTING FEATURE 
LIST 149.95 SALE 119.95 

HYPHENATION OPTION 36.95 

GRAMMAR i STYLE 36.9S 



WINDOWS ON MOD 4 

WW PflthTD f flCM MiSOSf S KlOfii WODtl 
4 USERS ^0 CREATE AND USE WINDOW OVER 
LAVS ON THE WOO I SCREEN AT THE TOUCH 0* 
ASiNGLEKEY COUESCOMPlETEWrm THE WIN- 
DOWING UTiLrrv, ROTATING WDEX FilE AD- 
DRESS FILE, APPOINTUENT SCHEDULER, CAL- 
ENDAR ; CALCULATORS CAfiD FILER NOTEPAD 
PHONE LIST i AUTO DIALER AND A MINI TER 
MINAL A TRULY INCREDIBLE SOFTWARE SET FOR 
ONLV 49,95 

ftw. 'W '2m WOD 1 4 TfiSDOS 6 2 



APPLICATIONS 

Mscto Typing Tutor I/III/4 39.95 

ST-BO III 60.05 

Miracle 1000/1200 279.00 

Survey Arialyst 195.00 

Masterdi rectory Mod IIJ 29.05 

S jperdkectory Uod l/llt 44.05 

Datagraph lilll.afMax CO. SO 

Datagraph Pie Chart Option , 29.95 

The B9S1C ChecKBOOK III! 64,95 

Mterm I1III.4 , , 59.50 

Mtetm MSDOS 1000,1200 . , 74.95 

Loan Amorlizalion III 29.95 

PowerMail Plus I III 4 124,95 

Teil-Merge for PowerMall .... 49 95 

PowerMail A.'Texl-Merge 149,95 

The Home Accountant III 62.50 

Inventory ControljICS Pro 148,00 

fCS'PRO 1000 & 1200 300 00 

Ultraterm l/lll 44,95 

LJIIraterm 2 tv>auto-logon 59 95 

TallyMasier 79.95 

SPS Slalistical Analysis Mod I . . 150,00 
SPS as aOove (or Mod IN inqiiire 



BBS-80 ONLY 74.95 

A COMPLETE SYSTEM AT A FRACTON Of 
THE COST Of SIMILAR SYSTEMS MOO i OR 

Ml SPECf^v 

BBS-PC SALE 150.00 

Heducea 'lom 2?% 00 
THE MOST INCREDIBLE BBS SYSTEM WE'VE 
SEEN UP TO 8 DIFFERENT BBS IN ONE CALL 
FOR MORE DETAILS ALL COMPATIBLE PC S 
100W1200 2000 VERS AVAIL 



INFOCOM GAMES 

PLANEIFALL • ENCHANTEH • 
WINTESS • MOD I or III 34.95 

ZORK (1 . ZORK til • INFIDEL • 
SORCERER • MOO I or IN 39 OS 

DEADLINE ■ STARCROSS • 
SUSPENDED • MOD I or III 44.95 

THE NEW HITCHHIKERS GUIDE ■ OB 
SEASTALKER • MOO III ONLY 34.05 



SCHOOL UTILITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
Mostly Basic Educational Tape , 14,99 
Time Dungeon U S History Tape 19 95 
Time Dungeon World History Tape 19,95 
Tesi Question Data Bank . . . . . 49 95 

Test Generator Drill , 34,95 

Football Scouting 49 95 

Basketball Statistics 39,95 

Baseball SlalisttCS . , 39 95 

Computer SAT 111.1000-1200 79 95 



GRAPHIC GAMES AND SIMULATIONS 

Voyage ol the Valkyrie Mil 29 95 

Voyage at the Valkyrie Tape 19 95 

Melldowri I.Nuclear Powerplant] 19 95 

Gamepak-3 (Funface. Match, etc) 29 95 

Pro-Pi» NFL Vvrslon 29 95 



THE FBN GENERAL LEDGER 

APsclurely ■"? ' rest G'L i" "-e mariier f.lOO (II 
RETAtL S300.00 NOW 149,95 



ONLY 
44.95 



INFOSCAN 



An Excellent ScrMn 

IOnented Key-Worit 
Data B8S« ^^ 



rar^x d-^ >!« f" rVornaor m* s j«lj id ^ li x"*«i« 

la -^.-e^ aK OKUi ull■^ Da^ )a/ or ■nn' Vm aw 
H ntlt i-KmtKT £ F* fw UTtft > i™» OkU^ wmlMi m», 
c* jHC jnc *rVfi^ tni am r*:im\jtKf car » n ine taT-> 

Ox'K Com^lut*, mxtvrn ar^tv' Mnun ■* Mev m, 
•HXT13 >i eu rar 1 am) CdiM* "V ■««■<«« Ou" '" «•■ 
<^ i-toun iTt iTiM « tvan* ConcHHy nnmj aiyr- k- 
Wcs-iuiBj M[U, unlm' twnita'mina.iaywiraim 
ivittta Ota ro !frqtt~i ■ma Tia u> ouMvidng t'i^'>~ 

MOOMIt 



BOOKS, WALL CHARTS & MISC 

Inside Super Utility (new issue) 17 95 

Super Utilily Tech Manual 3 x , 13 96 

TRS-80 EncyclopeQia IMKJ 19 95 

TRS-80Z-80 Assembly Library 31 95 

TRS 80 Disk & Other Mysteries 19.95 

The Custom TRS-80 & Other Mysl 2S.95 
Microsoft Basic Decoded 26 95 

Machine Language Disk 1,0 26 95 

Basic Disk 1,0 & Other Myst 36 95 

How To Do It On The TRS flO 26 95 

TRSDOS 2 3 Decoded & Other Mys 26.95 

Basic Faster & Better 26.95 

BFS Library Disk Mil . .... . . . 16.05 

BFB Demo Disk MM , . . . 16.95 

TRSDOS 6 LDOS Progrsmmen 

Guide 14 95 

Green Screens l<ll'lll'4 '4P 16 95 

Diskettes SSDD 10 m Plastic Bi IS 00 
Volt Guard Surge Protector 39 95 

Profile 3 ■ Commands Wall Chart' 4 00 
Visicaic Commands Wall Ctiarf 4 00 

Superscripsit Wall Chart' , , 4 00 

Model III Basic Wall Chnn' , 4 00 

Model 4 Basic Wall Chart' . 4 DO 

'Ctiarls not shipped as separate order 

WORD PROCESSORS & 

PRINTER DRIVERS 

Laiy Writer l,lli;4 119 95 

Lazy Font 1.111/4 , . 44 95 

MSmpt MII/4 53 SO 

M. Script 1 000' I 200 MSDOS 74 9S 

LeScripl Mllf4/Mai , , , 104 95 

LeScript MSDOS 1000 1200 179 95 

Clean Slate I'lll ' , 49 95 

Electric Webster (specily) . 119 95 

Grammar & Style (specilyt 38 96 

Hyphenation Opt (specily) 38 95 

PowerDnver.e Epson l;lll,'4 , 29 95 

PowprDriver P Prowriter 1,111,4 29 95 

Powt'rDriver S Slafwriter 1,111.4 29 95 

PowerDnver O Okidala 92 l'lll'4 39 95 

PowerDriire(.»-X (FX.RX) I 111,4 29 95 

Epson Driver Compiler 29.95 

PowerScript (or Scripsit I/II1/4 , , 34.95 
Null ir ,ni,r p. nl^^ O'l.ri It nol IMIiikI call Kt 



JsiOO FREE SPECIALS S200j 

•Order over S100. 00 and select one of the follow-* 

• ing ABSOLUTELY FREE. Order over $200.00 and • 
2 you may select any two items: 80 Micro's 465- 
.page Review Guide • Voyage of the Valkyrie • ^ 
Meltdown • The Rest of 80 250 page Book • ^ 
^Superkeys Mod III • The Green Window CRT^ 

• Screen • Varkeep & Screenpacker Plus • Master p 

• Directory Mod (II • Agri-Calc Feeder Pig Module • • 



UTILITIES 

FAST'CUD Run Mod III TRSDOS 1.3 

Programs On Mod 4 

at high speed , , , 20,95 

J&M Memory Minder I M.OS 

J&M Memory Minder III 4 74.95 

TextPress l,'lll lASCII Comp.) ... 40.05 

Ale Editor'Assembler Mil. , 3B.9S 

The ToolbOK for LDOS 44.95 

LC Compiler'EOAS MM or 4. , . . 124.05 
ALCOR C Complete System , . , . 83.95 
ALCOR Multi-Basic Compiler 63 95 

ACS Superkeys Key Macros Mod III35 00 
6,2 Plus (Enhance TRSDOS 5 2) 36,95 

The Tooibeit Mod 4 44.95 

AGS Utils ■} Varkeep/Scrnpkr . . . 40.95 

Impakt tor Basic l.'llt 34.95 

Pro-Cess Mod 4 24.05 

Pro-Create Mod 4 74,95 

PfO-Cure Mod 39.05 l. 

Pfo-Duce Mod 4 24.05 

PfO-Pads Mod 4 39.95 

Pro-LC Mod 4 . . 124.05 

Pro-Zc»t Mod 4 , 24.95 

Enigma Erjcryplion Utility . . . , . 34.05 

Basic-S Compiler System 34.95 

M'ZAL Release 3 Mod I'lll , . , . 74.95 
Zues Editor. Assembler Mti;4 , 74 95 

Master Mechanics Set (or LOOS , , 24,99 
E Basic ispeclty DOSl ,, . . 49 95 

System Diagnostic I/III/4 B9,99 

ConvBasic/CmO I/III/4 29,95 

Hypercros«/XT 2.0 ... , 93.95 

Trashman , 32,50 

Faster 22.95 

PPM 21,50 

DSMBLR III UMI 24.95 

Accel 3'4 Basic Compiler l/lll . 94 95 

Monilo' 5 l'lll'4 , 22,95 

Hyperzap Disk Utility 1/111/4 40.05 

Superdos enhance TRSDOS 1 .3 . . . 29.95 
Z-Basic Compiler , . , . , 79,50 



GRAPHICS 

Poiwerdraw I'lll 34.95 

Graphit (Line Graphing) 34.95 

AOS Utils. Screenpacker Plui 49.95 

PowerDot II l/lll Spec. Prlnler 54.95 

Datagraph . , . S9.50 

Laiy FonI Ii[lb4 Spec Printer 44 95 



SUPER UTILITY 
PLUS 

; By POWERSOFT 



Mi 



VOTED AS THE OUTSTANDING 
UTILITY BV 80-MICflO READERS 



PROTECTED MEDIA 

VER 3.2 MOD l/lll ... 62.50 
0C)_.jVEfl 4/4P MOD 4/4P . . 69,95 



\>i 



OR THE ALL NEW 

SUPER UTILITY MSDOS 

INTRODUCTORY PRICE 
ONLY S79.95 



OPERATING SYSTEMS 

CPiM 2 2 Monteiuma Mod 4 . , 169.95 
H Shack HD Driver tor CP/M 2,2, . 30,00 

Dospius 4A With M-ZAL 114 95 

Dosplus 3 5 Mil . 54 95 

Dospius 3 3 Mod I S or 00 29 95 

Multidos 1 7 Mil 79,00 

MullMos Mod 4 89.95 



TRS-80 ENCYCLOPEDIAS 

FULL 10 VOLUME SETS 

RETAIL SALE 

Hard Cover 199 50 89 95 

SotI Cover 109 50 68 99 

Gel triese collector's sets while guantiiies 
las' 



MSDOS SOFTWARE 

Call us lor all ol your MSDOS 90ltware 
needs IBM-PC, TANDY 1200/1000 
Leading Edge PC, ale We nave thou- 
sands ol programs available at great 
prices 



TRSDOS-MSDOS-CPM 

CONVERSION UTILITIES 
SUPERCROSS/XT 93,95 

SUPERCROSS/XT 

W/CONVBASIC 109,95 

HYPERCROSS/XT 2,0 93,95 

HYPERCROSS/XT 1 .8 79 95 

THESE UTILITIES ARE A MUST FOR 
CONVERTING TRSDOS TYPE PRO- 
GRAMS TO YOUR MSOOS OR CPM 
COMPUTER ALL MENU DRIVEN, 
THEY DO THE COMPLETE CONVER- 
SION ON VOUR TRS-80 MOD 1 NEEDS 
DOUBLE DENSITY THE CONVBASiC 
IS AVAILABLE SEPARATELY FOR 
29.95, 
Specify MOO 1DD, MOD 1(1 MOO d 



l^lg kCount 214-680-8268 

^B^V9b9 Monday - Friday 1000 lo 8 00 CST 
^^^^%M\mM Saturday 10 00 to 5 00 • Closed Wednesdays 

Send Cash Chech or Money Order Please add S3.00 lor UPS Shipping 

or S4,00 tor US Postage & Insurance. COD's send an additional 

S3. 00 COO lee. All COO's will require cash or certified upon delivery. 

Foreign orders are welcome. All shipping charges assumed by purchaser. 

When ordering by mail, please specify compuier model number. 

Phone Your Order In Today Or Mail To: 

DtSKCOUNT DATA, 2701-C WEST I5th, SUITE 512. PLANO, TX 75075 

'.(mm^r'.ij ^'^ ^SP Cheeriully Accepted 



80 Micro. September 1985 • 7 



SIDE TRACKS / by Eric Maloney 



On Piracy, Scripsit, 
and the Model 4P 



I see by my directory that my Side 
Tracks disk is flUing up with lots of 
little 1.5K files. Time to chain them to- 
gether and clean up this mess. 

Piracy— No Longer an Issue? 

Ah. to be young again. Remember 
those hot and furious days when copy 
protection was the issue in the TRS-80 
community? When the mere mention of 
the words would give users and vendors 
apoplexy? 

That was back In late 1982 and early 
1983. In the eye of the storm was Pow- 
ersoft's SuperUtillty Plus, a program 
that would unprotect disks but was Itself 
copy-protected. 80 Micro kicked off the 
fuss when we asked readers whether we 
should publish the address of a reader 
who wanted to offer a way to unlock SU. 

We received more mall on the subject 
than on any other in our history. On one 
side were consumers who felt they had a 
right to copy disks for their own use. On 
the other were manufacturers who ar- 
gued that protection was the only rea- 
sonable way to stop piracy. 

Now comes the news that Powersoft 
has decided to remove the protection 
from SU. The company is not protecting 
Its new IBM PC version of SU and could 
not Justify protected and unprotected 
versions of the same product. 

I suspect that Powersoft's move will 
prompt little comment from the TRS-80 
community. While protection remains a 
volatile topic in other markets, it stimu- 
lates about as much debate among TRS- 
80 users as last week's weather. 

Perhaps copy protection Is no longer 
necessary. Perhaps all the pirates moved 
on to Commodore. IBM, and Apple ma- 
chines. Or perhaps the manufacturers 
have given up, choosing to trust con- 
sumers and hope their trust is rewarded. 

When You're Number 3. . . 

I see from an Infocorp. study pub- 
lished in InfoWorld that Scripsit was the 
third best-selling word processor on the 
market In 1984. It sold 150,000 units, 
surpassed only by Applewriter (254.000) 
and Wordstar (290,000). and accounted 
for 13 percent of worldwide word pro- 
cessing sales. Among the packages it 
beat out were PFS:Write. EasyWriter. 
MulUmate. and Perfect Writer. 




If nothing else, the study points to the 
TRS-80's Invisible but significant pres- 
ence In the microcomputer industry. It 
also indicates how important such re- 
ports can be in giving a product credibil- 
ity. Too bad Tandy Is so reluctant to give 
out sales figures on Its computers and 
software: such editorial coverage goes 
further than advertising and word of 
mouth ever could. 

So Long to the 4P 

1 liked the Model 4P. It was a ctassy 
piece of hardware, with a clean design 
and nice feel. When Tandy discontinued 
the machine in May at S650— half- 
price— it gave consumers the best bar- 
gain they've ever gotten from a major 
computer manufacturer. Many shoppers 
apparently agreed: by the end of May, 
you couldn't find a 4F to save your life. 
It's unfortunate that more people didn't 
discover the machine sooner. 

But while the demise of the 4P is la- 
mentable, it's easily explained. To begin 
with. Tandy never really marketed the 
machine. The company seemed instead 
to sneak It into Radio Shack stores In the 
dead of night. In fact, some people in The 
Tbwers didn't even know the machine 
existed until they saw it in the catalog. 

But the chances are that the 4P's life 
would have been short even if Tandy 
hadn't orphaned the computer. Trans- 
portables simply don't have much of a 
market niche. They're neither fish nor 
fowl: they don't have the full capabilities 
of a desktop, but aren't as manageable 
as a true portable. 



Tzmdy's experience with the 4P proves 
once again that a good product doesn't 
necessarily translate Into good sales. 
You need potential customers and you 
need to market It aggressively. 

As for all you new 4P owners, congrat- 
ulations. You got a deal, the kind you 
probably won't find again for a while. 

More on Word Processing 

Last month I discussed some of my res- 
ervations about word processing. I have 
several other comments that didn't make 
the editorial cut. these from an editor's, 
rather than a writer's, perspective. 

I've noticed a disturbing trend among 
some writers to use their word proces- 
sors as a smoke screen to hide mediocre 
writing. Their manuscripts will t)e im- 
peccably produced on letter-quality 
printers, with proportional spacing. Jus- 
tified type, boldface and italics, and cen- 
tered heads. They will even include, in 
the upper right-hand comer, the exact 
number of words in the article. 

The manuscript looks and feels great, 
until I stari reading it. Then I discover 
that It's full of muddy prose, poor gram- 
mar, spelling errors, and Incorrect punc- 
tuation. These people should have In- 
vested In remedial writing lessons 
Instead of daisy-wheel printers and 
fancy word processors. 

Then there's the case of the query 1 got 
recently from a would-be author who 
had obviously merged a mailing list with 
a form letter, adding my name and "80 
Micro" where appropriate. The results 
included such seductive lines as ' 'Thank 
you. Eric Maloney. for the opportunity to 
write for your publication: 80 Micro." 

Needless to say. this was one opportu- 
nity the writer will never enjoy. 

The IBM Influence 

Here's an interesting fact gleaned from 
recent 80 Micro surveys: Somewhere be- 
tween 20 and 25 percent of our readers 
own or use an MS-DOS machine. This 
puts IBMs and compatibles fourth behind 
the 4/4P, III. and I. Many of these MS-DOS 
systems are used by people who also own 
TRSDOS machines, showing IBM's influ- 
ence even in the TRS-80 worid. Vendors 
of TRS-80 products would do well to note 
the potential here to expand into new mar- 
kets, if they haven't done so already. ■ 



8' 80 Micro. September 1985 








ROMAN Nit)staj|||5)iiai 
l4OOQBHXi0IHn Pump ceLCic 



DUTLIfNi: 



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Playbill 





ool 



Pretoriaxi 



ilMI Kotunba 

lii 









Clfcle 91 on Reader Service card. 



DOTWRITER printed these on an Epson MX-80. 



See What You Can D o Witli 
DOTWBITEBJ 



DOTWRITER lets you create spec- 
tacular eye-catching signs, invi- 
tations, letterheads, large sideways 
banners, catalogs, or even books. It is 
just what you need to turn your dot- 
matrix printer into a versatile typeset- 
ting machine. And it is available ior 
your TRS-80 Model 4 '4P (yes, in native 
mode), as well as for the Models I and 
III. 

WHAT IS DOTWRITER? 

DOTWRITER uses the "bit-image" 
graphics ol your printer to pro- 
duce the kinds of stunning results 
shown inside the box. It is a tuU-lunc- 
tion text printing program, so you can 
inter-mix different character sets, do 
centering, paragraphs, pagination, 
magnification, draw horizontal and 
vertical lines, reversals (black on 
white), and even print right-justified 
proportional text. 

DOTWRITER includes the printing 
program, complete documentation, 
and fourteen useful typefaces (60 to 90 
characters per typeface). We will in- 
clude the 170-page Letterset Reference 
summary at hali-price ($10.00) with 
your order. 

To use DOTWRITER, just write your 
text with any popular TRS-80 Word 
Processor (such as ALLWRITE or 




SuperScripsit), add the necessary for- 
matting commands, ,^^^:^to^ 
and DOTWRITER /t3r^ 
will do the rest. [[ CjLJ^^ 

36 more letter- ^readers' choice] ;^ 
set disks are ''^'\^ iicro^;/"^ 
available separate- 
ly. Each has 3-12 
complete typefaces. 
The disks costs less 
than S25 each and 
you may purchase them at any time. 

SIDEWAYS 
SPREADSHEETS 

If your VisiCalc spreadsheets are too 
wide lor your printer, our "LONG- 
VIEW" option may be just what you 
need. It is an add-on that turns spread- 
sheets sideways so that DOTWRITER 
can print them down the page instead 
of across. LONGVIEW comes with 
three additional fonts. 

EQUIPMENT 
REQUIREMENTS 

DOTWRITER needs a TRS 80 1, III, 4 or 4P with 2 
disk drives and 48K ot memoiy. Separate versions 
ol DOTWRITER support EPSON MX-80 with Giaf- 
trax, MX- 100 with GfoHrax-Plus. and FX. IX. RX; 
C.ITOH8SI0 1550: MtCROUNEa4-2'92'93: RADIO 
SHACK DMP 110-2100/CGP-220: GEMINI lOX'lSX 
and other STAR printers. 



We printed oui samples on an Epson: sizes may 
vary on other printers. Many of the fonts shown 
above are available al extra cost. 

Send for free print samples! We've 
only shown you a few of the 240 
DOTWRITER fonts. For the best in TRS- 
80 graphics printing, we suggest you 
order DOTWRITER today, toll-free. 



Please specify Printer and 
Computer when ordering. 

DOTWRITER $99,95 

LONGVIEW 29.95 

Additional Letterset 

disks (3- 12 fonts disk) 24.95 
3 for 49.95 
Letterset Reference 

Book 20.00 

FREE bonus disk with two 
Banner fonts when you order 
DOTWRITERI 



OHDEB NOW. TOLL-FREE 
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-^. 



f9>ri 



The Premier Word Processor for 
Your TRS-80 Model I, III, or 4 




We are proud to offer 
you the one Word 
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satisfy all your 
writing needs: ALLWRITE. It 
sets new standards for text 
editing and printing, and will 
give new life to your TRS-80. Let 
us tell you why. . . 

In an attempt to push the public 
into expensive 16-bit computers, many 
manuiacturers have been saying that 
the TRS-80 is obsolete. The truth is that 
the software, not the hardware, makes 
the difference. And the best word proc- 
essor of all is now available oniy on 
the humble TRS-80, not on those ex- 
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ALLWRITE will save you time and 
let you produce the highest-qual- 
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term papers, and reports available on 
a micro-computer. 

Allwrite Can Save You Time! 

Reads a 25.000 character file flO 
printed pages) from disk in SIX SEC- 
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even the fastest popular micro-printer. 



ALLWRITE'S Screen 

Handling Makes Word 

Processing Easier Than Ever 

Change text width at any time; 
wide lines shift left and right as you 
type. ALLWRITE preserves double- 
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complete Status Screen at the touch of 
a key. Scroll by line, partial screen, 
full screen, to top or end of file, or to 
any marked point. Move cursor by 
character, word, tab, line, or screen. 

You can set and change on-screen 
tabs and store them on disk. The 
print-time tabbing features are in- 
credibly versatile: they allow left, 
right, and centered tabs, and even line 
up your decimal points. 

ALLWRITE shows you 
where you forgot to turn off 
underlining, boldface, 
italics, or double-width. 
Special on-screen Preview 
feature shows page breaks 
and page layouts . . . in- 
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boldface. In "Summary" 
mode, ALLWRITE quickly 



These weie piinled by ALLWRtTE: 
shown 20% actual siie. 

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State-Of-The-Art 
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There is no upper-limit on docu- 
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chains files faacic wards as well as for- 
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than six seconds by pressing two keys. 
Select portions of other files for inclu- 
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paragraphs. 

ALLWRITE salvages text from bad 
disks! If a sector goes bad, you 
won't lose the entire file, because it 



flags formatting errors 



TAKES FULL ADVANTAGE OF YOUR 
MODEL 4. 

The model 4 version of ALLWRITE uses 
the entire 80-by-24 screen. On a 64K ma- 
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THREE FILES AT THE SAME TIME! The 
second and third files can be over 32,600 char- 
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will skip bad sectors, read the rest of 
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User^Definable Soft Keys 
Reduce Typing Time 

You can store 22 phrases or com- 
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press just two keys to retrieve them. 
This makes frequently- used phrases 
and formatting controls a snap lo use. 
You can store these definitions on disk 
and build a library of hundreds of pre- 
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Our specially-designed templates 
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Each template is also a Reference 
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using up valuable screen space. 

ALLWRITE ts Easy To Learn 

ALLWRITE's commands and con- 
trol keys are easy to remember be- 
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mon English words: 'CE' stands for 
'Center,' 'Search' and 'Replace' do just 
that, and so forth. The on-Une HELP 
menu offers over fifty screens of topics. 

ALLWRITE's superb documenta- 
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tions of it are designed for beginners, 
with every feature clearly explained 
in step-by-step tutorial style. Since 
you won't always be a beginner, other 
parts of the book offer advanced top- 
ics. There is a cross-reference summary 
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We've been developing computer pro- 
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and understand the importance of 
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ALLWRITE works with all major 
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PROSOFT'S On-Going 
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Perhaps the best reason of all tor 
having ALLWRITE is the continuing 
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Note to students: with its Footnote. 
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ALLWRITE is ideal for your reports and 
Term papers. 

Note to teachers: ALLWRITE makes 
it very easy to generate multiple- 
choice exams and answer keys. Ask 
for free instructions when ordering. 



"ALLWRITE is a profession- 
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to learn and use." 

80 MICRO, Nov.. 1984 



Customer Comments 

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BENEFITS OF OWNING 
* ALLWRITE • • 



// Word Processing is important to 
you, FROSOFT's ALLWRITE is the best 
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You probably know that quality 
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HUNDREDS OF USEFUL 
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ALLWRITE comea with just about 
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having that ability; powerful Form Let 
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lines, changes; block Move. Copy, De- 
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by character, word, line, sentence, 
paragraph, or block; insert and one- 
key insert; great RS-232 printer sup- 
port: accepts all 256 ASCII codes Jrom 
keyboard; intermix pitches on same 
line (printer-dependent); 1.5 line spac- 
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dependent); does multiple-columns on 
all printers; periect alignment of hang- 
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most popular printers (all "printer driv- 
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memory drivers: fully explains all 
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wildcard search-replace; tabs, search- 
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How To Order 

You can order by phone or mail. For 
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INPUT 



Disenchantcd 
With DcskHate 

Frankly. I find It Just about incompre- 
hensible that any reviewer who had 
really tried out DeskMate 1 .0 could give 
It a four-star rating (May 1985. p. 31). I 
bought a Tandy 1000 with 256K of RAM. 
naturally figuring I could write to a 
drlve-B disk with DeskMate in drive A. 
This turned out to be Impossible, and no- 
body warned me about the problem. 

Since DeskMate Is more than 300K 
large, the only acceptable way to use It 
is to delete Just about everything from 
the program except the part you're us- 
ing. Following the Instructions in the 
manual. 1 tried to get DeskMate and MS- 
DOS on the same disk, but this, too. 
turned out to be impossible. Your re- 
viewer. Bradford N. Dixon, didn't men- 
tion any of this. 

As for the four -star rating in the cate- 
gory "Bug free," you must be kidding. 
DeskMate 1.0 has more bugs than you 
can shake a stick at. To mention Just one: 
Changing a file was Impossible, with the 
program merrily Jumping between the old 
and new names ad infinitum. 

if "taken together. DeskMate's docu- 
mentation Is the best [your reviewer has 
everjseenforzmy Tandy program." then 
I shudder to think what the others must 
have been like. I doubt that the docu- 
mentation writer clearly addressed him- 
self to the problem of the knowledge 
level of the intended reader. 

In Justice to Tandy. 1 should mention 
that the revised version [1.1) does. Inso- 
far as I have tested It. appear to contain 
the improvements that you listed under 
"Late-Breaking News." 

I deem It Inappropriate to criticize any 
program for the In- or exclusion of fea- 
tures It wasn't designed for. The real 
question Is how well the programmers of 
version 1 . 1 have accomplished the goals 
they set for themselves and how 
DeskMate compares with other Inte- 
grated programs of equal length. 

RalJF. Munster 
Decatur. GA 
I stand by my rating. Yes. DeskMate 
is a long program, but Tandy's instruc- 
tions for putting it on a bootable disk 
are simple and they do uxjrk. Put an 
MS-DOS system disk in driueA. a blank 
disk in drive B, and type in FORMAT B: 
/S. When the format Is complete, put 
your DeskMate master in drive A and 




type in COPY '. • B:. Granted, you have 
only about 12K of disk space left, but 
you can use drive B to store files, sim- 
ply by specifying that drive when you 
type in aflle nam.e. I find no bug when 
changing aflle name. 

The documentation is explicit and 
complete. The tutorial booklet guides 
the first-time computer user, the 
DeskMate Reference Manual gives fur- 
ther explanations of commands, and 
the Quick Reference Guide answers the 
occasional question a seasoned user 
might have. What more could you ask? 

—Bradford N. Dixon 

His 

Congratulations for your stand 
against the onslaught of lib lingo [Input, 
June 1985. p. 12). Male pronouns have 
been used generically for hundreds of 
years. Nevertheless, on p. 22 of the same 
issue, you permit "he or she." 

Robert N. Pinkerton 
Son Antonio. TX 

Hera 

Your response to Betty Burnett's let- 
ter regarding the use of "he" versus 
"she" ended with the sentence. "Fortu- 
nately, people generally understand that 



80 Micro's BBS is open 24 hours a 
day. It otfers programs you can up- 
and download, special-interest 
groups, and a classified section. You 
can reach the board at 603-924-6985; 
UART settings arc 300/1200 baud, 8- 
blt words. 1 stop bit. no parity. 



this is a term of convenience rather than 
a purposeful bias." This Is. unfortu- 
nately, wrong. The problem goes beyond 
trying to avoid being sexist, verbose, or 
grammatically Incorrect. 

The use of the male pronoun in writ- 
ing Is a product of. and still very much a 
part of. our society's history of sex stere- 
otyping. Most people, when reading 
about doctors, lawyers, or program- 
mers, will do a double take when they 
come across "she" or "her." This Is be- 
cause it clashes with the mental images 
they are programmed to Invoke when 
thinking about these vocations. Use of 
the mate pronoun has the insidious ef- 
fect of shaping expectations. If we do not 
question it, we will carry sex stereotypes 
into the next generation. 

I admit that SO Micro does better than 
many magazines in dealing with sex ster- 
eotypes. Most of your articles speak di- 
rectly to the reader, using ' 'you ' ' or plurals. 
And longtime readers will surely remem- 
ber that Mercedes, the computer whlz- 
child in the Gamer's Cafe, was female. 

This does make it curious that you 
balked when the question arose. I would 
suggest that the creative editor should 
be able to get around the difficulties you 
mentioned. Or perhaps, better still, go 
ahead and use "she" [in every other ar- 
ticle?). Make a point; shake up our men- 
tal images. 

Deborah Crocker 
Charlottesville. VA 

Volks Remedy 

In his review of Volkswritcr Deluxe in 
the May 1985 issue (p. 110). John B. 
Harrell III observes that the Tandy 2000 
Volkswriter does not support any non- 
Tandy printers and that the Tandy 
1000/1200 version of Volkswriter does 
not support any Tandy printers. To take 
care of this, Llfctree Software's customer 
service department will supply the ad- 
ditional printer drivers at no charge to 
any Tandy dealer who requests them. 

Regarding the problems Harrell noted 
with MS-DOS 2.22. it appears that 
changes In the new RAM BIOS {Basic in- 
put/output system) are affecting the 
video display on the Tandy 2000. We arc 
investigating the problem and hope to 
resolve it soon. 

Vicky L. Boddie 

Lifetree Software Inc. 

Monterey. CA 



12 • 80 Micro. September 1985 



Check these features: 

Talker 2.0 and Talker 4.0 software: 

af Unlimited translation of English text to 

clear speech. 
[^ Powerful video or keyboard echo can be 

, switched on or off at any time. 
E Can be used in BASIC with 2 new commands: 

PRINT* "I can talk" speaks any expression. 

PRINT! "Hello" speaks and prints on screen. 
rf Reads numbers up to 999 trillion. 
[^ Speaks many abbreviations, such as Mrs., 

Mr., lb., oz., Co., etc. 
n Walks the dog. 
[?f Many control codes to tailor the system to 

your wishes. (Pitch, speed, etc.} 
1^ Only 6y4K long. 
0f Talker relocates itself into available high 

memory. Compatible with any DOS (not CPM). 

The VS-100 hardware : 

af Same performance as very expensive units. 

ivf Super efficient: About 50 bytes per sentence. 

ffl' Handsome speaker module included. 

[^ Detailed 48 page manual. 

[^ Ready to plug in and talk right away. 

af Uses the famous Votrax SC-01 with 4 pitch 

levels and automatic inflection. 
[^ Built in audio amplifier with volume control. 




with the vs-ioo voice synthesizer 




The VS-100 system. (Model I shown) 



69 



95 



Includes. 
-VS-100 synlhesirer 

- Speaker 

- Power supply 

- Manual 



Specify Model I, III. 4 or 4P. 

Model 4P needs short 50 pin extension cable 14,95 

TEXT-TO-SPEECH SOFTWARE 

• Talker 2.0 for Models I and III 
On disk only 29.95 

• Talker 4.0 for Model 4. Includes Talker 2.0 
for Model 111 mode. On disk only 39.95 

• Text-to-Speech for tape users 1 9.95 

Small Print:* Wodel l umt plugs mto keytxjard of e«Dansion 
inlertace 40 pin bus ©Model lit '1.4P unii plugs mlo 50-pin I/O bus 
Model III VS-100 works with Model IH,4,4P Useour-Y-cables" (see next 
page) it your bus is already used 

The VS-IOO: You've never had so much fun with your TRS-SO 

"Doctor SIGMUND" 

will amaze you! 

See Artificial Intelligence at work! 

' you want to snow oft your computer, njn "Dodo' SIGMUND" and see their 
expressions as your TRS-80 has an intelligent conversation with you. 
It you have a VS-lOO voice synttiesizer. Sigmund actually talks back lo you 
Lven VQU will be -mpressed $29.95 

Dr«-rot SIGMUND, tor Models I, III ^r'M i4fiK r.-!n„-,.,li .■(v,-|il,-iti..-on t^.s- oily 






Circle ^7 on Raadvr S«rvic« caiO. 

Mi ALPHA 

79-04 Jamaica Ave. Woodhaven. NY 11421 



(718) 296-5916 



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Order) Onty NY & •nio call 

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FEEDBACK LOOP / by Terry Kepner 



Send your questions or problems 
dealing with any area of Tandy/Radio 
Shack microcomputing to Feedback 
Loop. 80 Micro. 80 Pine St.. Peterbor- 
ough. NH 03458. 

9 « Your answer to Brian Voth's let- 
• ter In the February 1985 issue (p. 
18] regarding an address for Progressive 
Computer Products was incoircct. That 
company still exists: however, they're 
doing business as Micro Mainframe and 
their address is 11325-E Sunrise Gold 
Circle. Rancho Cordova, CA 95670. 

They no longer directly sell products 
for the Model III or 4. They do manufac- 
ture the controller board that Brian Voth 
asked about. We at UK Inc. sell the 
board as part of our upgrade kits. Micro 
Mainframe also manufactures floppy 
and hard disk controller boards for the 
IBM PC and compatibles Including the 
Tandy 1000 and 1200. (William O. Jell- 
erson. UK Inc.. Maple Valley, WA) 

A* 

AA • Thank you for writing. 

9«I bought a TRSDOS 6 Training 
•course from Radio Shack. Every 
time I try to run it on my Model 4P. I get 
a disk error. The disk works fine on a 
Model 4. What's wrong? (Eduxird Hitch- 
ens. Pufalluf. WA) 

A ^Something is wrong with your 
• copy of the program. The train- 
ing course Is supposed to work on tx>th 
the Model 4 and the Model 4P. 

9«Regarding Chris Candreva's 
•question about using TRSDOS 
1.3 with 80-track disk operation: While 
TRSDOS 1.3 Is bug-free and simple to 
use. extensive modifications such as 
hard disk drivers and double-sided 
floppy disk drivers are really not worth 
it, considering the availability of good 
and reasonably priced operating sys- 
tems such as LDOS. DOSPLUS. and 
NEWDOS/80. However, since Model IHs 
and 4's in Denmark come with 80-track 
single-sided drives as the norm. I have 
an Satrack version of TRSDOS 1.3. 

I'll be happy to send a copy to any in- 
terested reader if he or she sends proof 
of ownership, like an original disk or a 
photocopy of the Tandy Registration 
form, and $5 to cover expenses. 




Also specify your drives' stepping rate, 
if you know it, so 1 can send the system 
best suited to your drives. I want to em- 
phasize that this is a slngle-slded ver- 
sion. In fact, if anyone has modified 
TRSDOS for doublc-stdcd operation. I 
would be interested In hearing from 
them. (Nield-Jorgen Biergstrom. E-C 
Data A/S. Tornevangsuei 88. P.O.B. 
116. DK-3460 Birkerod. Denmark) 

A, Thanks for writing and making 
• your generous offer. 

9* In the May 1985 Feedback Lxxjp 
•ip. 16) you told Carlos Matos he 
wouldn't be able to find a book about 
Model I double-density operation. The 
first chapter of the TAS Programmer's 
Journal #J9 Is titled "Everything You 
Ever Wanted to Know About Model I 
Doublers." by Paul Snlvely. And It does 
Just what the title says. If you have the 
technical savvy to follow along with It. 
Otherwise It gives you the routines on 
disk so you can "cookbook" it. The book 
Is available from The Alternate Source. 
704 North Pennsylvania Ave,, Lansing, 
MI. 48906. 

As for Matos' other questions: NEW- 
DOS/80 1 .0 should iDoot up fine with the 
doubler In place. I do it all the time. Ob- 
viously you'll still be working In single- 
density, because that's all that 1.0 sup- 
ports. Matos said NEWDOS/80 Vl.O 
wouldn't load. Obviously, you can't use 
TRSDOS 2.8 to load another DOS over 
Itself. 

His problem with EdltVCMD Is not with 
the doubler: it's with TRSDOS 2.8. This 
DOS is incompatible with almost all 



/CMD programs, even Radio Shack's 
own! I suggest getUng NEWDOS/80 2.0 
as your double-density DOS. It comes 
with the necessary zaps to make Edit/ 
CMD run correctly in double-density for- 
mat. (Phil Holden. Richardson. TX) 

A^I think 1 can be forgiven for not 
• knowing about that one, since 
the TAS series had a limited circulation. 

9»] have some information that 
•may help James Patterson, who 
wanted to use Scrlpslt with Japanese 
characters [May 1985. p. 17). Radio 
Shack's LP-VI printer can print the Jap- 
anese Kata Kana alphabet as characters 
160-223. To make the printer do this, 
remove the printer case and find the 
small sUde switch (SW 1 ) in the middle of 
the printed circuit board beneath the 
platen. Move the switch from "A" to 
"J." Reassemble the printer and use a 
word processor to prtnt the characters 
from 160-223. By the way. if you want 
an up-arrow instead of a bracket on your 
printouts, close DIP switch numl)er 4 to 
select Radio Shacks codes for CHR$(91) 
to CHR$(95). (Ed Haynes. Napa. CA) 

A, I didn't know the LP-Vl could do 
• that: thanks for the Info. 

9«rdlike touse two 1 -megabyte 314- 
•inch drives as a sort of poor 
man's hard disk system on my Model 4. 
Will the TRSDOS 6.2 Device command 
recognize and properly configure the 
DOS to let me use them as external 
drives 2 and 3? The manual doesn't 
state any limits for disk size or number 
of cylinders. These parameters are sig- 
nificantly different between 3'/i-lnch and 
5'/,-inch drives. 

Granted, with 20-50 megabyte hard 
disk drives available, a meager 2 mega- 
bytes isn't all that much. But it sure Is 
cost effective (about $300 for two drives, 
case, and power supply) and requires no 
extra hardware (hard disk controller/in- 
terface) or software! fEaries L. McCaul. 
Tucson. AZ) 

A J The only requirement for the 31^- 
• Inch drives is that they follow the 
Shugart drive standard (the Shugart 
drive connector Is the standard for 
drlvesjust as the Centronics printer con- 
nector Is the standard for printers). That 
is. they must be plug-compatible with 



14 • SO Micro. September 1985 



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FEEDBACK LOOP 



standard 5'/i-inch drives. The problem is 
that I can't find anyone who currently 
has a mixed set of drives to verify my 
information, so I can't say for sure if the 
naked drives are compatible or if the 
case and power supply for the 3'^-inch 
units contain an adapter for the Shugart 
drive standard. 

In any event. If you get a 3'^-inch drive, 
make sure you also gel the technical 
manual for it so you can configure the 
drives properly as external drives 1 and 
2. If you decide to use a Radio Shack 
keyed cable (the connector for drive zero 
doesn't have the teeth for drives 1, 2. or 
3 and the connector for drive 1 doesn't 
have the teeth for drives zero, 2. or 3). 
then you must make sure that you don't 
have the 3'^-inch drives configured for 
any particular position. Once you have 
the drives Installed, you just have to tell 
the DOS the drive speclflcatlons. 

9*1 heard from an IBM service en- 
•glneer that their programs that 
use the Basic ROM will run on compati- 
bles (like the Tandy 1000) if you have 
Basic on the disk. Is this true? 

Also, do you know of any Basic pro- 
grams that rotate pictures In a circle on 
the Tandy 1000s screen? I'm trying to 
work up an animation sequence and this 
is the only piece missing. (Charles N. 
Ezzell. Roc}cy Mount. NC) 

A 9 When you are using disk Basic 
• on the IBM. the computer ignores 
ROM Basic. Since Tandy sells the same 
version of Basic that comes with the IBM 
PC, you can move programs between the 
two computers without trouble. As yet, 1 
haven't run across any programs for ro- 
tating pictures in IBM Basic. 

9*1 bought a Shugart-compatlble 
•Digital RX180AB double-density 
floppy disk system, which comprises 
two 5'^-lnch fioppies and power supply. 
I want to interface it to a 48K Model 1 
with Ex[>ansion Interface. Can you tell 
me how? (Ray Olson. Rockford. IL) 

A ^You've got two possible solutions. 
• depending on how much work 
you want to do. First and simplest, buy a 
Radio Shack Model 1 drive cable, remove 
the DB-25 connector at the rear of your 
DEC RX 180AB, run the cable through the 
slot, remove the internal drive cable of the 
RXISOAB. and plug in the Radio Shack 
cable. That's it. The RXlSOABs drives 
are standard and have a Shugart -compat- 
ible connector. DEC Just uses an internal 
cable to go from the drives (34-connector) 
to a DB-25 connector. This prevents cus- 
tomers from using anyone else's drives 
with DEC computers. 

Second, you can make your own drive 
cable by buying a length of 34-conductor 
ribbon cable terminated at one end with 



a 34-pin edge-card connector and at the 
other with a DB-25 connector. 

For those interested, the RXISOAB is 
a set of standard 40-track drives. John 
Meshna Jr. Inc. (P.O. Box 62. East Lynn, 
MA 01904. 617-595-2275) sells them as 
surplus in original sealed cartons for 
$250. 

9#ln your June 1985 column (p. 
• 17). you tell Yulee Johns how to 
use the Device and SYSGEN commands 
to permanently enable drives 2 and 3. 
But the SYSGEN routine only adds to 
the boot-up time and does not appear on 
disk back-up>s. 

Here are two patches that will do the 
same thing. To install the patch for drive 
2. at TRSDOS Ready type in PATCH 
BOOT/SYS. LSIDOS:0 and press the 
break key. Then type in (D02.84 = C3: 
F02.84 = C9) and press the enter key. To 
install the patch for drive 3, type in 
PATCH BOOT/SYS. LS1DOS:0 and press 
the break key: then type in (D02,8E = 
C3:F02,8E = C9) and press the enter key. 
(Richard F. Krak. Clifton. NJ) 

A* 

A& • Thanks for the assistance. 

9 a 1 use SuperScripslt on my Model 
•4P. and the blinking cursor is 
driving me crazy. Trying to read what 
I've just typed with the cursor blinking 
is like listening to water dripping in the 
sink. Do you or any of your readers know 
of a patch? (Steven A. Melnick. Wllll- 
manftc. CT) 

A^I haven't seen such a patch yet; 
■ has anyone else? 

9 •We recently equipped our class- 
•rooms with Model 4's (net- 
worked) and the faculty offices with 
Model 4Ps. We're using SuperScripslt 
but. because it's sometimes cumber- 
some, we wonder if you recommend any 
other word processing programs. 
(Manny Paraschos. Department of 
Journalism. University of Arkansas at 
Little Rock, Little Rock. AR) 

A You'll find three premium word 
• processors for the Model 4/4P: 
Lazy Writer (Alphabit Communications, 
13349 Michigan Ave., Dearborn. Ml 
48126. 313-581-2896), LeScript (Anitek, 
P.O. Box 361 136. Melbourne. FL 32936. 
305-259-9397), and Allwrite (Prosoft. 
Box 560. North Hollywood. CA 91603. 
818-764-3131). Each has its own 
strengths. 

Capsulizing them would take too 
much space, so the best 1 can do is refer 
you to past reviews: Allwrite in Novem- 
ber 1984 (p. 35), LeScript in April 1984 
(p. 33). and Lazy Writer in September 
1982 (p. 102). The September issue in- 
cludes an overview of the Model l/IlI 



word processing software available at 
that time. Back issues can be ordered 
from the Back Issue Order Department, 
80 Pine St.. Peterborough. NH 03458. 
(See also our feature on Model 4 word 
processors planned for the November 
tssue— Eds.) 

I prefer Allwrite because it gives me 
certain features 1 need, such as auto- 
matic tables of contents and Indexes and 
proportional printer spacing support. 

9»l have a I6K Model 4 that 1 up- 
• graded to 64K and Percom Data 
drives, and have been having a problem 
with Micro-Systems Software's DOS- 
PLUS 3.4. When 1 run Diskzap to copy 
disks, 1 sometimes get a "CRC error dur- 
ing read" message. I called Micro-Sys- 
tems and they said. "Possible head 
troubles." I called Percom Data and they 
said, "Cleaning too much will possibly 
cause head problems." 

I got Radio Shack's Disk Drive Ana- 
lyzer and passed all tests but the write/ 
read test. I don't understand why 1 can't 
pass this test but don't get any errors 
when using all the DOS's functions un- 
der normal programming and running. ! 
can copy from drive to drive, use disks 
formatted on other Model Ills, and use 
my disks in other Model Ills. 

My question Is twofold: Is there really 
a problem with my drives, and does the 
Disk Drive Analyzer have a problem 
with the read/write portion with differ- 
ent drives? (George M. Crews. Gurley. 
NE) 

Adit's prossible. but not likely, that 
• the problem is with your drives. 
First, what kind of disks are you using? 
A single-density disk in double-density 
mode will cause a heavy and fast build- 
up of gcU^bage on the drive head. And the 
brand of double-density disks makes a 
difference, too. The coating on the dis- 
kette surface varies from manufacturer 
to manufacturer. Some are very hard 
and some are very soft. The softer coat- 
ings break down and flake off more 
quickly, with a resulting build-up of 
trash on the drive head. 

Cleaning your drive heads daily or 
weekly will definitely wear the heads 
down faster than normal (all cleaning 
disks are slightly abrasive, some more 
than others). In a perfect world, the drive 
heads would never get dirty and never 
need cleaning, but we all know better. So 
if you run your drives hcud all day long, 
you should probably clean them once a 
month. 1 don't use my drives that hard, 
and clean them about once every six 
months to a year, or whenever I start to 
experience what 1 think might be head 
problems (about once a year). 

If you must clean your drive heads fre- 
quently, use rubbing alcohol and cotton 



1 6 • SO Micro. September 1985 



FEEDBACK LOOP 



swabs (Radio Shack sells cotton swabs 
on 6-inch sticks, long enough to reach 
the drive head from the drive door with- 
out disassembling the case). 

Second, have you ever had your disk 
drives aligned and tested? If the drive 
head's azimuth or track-to- track center- 
ing is somewhat off. you could gel inter- 
mittent problems like you describe. 
Another possibility is the drive motor. If 
it isn't running at a steady pace, you 
could have problems. Few motors stay 
exactly on the 300 revolutions per min- 
ute that drives are supposed to main- 
tain; a slight drift outside the normal 2 
percent variation range will cause CRC 
problems. Older drives might need their 
drive belts replaced (the old ones are 
probably loose and slipping). 

Third, the problem could be your drive 
controller board. An excellent tutorial on 
disk drive maintenance. "Drive Ways." is 
on p. 42 of the September 1984 80 Micro. 

I haven't heard of any problems with 
the Radio Shack Disk Drive Analyzer, 
but if the stepping rate used in the tests 
is faster than the drives can handle, you 
would get the results you report. 

9 •The Model I has a beautiful fea- 
•ture that lets you trace the num- 
ber of lines your printer has printed at 
any time. 1 can easily print what I want 
at the line where I want it simply by pro- 
gramming a subroutine after every print 
sequence (see the Program Listing). 

1 can't locate anything that will do the 
same on the 4P. FFHARD in the 'PR fil- 
ter or the SYSTEM"TOF" gives me a top- 
of-form (TOF). but that's not what 1 
want. 1 must be able to count the lines 
printed and determine where my next 
section of print will go without a top-of- 
form interrupting it because a TOF will 
destroy the continuation of my output 
format. 1 also want to signal my program 
when a TOF has occurred, so 1 can print 
my new page heading related to the next 
subject. (Frans de Jong. Chief Sur- 
veyor. PRC Engineering Inc.. East Hart- 
ford. CTI 

A^You can find the number of lines 
• sent to the printer, but only if 
you've installed the Forms printer filter/ 
driver- TRSDOS 6.X.X doesn't know or 
care how many lines the computer has 
sent, but the printer filter does. You need 



to find the printer filter in memory and 
count from its beginning to the location 
where it stores the Lines Printed value. 
With this information, you can have 
your program PEEK that location when- 
ever needed. The problem is in finding 
where the DOS has Installed the filter. 

You have to use 'GETMOD to get this 
information, preferably before you go 
into Basic. The TRSDOS 6.X.X Technical 
Reference Manual provides the instruc- 
tions, as well as the information on the 
relative location of the Lines Printed value 
in the printer filter/driver. Good luck. 

9^W.B. Malr's question in April (p. 
• 14) about using each side of a 
double-sided drive independently is 
timely, in light of the commentary by 
Powersoft in the August 1984 issue (p. 
27) about using hard disk platters the 
same way. My system uses double-sided 
drives as two Independent units and I 
must report excellent success. 

The solution proved simple. No special 
programming, no trace cutting: Just 
plug it In. A switch and a diode are all 
you need for each drive. Alternately, a 
single switch and diode will select the 
back side of all drives in the system at 
the same time. 

The drive select gates are as follows: 
drive zero equals pin 10. drive 1 equals 
pin 1 2, and drive 2 equals pin 14. 

These pins are on the circuit board of 
both the disk drive and the computer 
and are maintained at + 5 volts when the 
drive is unused. When the computer se- 
lects the drive for disk input/output, it 
connects one of these pins to signal 
ground and activates that drive. Signal 
ground pins all have odd-numbered 
lines and signal select pins all have even 
numbers. 

The side-1 select gate is on p(n 32. 
maintained at -f 5 volts until the com- 
puter wants to write to the reverse side 
of the disk, when it is switched to signal 
ground. The trick is to connect signal 
ground to pin 32 (side-1 select) at the 
proper time. A simple switch will do. 
When you connect pin 32 to signal 
ground (one of the odd pins, preferably 
pin 3 1 ), all drives will select side 1 all the 
time. But if you have more than one 
drive in the system and want to selec- 
tively use side 1 of any drive, you need a 



10000 REM LP=Line Printed, LN=Line Next 

10810 LP=PEEK(16425) 

10020 FOR J=LP TO LN:LPRINT":NEXT J 

10 030 LI=INT{LN/10) :LN=((INT{LI))+1)*10 

10040 IF LN<50 RETURN 

10050 LP=PEEK(16425) 

10060 FOR J=LP TO 60;LPRINT"";NEXT J 

10070 LPRIKT" (bottom title) " jLPRINT CHRS{12} :POKE 16425 ,0 :RETURN 

Program Listing. Subroutine to trace number of lines printed. 



switch for each, and must selectively 
connect pin 32 (side-1 select) to one of 
the drive select pins (10. 12. or 14). 

For this reason, you use a switching 
diode to isolate the drive select signals 
from each other, or else all drives 
switched to select side 1 would activate 
simultaneously. You connect the cath- 
ode of the diode to the drive select pin 
(10. 12. or 14}, and the anode to the 
switch. You connect the other pole of the 
switch to pin 32. one for each drive you 
want to switch. When the computer se- 
lects a specific drive and the switch is 
closed, the gate at the drive select pin 
will go to signal ground, clamping pin 32 
to signal ground also and giving you side 
one Instead of side zero. 

Some words of caution: 

You must use a germanium switching 
type diode. A silicon diode tends to drop 
too much voltage across its Junction, Ra- 
dio Shack offers 1N34A germanium 
diodes and small mini- or micro-toggle 
switches {and small utility boxes to 
house them). 

The easiest way to make these connec- 
tions Is by Inserting an extender cable 
with two male connectors on one end 
and one female on the other between 
your computer and drive cable. One of 
the male connectors goes to the drive ca- 
ble, the other to your switch box. 

This works well with my favorite DOS. 
DOSPLUS 3.4D. In double-sided double- 
density operation, this DOS treats the 
back side of a disk as an extension of the 
front side and only has a directory entry 
on side zero. When limiting the number 
of directory entries while expanding 
available data space, you can run out of 
directory space before you fill the disk. 
When you can select each side indepen- 
dently, you can call directories for both 
sides. To change to another DOS, flick 
the switch to normal operation. 

You can use the same technique to 
write-protect any or all disks in the sys- 
tem without fussing with tabs on disk 
covers. By using a switch with a center- 
off position, you can write-protect drive 
zero, drive 1. or none through the hard- 
ware. (Bob Harvey. Medford. NJ) 

A0 As you can see, folks, you can use 
• double-sided drives as two drives 
each, but it does require a bit of hard- 
ware work. By using a separate box to 
control the switching, you won't have to 
worry about ruining your drives, be- 
cause all tbe switching happens before 
the signals arrive at your drives.! 

Terry Kepner is a freelance writer 
and programmer, and an associate ed- 
itor of 80 Micro. He writes monthly col- 
umns for Portable 100 Magazine. Hoi 
CoCo. and Under Color. He's been writ- 
ing about microcomputers since 1979. 



80 Micro, September 19B5 • 17 



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18 • 80 Micro. September 1985 



Ci'cIb 411 on Reader Service card. 



C P/M . . .The Software Key 
That Unlocks Your Model 4 

CP/M is the standard 8-bit Z-80 operating system and manythousands of programs have been written to run under this 
system. With Montezuma Micro's CP/M you can run these programs on your Model 4/4P, Think at>out all those nationally 
known programs you've wanted to use. Programs like WordStar; dBASE II; SuperCalc; MultiPlan etc. With ourversion of 
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continuously improving it with you in mind. With our CP/M you get more than just a DOS. You get the other half of your 
Model 4/4P, 

AVAILABLE NOW FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT - Less Hard Disk Drive Support $169 

Optional Hard Disk Drive Support $ 30 

(Rad)o Shack 5M. 12M. 15M, 35M • A«focomp/P«rcom 5M. 10M, 15M. 30M • Bi-Tech 5M. 10M, 1IM. 15M. 20M, 30M, 40M) 



FEATURES 

• Full range of floppy drive support. Dual-head and/or 80 
tracks, 

• Optional hard disk support allows positioning and selective 
assignment of logical drives. Easy backup routine. 

• Memory drive allows the use ot the other 64K RAM bank 
on 128K machinea 

• Modem 7, a powerful public domain communications 
program furnished at no charge, allows for file transfer and 
remote database access such as CompuServ and The 
Source, 

• CONFIG is our flexible utility thai allows complete control 
of all operating parameters from menus. Format, read and 
write more than 30 different manufacturer's disk formats 
with more being added rapidly, 

• Disk Utility Program allows fast format, backups and 
venfying of ours and other manufacturer's disks. 

• These CP/M utilities are included: ASM; DDT; DUMP; ED; 
LOAD; MOVECPM; PIP; STAT; SUBMIT; SYSGEN; and 
XSUB. 



WHY BUY OURS? 



Tfansiert Program Area (TPA) 
Bytes free in MBASIC 
Bytes free of formatted disk 
64K Memory drive 
Double-Side/80tk drive support 
Format, read/write other 
CP/M formats 

CommunJcatkxi program included 
Share HD with TRSDOS/LDOS 
Assign multiple drives to HD 
Boots from Hard Disk (4P) 
Popular terminal emulation 
User defined function keys 
Timely product support 



MONTEZUMA 
MICflO 

5SK 
30,776 

196K 

YES 

YES 

YES 
YES 
YES 
YES 
YES 
YES 

9 
YES 



RADIO 
SHACK 

52K 
18,488 
160K 

NO 

NO 

NO 
NO 
NO 
NO 
NO 
NO 
3 
NO 



1 28K MEMORY UPGRADE 

Our upgrade kit includes 64K RAM,ageniune PAL chip and instructions 
lor installation. This kit will upgrade your 64K Modei 4 lo 128K and 
allow the use of our MEMLINK program and the TRSDOS 6-x 
MEMDISK. Guaranteed 1 year. 

A BARGAIN AT ONLY $74 Model 4 

$64 Model 4P- No PAL 



This popular software is available for the Model 4/4P 
using our CP/M. 

WordStar Fast memory-mapped version 3.3 $250 

MailfWerge Multi-purpose file merging program ... 125 

SpellStar 20,000 word proof-reader on a stick 125 

Starlndex Creates indices and Tables of Content. . . 85 

DataStar Data entry and retrieval is yours 1 75 

ReportStarReportgeneratorandfile manipulator 150 

InfoStar The above two programs 300 

dBASE II with Disk Tutorial 385 

CBASIC version 2,8 85 

TURBO PASCAL by Borlarul. This is the one 45 



ORDER INFORMATION 

Call now and your order will be shipped immediately. We accept 
American Express, MasterCard and Visa plus we ship COD (cash or 
cashier's check only). Credit cards are not charged until your order is 
shipped Add S4 shipping per item on orders within the 48 states. 
Suitability of the software is Ihe responsibility ot the purchaser as 
there are NO REFUNDS. Defective items will be replaced upon Their 
return, postpaid. 



ORDER NOW TOLL FREE 

800-527-0347 
800-442-1310 

The Tol Free l»ies are lor orders only 
SpeaticatKins aitifaa id chwige without mtice 



CP/M IS 3 TraOemarX ot D»gilal Hesearcfi Inc Intercnange and Memlrik are Tradernartis ot Mortezurra MTro TRS-80 is a Ttademarli ot the T*xJy Corporalion WordStar M*IMerge SpeltSlB' 
StariixJei mloSlaf. RepoflStaf DataStar SoperSoft and CateSlar are Trademarks ol MtroProlniemation^Cofpo'alon Muttipian rs a Tfademarti ol MK:f05o(i 




MONTEZUMA 
MICRO 



2K-339-5104 

RM&fO Atrpcxi, Hangar # 1 a 

P O Bo. 3?027 

D^tes.T* 75^3^ --^i'' 

WE KEEP YOU RUNNING 




80 Micro. September 1985 • 19 



Ci'de 124 on Reader Service card. 



nDDDD 

nnnnn 

■■■DB 

nnnnn 
Gnnan 




gsoDi^an 




COLOR COMPUTERS 


LIST 
PRICE 


OUR 1 
PRICE 


26 3127 64K Extended Color Computer 2 


$219 95 


$169 00 


26-3136 16K Extended Color Computer 2 


159 95 


130 00 


26 3129 Thiniine Disk D'lveO for Color Comp 349.95 


290 00 


26 3018 Extended Basic Kit 


39 95 


36 00 


26 3030 OS-9 with EdilOf Assembler 


69 95 


59 50 


26-3012 Deluxe Joystick 


39 95 


25 00 


26-1208 CCR 81 Recorder 


59 95 

149 95 


50 00 
139 00 


VIP Integrated Library . 


VIP Writer .... 


69 95 
69 95 


59 00 
59 00 


ViPCalc . . 


Telewriter Disk 




59 00 
57 00 


Boiek Interlace 




TANDY 2000 


2b&lUJ idndy 2000 Two Disk 


$2499 00 


$1225 00 


26-5104 Tandy 2000OneDisk&10MegHD 


3950 00 


1885 00 


26 511 1 l*/onochfome Pwlonilor 


199 95 


165 00 


26 5112 Color (Monitor , , , . 


649 00 


535 00 


26 5 1 40 Hi Res Graphic Monochrome Board 


359 95 


305 00 


265141 Hi Rec Color Graph.cs Chips 


149 95 


125 00 


26 5160 interna. 128K Memory Board 


299 00 


250 00 


26 5300 Lotus 123 


495 00 


420 00 


26-5311 Microsoft Multiplan 


195 00 


166 00 


26 5320 Framework 


695.00 


590 00 


26 5352 dBase II (Data Base) 


595 00 


420 00 


26 5330 MuHrnate 


249 00 


205 00 


MODEL 200 COMPUTERS 


26 3860 24K Model 200 Portable Comp 


$999 00 


$725 00 


263866 24KRAMMem Exp Chiplor200 


. 249 95 


21000 


26-3804 AC Adaptor 


5 95 


500 


26 3805 Accouslic Coupler 


39 95 


34 00 


26 3816 8K RAM Memory Expansion Chip 


119 95 


95 00 


26-1409 Printer Cable 


14 95 


12 70 


26 1410 Modem Cable 


19 95 


1700 


26 3809 Briefcase 


49 95 


42 50 


26-381 1 Soli Carrying Case for 100/200 


39 95 


34 00 


26-1183 Bar Cooe Reader 


99 95 


85 00 


26 3806 Drsk Video Interlace 


799 00 


660 00 


26 3829 Multiplan ROM (or 100 


149 95 


127 50 


MODEL 4 COMPUTERS 


26 1069 Model 4 64K 2 Drive Computer 


$1299 00 


S 945 00 


26 1 126 Mod 4 HI Resolution Board 


249 95 


21000 


26-1122 64K Memory Expansion 


79 95 


75 00 


26-1 127 Mode. 4 iniernal Drive 1 


499 95 


41500 


26 1 1 23 Model 3 to Model 4 Upgrade Kit 


799 00 


675 00 


26 1084 Model 4P Modem Board 


149 00 


85 00 


26- 1 085 Model 4P Travel Case 


24 95 


21 25 


26 1530 Multiplan Model 4 


199 00 


169 00 


26 1595 Super Scripsit Model 4 


199 95 


169 00 


26 1635 Profile 4 Model 4 


249 95 
149 00 


21200 
127 00 


26-2216 CP;M Plus Model 4 


?6??3i Double Duty Utility 


69 95 


58 00 


MODEL 12 & 6000 COMPUTERS 


26 4005 Model 12 80K 2 Drive Computer 


$3999 00 


El 300 00 


26 6021 Model 6000 512K 2 Drive Comp 


4499 OO 


3125 00 


26-6022 Model 6000 512K ISMeg HD 


5499 00 


3795 00 


26-6014 Model 12 to 6000 Upgrade 


1 595 00 


1325 00 


26 6015 Model 6000 512K Memory Board 


1095.00 


905 00 


26-6016 Model 6000 512K Memory Kit 


849 00 


705 00 


26-601 7 Card Cage lor Model 12 


199 00 


169 00 


26-6052 DT-lOO Data Terminal 


795 00 


600 00 


26 4155 15 Meg Hard Drive Primary 


1995.00 


1395 00 


26 4171 35 Meg Hard Drive Primary 


2995.00 


2095 00 


26-4 157 Inslallalion Kit for Primary HD 


349 00 


265 00 



All prices and oilers may be changed or withdrawn without notice. Advenised 
prices are cash prices COD accepted ($10 IDO charge per cadon on C.O.D. 
Call for further C OD information.) M C .Visa, AX, add 2% All non -defective 
Items returned wilt be subject to 10% reslocking lee. Defeciive Hems require 
return merchandise authorization. Call lor R.M.A. Number before returning 
Delivery is subject to product availability. 



CALL 




1-800-248-3823 ^^>^J^ 



RADIO SHACK PRINTERS 


LIST 
PRICE 


OUR 1 

PRICE 1 


26-1276 DMP-105 Dot Matrix Printer 


$ 199 00 


$ 169 00 


26-1275 TRP-IOO Portable Thermal Printer 


299 00 


230 00 


26 1271 OMP 110 50/25 cps Printer 


399 00 


299 00 


26 1268 CGP-220 Color Ink-Jet Printer 


699 00 


345 00 


26-1278 DWP-220 Daisy Wheel 


599 00 


460 00 


26-1277 DMP 430 24 Wire Matrix Printer 


899 00 


745 00 


26 1270 DWP 510 43 cps Daisy V^'tieel 


1495 00 


1100 00 


26 1274 DMP 2100P 24 Do! Wire Matrix 


1995 00 


1270 00 


26-1272 LMP-2150 Line Printer 


3995 00 


1575 00 


26-1269 PT-64 Printer Controller 


249 95 


21000 


26-1498 SW 302 Printer Switch 


119 95 


100 00 


26 1401 Printer Label 


39 95 


34 00 


TANDY 1200 


25-3000 Tandy1200OneDisk&10MegHD 


$2495 00 


$1525 00 


25-3010 VM -3 Green Monitor 


219 00 


185 00 


26-3212 CM-2 Color Monitor 


549 95 


390 00 


25-3040 Monochrome Display Adapter 


21900 


185 00 


25-3043 Graphics Display Adapter 


299 00 


255 00 


25-3044 Graphics Masler 


695 00 


590 00 


25-3061 Captain Multifunction Board 


795 00 


675 00 


253130 MSDOS/BASIC 


89 95 


76 50 


25 31 70 Wordstar Professional 


395 00 


335 00 


25-3160 Framework 


695 00 
140 00 
695 00 


590 00 
119 00 
590 00 


25-3161 PFSFile 


25 3190 dBase III . 


TANDY 1000 


25 1000 Model 1000 128K 1 Disk Drive 


$1199 00 


$ 845 00 


25-1003 Modem Option 1000/1200 


179 95 


128 00 


25-1004 Memory Exp 128K 1000/1200 


299 95 


205 00 


25-1005 Disk Drive Expansion 1000 


299 95 


170 00 


25 1006 RS232Clnterlace 1000/1200 


99 95 


85 00 


25-1007 Hard Disk Control Board 


329 95 


255 00 


25-1009 2nd Memory Board 


249 95 


185 00 


25-1501 MS-DOS Reference T-1000 


34 95 


29 00 


25 1502 BASIC Reference T-iOOO 


34 95 


29 00 


25-1155 ScnpisllCOO 


299 95 


255 00 


26-3211 VM2 Green Monitor 


149 95 


125.00 


26 3212 CM2 Color Monitor 


459 95 


390 00 


EPSON/COMREX PRINTERS | 


20001015 Homewritef 10 


$ 288 00 


$ 230 00 


20001025 LX-80DOI Mainx Printer 


369.00 


250 00 


20001030 FX-80 Del Mainx Printer 


499 00 


385 00 


20001040 JX-80 Color Dot Mainx Printer 


699 00 


485 00 


20001050 HI 80 4 Pin Plotter 


599 00 


390 00 


20002010 RX-lOO Dot Matrix Printer 


499 00 


400 00 


20002020 FX-100 Dot Mainx Printer 


689 00 


505 00 


20003010 LQ-1500 IB Pin Head with Intf 


1350 00 


1095 00 


20003510 CR HEComrexCom Riter 


499 00 


400 00 


20001510 FX-80 Tractor Feed 


39 95 


34 00 


20004080 NLQ Parallel Inir 


209 95 


175 00 


20001515 LX 80 Tractor Feed 


49 00 


40 00 



For Technical Questions and Information on our complete line o( 
connputer accessories and current prices. 

CALL 1-517-626-4161 
FOR ORDERS ONLY CALL 1-800-248-3823 



ISM S. mniM ST PERR9, miGH. 48B7Z 



PULSE TRAIN / by Bradford N. Dixon 



Hardware Prices: 
Decline and Fall 



Tandyland 

In the fiercely competi- 
tive microcomputer mar- 
ket, there's no such thing as 
resting on your laurels. Just 
six months after introduc- 
ing its popular Model 1000, 
Tandy knocked $200 off the 
price and introduced a 10- 
megabyte hard disk drive 
version, called the Tandy 
1000 HD (see the Photo). 

IBM broke the $1,000 
price barrier for an MS-DOS 
computer late last year, 
when it discounted the ail- 
ing PCjr to $995. Tandy's 
willingness to follow suit 
with the hot-selling iOOO 
shows its delermtnation to 
maintain a price advantage 
over competitors. 

The new 1000 HD costs 
$1,999. which happens to 
be the price of Tandy's hard 
drive PC XT clone, the 
1200. Since this puts Tandy 
in the position of price com- 
petition with itself, 1 asked 
Dave Frager. buyer for Tan- 
dy's MS-DOS line, if the 1200 had a fu- 
ture. It does, he said, because the 1200 
is aimed at "those people who want an 
IBM clone. The Tandy 1000 HD Is an ex- 
tension of the original machine, which Is 
marketed as the machine the PC should 
have been and the PCjr never was." Fra- 
ger and others at Tandy said they've 
made no decision to replace the 1200. 

And what about the 80186-based 
Tandy 2000? It costs $1,999 too. Tandy 
had high hopes for its high-performance 
micro when it hit the market in Novem- 
ber 1983, but sales have been disap- 
pointing. The 2000 was partly responsi- 
ble for Tandy's taking an $18.3 million 
write-down al the end of 1985's third 
quarter (see the August Pulse Train, p. 
21). All this makes you wonder how the 
2000 fits into Tandy's plans. According 
to Bernle Appel. Radio Shack Division 
president, "the 2000 is still a viable 
product and will continue in the line." 




Photo. The Tandy IOOO HD. 



However. Appel has publicly conceded 
that 'the 1000 and 1 200 make the 2000 
not as good a value as it was." 

As for Tandy's marketing strategy 

for the fall and into the Christmas sea- 
son, the word from Tandy is "push the 
Tandy 1000." Consider the following list 
of new products and peripherals avail- 
able or forthcoming for the 1000: 

• Tandy IOOO external 10-mcgabyte hard 
hotdlak drive 

• External HD controller board 

• 1.20O-baud PC modem board 
> Memory Plus expansion board 

• Printer emulator for IBM printers (700- 
2118) 

• The FUNdamenlala, a Tandy 1000 tutorial 
program 

• Infocom's Cornerstone data base manager 

Tody's clearly giving the 1000 all the 
support it can muster, almost daring 
competitors to take them on. 



All the hoopla surroimd- 

ing the lOOO's success 
drowned out the rather 
quiet announcement that 
Radio Shack would sell off 
its stock of single-drive 
Model 4s at $649.50. When 
the last one goes, Tandy 
won't produce any more. 

This news, coming so 
soon after the Model 4P 
bowed out (see Pulse Train. 
August 1985. p. 21) fueled 
rumors that the Model 4 it- 
self would be the next to go. 
As this column went to 
press late in June. Compu- 
Serve special-interest groups 
were abuzz with Model 4 
talk. Some callers even 
quoted a Model 4 close-out 
price of $795 and predicted 
that Tandy would introduce 
a new machine, possibly a 
replacement for the 4, in 
August. 

"Not so, " said Tandy's di- 
rector of market planning, 
Ed Juge. "We've said re- 
peatedly that there are long- 
term plans for our 8-bit ma- 
chines. Plans that translate into years. 
You may not see the enhancements like 
a hard drive or double-sided disk drives 
by August, but the Model 4 is not going 
to be replaced." 

For computer buyers, meanwhile, the 
single-drive Model 4 sell-off is a good 
deal. You can get the computer for $650. 
buy another disk drive from a third- 
party vendor for $150. and have yourself 
a dual-drive Model 4 for $800. At the 
time Tandy announced the sale, the 
dual-drive Model 4 was still selling for 
$1,299 at most Radio Shack Computer 
Centers. 

Back in February, you mi^ht hare 

noticed a Tandy advertisement in your 
local newspaper imploring computer 
owners to "Clean up, America! Throw 
your orphan computer or TV game on 
the Junk pile. . .." The ad showed a pile 
of trashed computers surrounded by a 



80 Micro, September 1985 • 21 



PULSE TRAIN 




Figure. European software market 
share by application. 

list of companies who had. In Tandy's 
eyes, orphaned their products, leaving 
consumers without support. Tandy of- 
fered $75 or $150 for the so-called or- 
phans when owners traded Lhem in for a 
Tandy computer. 

Not everyone found the ad amusing. 
Victor Technologies, whose Victor 9000 
was one of the products listed, has filed 
suit against Tkndy in San Francisco's U.S. 
District Court. Victor wants Tandy to re- 
tract the 'orphan" tag In the 1,000 news- 
papers in which the ad appeared, and to 
pay $1 million in punitive damages. 

Victor says it never stopped manufac- 
turing, selling, or servicing the 9000. al- 
though the company has been through 
Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings. 
The suit charges Tandy with trademark 
infringement, unfair competition, defa- 
mation, and interference with business 
relations. 

Tandy did send Victor a letter of apol- 
ogy, but so far has declined to publish a 
retraction. 

Ii Tandy abandoning Xenix? That 

was a concern at this year's Tandy Com- 
puter Business Users' Group meeting 
(TCBUG). Many TCBUG members are 
large corporate micro users who've In- 
vested substantially in Tandy's multi- 
user system. They wanted to know if 
Tkndy would continue to support Xenix 
or Jump ship to AT&T's Unix multiuser 
operating system. 

Tandy's CEO. John Roach, told the 
group. "You've got AT&T on one side, 
and they've said they're Unix 5-orlented. 
IBM is on the other side, saying they're 
Xenix-oriented. Now, someone is going 
to be excluded in this battle, . ., I'm not 
going to say which one I think will end 
up being excluded, but I don't want to be 
lined up with the excludee." 

Roach's answer indicates that Tandy 
plans to sit back and wait before commit- 
ting to one system or the other. But if 
T^ndy. the leading seller of multiuser sys- 
tems, straddles the fence, it might be a 
while before the Unix/Xenix issue re- 
solves itself. Maybe AT&T and IBM should 
be watching Tandy, not vice versa. 



Vendor 




Market Share 


Units 


Commodore 






23.9% 


2.915.800 


Texas Inst. 






17,1% 


2,086.200 


Apple 






11.7% 


1,427.400 


Atari 






11.5% 


1.403.000 


Tandy 






11,0% 


1.342.000 


IBM 






6.2% 


756,400 


Others 






18.6% 


2.269.200 


Totals 






100.0% 


12.200,000 




Table. Tbp 


U.S. 


fiome computer brands. 





A new masB-storage syateni la 

showing up at Radio Shack Computer 
Centers. It's called the Tandy Cartridge 
Disk System and Tandy's marketing it 
by agreement with Iomega Corp. It uses 
Bernoulli Box technology, a variation on 
hard disk drives. You get 10 megabytes 
of storage In the form of a fiexible. re- 
movable cartridge. 

A complete system costs $2,195. The 
replaceable 8'^- by 1 1-lnch cartridges are 
$89.95. 

MicroTrends 

The European microcomputer mar- 
ket doesn't get press in the U.S. , but that 
doesn't mean nothing's happening 
"over there. " 

A study by the Paris-based consulting 
firm Intelligent Electronic Europe fore- 
casts 30 percent growth in Europe's per- 
sonal computer software market in 
1985. Software sales totaled $550 mil- 
lion In 1984 and could reach $710 mil- 
lion this year. 

But the report found that European 
software developers face handicaps that 
will tend to limit many products' 
growth. Their technology often lags sev- 
eral months behind the U.S.s, which 
means a new European product may 
have to compete with an already estab- 
lished American product. When Euro- 
pean distributors look for new products, 
they look to the West; it's rare for a pro- 
gram from one European country to be 
successfully marketed in another. Distri- 
bution channels are fragmented, and 
language barriers are a problem. 

The report concludes that overall pros- 
pects for an independent European soft- 
ware market aren't good. Chances for 
success seem to be limited to two areas: 
managerial/administrative programs, 
and specialized, vertical applications 
aimed at smaller markets (see the Fig- 
ure). 

Commodore is sailing away with the 

biggest share of the home computer 
market, according to a recent study by 
Future Computing. 



Researchers surveyed nearly 17,000 
computer owners in 24 urban areas. 
They found, not surprisingly, that the 
New York metro area leads the nation in 
home computers, with 900.000 units. Of 
those computers, 30 percent are Com- 
modores. Los Angeles has the second- 
largest home computer population, of 
which 24 percent are Commodores. 

Nationwide. Commodore has a 23.9 
percent maiket share (see the Table). 
Other top brands Included Texas Instru- 
ments. Apple, Atari, and Tandy/Radio 
Shack, which took fifth place with an 1 1 
percent market share. 

Since 1979, Software Arts has sold 

more than 800.000 copies of VisiCalc. 
But when Lotus Development Corp. 
bought out Software Arts. It decided to 
discontinue the venerable spreadsheet. 

At Lotus' annual meeting in May, 
chairman Mitch Kapor called the prod- 
uct "mature" and said that Lotus' plans 
for VisICalc "would refiect that status." 
In announcing VislCalc's demise, Lotus 
said they'd support the program for the 
next two years. 

Two other products that Lotus ac- 
quired from Software Arts are also in a 
state of transition. In July, Lotus began 
marketing the desktop management 
program Spotlight under its own logo. 
However. Lotus wont be selling 
TK!Solver. an equation processor origi- 
nally designed for engineers. Instead, 
Lotus is looking for a third-party manu- 
facturer to produce and market the pro- 
gram. 

New Threads 

Tandy computer owners have a new 

on-line source of information. . .and a 
new place to air their pet peeves. Delphi, 
the Cambridge. MA. communications 
and information utility, has added a 
T^ndy User's Group to its system. The 
special Tandy section contains public- 
domain programs, utilities, reviews, a 
message forum, and a "Tandy Topics" 
conference facility. The access number 
is617-576-0862.B 



22 • SO Micro. Soptember 1985 



TRS-80 AND IBM-PC 

Word Processing Program 



Computers Supported 
IBM-PC 
IBM-XT 
Tandy 1000 
Tandy 1200 
Tandy 2000 
Model 4 
Model 2 
Model 12 
Model 16 
Modem 4 CP/M 
Model 2 CP/M 
Max-80 
LNW 




L80 X 24 DISPLAY using TRSDOS 6 or any MODEL III DOS. 

[ IBuilt-in FORM LETTER and MAIL-MERGE capabilities. 

' !Build-in HELP SCREENS. 

■ 55 separately programmable MACRO FUNCTION KEYS. 

: Performs PROPORTIONAL-SPACE right-margin justification 

on over 120 different printers (all drivers included FREE). 
nintegrates with ELECTRIC YiEBSJER spelling checker, 
r Keyboard entry and printing of 31 European Characters and 

special symbols. 
a IBM-PC, XT, Tandy-1000, Tancly-1200, Tandy-2000 versions for 

cotor or Monochrome, now only $199.95. 
n MODEL 2/12/16 versions now available for TRSDOS 2.0, 

TRSDOS 4.2 and CP/M. $199.95. 
U UScrtpt also available to run on TRS-aO MODEL I, MODEL III, 

LNW-aO, LNW-TEAM (80 x 24), Holmes VID-BO (80 x 24), and 

Lobo MAX-80 (BO x 24). $129.95 



CALL 1 -305-259-9397 



ANITEK SOFTWARE PRODUCTS 
PO BOX 361 136 D MELBOURNE. Fl 32936 



FREE SHIPPING WITHIN THE U.S.; OUTSIDE THE U S ADD S10 00 FOR SHIPPING 
FLORIDA RESIDENTS ADD 5"^ SALES TAX ALL ORDERS PREPAID BY CHECK, 
MONEY ORDER. CREDIT CARD OR C O D Circle 141 on Headef Service card. 



m 



TRIAL- SIZE DISK OFFER 

Fill out and return this coupon to receive a free trial-size copy 
of the LeScript word processing system - a $25 00 value 



Name 



Address 



City 



Slate 



Z-D 



Teleptiorw 

My sysiem is 
u UcxJei I'lii 
□ UcMal 4 
o MAX-eo 
O LNW-TEAM 



n Holm« VID-eO 
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□ CP'M Model 4 
c CP'M MAX-BO 



□ CP'M LNW-TEAM 
c CP'M VID-80 
n TANOY-2000 
u IBM PC 



Sena lo ANITEK • PO Box 361136 • Melbourne, FL 32936 



January 1985 

The PRODUCER gamed 

this peflect raung 

based on 

Ease o( Use 

Quality Documentatron 

Freedom from Bugs 

ABility to Do Ihe Joh 



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You can quickly create programs 

to manage such things as 

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personal finances. 

The only limit 
Is your imagination! 



THE PRODUCER 

CAN SAVE YOU MONEY! Why buy 

expensive dala base programs that never 
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Investing in The PRODUCER is money 
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• A B-Tree file *ilructure. (hal gives 

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amazing versatility to design text 
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• Full editing control al all limes. You can 

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generator lets you experiment, rearrange, 
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change your mind any time you wish. 

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"Ihf lonm-r I used The Producer, the more 
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used software." 

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Reviewer, 80 fvlicro 

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capable of doing everything 1 wanted it to. 

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Reviewer, Basic Computing 




TRS-80 Models 
I, III, IV, 4-P 

Requires 48K. 2 Disk Drives 

$199.95 
1-800-433-5355 

(TX) 214-456-0074 

Ask about DATA SHUFFLER 

All purpose Sort Merge program. 

We accept money orders, cas^rer s checks. 

VISA Master Card, and American Express. 
Circle 76 on Reader Servica card 



Producer Sollware. P O Bo* 610-866. DFW Airport, TX 7S261 



READER EXCHANGE 



Prompt Attention 

Jose E. Anaya's Basic input routine. 
Prompter. ("Restricted Entry," May 
1985. p. 70) is neat, but it lacks one fea- 
ture that I feci is important for an IN- 
KEY$ subroutine: an input delimiter. I 
changed the lines shown in Program 
Listing la to print a series of graphics 
blocks, so you can tell exactly how many 
characters you can enter during a pro- 
gram run. These changes work on the 
Models I, III. and 4. Changing lines 150 
and 1 90 as shown in Listing 1 b gives an 
automatic carriage return when you've 
typed in the number of characters that 
LM specifics. 

Rod Mallery 

Rt #J2. Box 71-D 

Goldsboro, NC 27530 

Just for Openers 

I begin all my programs with the lines: 

1 GOTO 10 

2 SAVE ■■program Name", rt:STOP 

3 LPRINT LEFTS(T1ME$.8):LPRINT:LL1ST: 
STOP 

This gives me some flexibility in how I 
run my programs (the program aelually 
begins on line 10). If I want to run the 
program conventionally. I type in RUN. 
If I want to save it to disk after a modifi- 
cation, or save every few lines as I type 
in the program, I use RUN2. RUN3 prints 
the date and lists the program to the 
printer. 

Dr. Jacques Weill 

43. rue Princtpale 

37250 Vetgne' 

France 




Sensor Deprivation 

An incompatibility between the Epson 
RX-80/FT printer and the Model 4 
causes problems with the Epson's paper- 
out sensor. Pressing eseape-8 disables 
two lines going to the computer, but the 
third hne. pin 12 on the RX 80 side, pin 
23 on the Model 4 side, remains active. 
This 1-byte palrh to the printer driver 
corrects the problem: 

For TRSDOS 6.1 PATCH SYSO/SVS.LSIDOS 
(.\at;47' -BOl 

For TRSDOS 6.2 PATCH SYSO/SVS.LSIDOS 
(.X0E39' =B0) 

The byte BO replaces the byte FO in Ihe 
AND OFOH statement. This masks bit 6 
and the paper-oul feature now works 
correctly. 

Hubert C. Borrmanii 

Star Route Box 3450 

Lillian. AL 36549 



Program Listing I . Modifications to Prompter. 

(a) 150 IF LN=LH THEN GOTO 160 ELSE PRINT PT5;iG0SUB 120; 

PRIKT BS5f!lF Z$<>'" THEN RETURN 
1B0 LN-0: BFS""":PRINT CHRS (15 );: PRINT STRINGS {LM, 132] ; 

STRINGS (LH, 24) ; 
190 GOSUB 150: IF Z$=CR$ THEN PRINT CHRS{14)f 

STRINGS(LM-LN,30) ;: RETURN 
210 IF LN-0 THEN 19B ELSE LN=LN-1: BFS-LEFTS CBF$, LN) : 

PRINT BSS; STRING? (2,132) ; STRING? (2,24) ; :GOTO 190 

(b) 150 IF LN-LM THEN RETURN ELSE PRINT PTS; : GOSUB 

120: PRINT BSSf: IF Z5<>"" THEN RETURN 
190 GOSUB 150: IF LN-LM THEN RETURN ELSE IF 

Z$-CR$ THEN PRINT CHRS(14); STRINGS (LH-LN, 30) ; : 

RETURN 



Watching Serials 

There's a dearth of information to help 
owners of serial printers operate in a 
world of programs designed chiefly with 
parallel printers in mind. I suspect the 
need in this area will grow, since several 
electric typewriicr manufacturers pro- 
duce units with an RS-232C port. 

I have a Model III with tape input and 
Scripsil 1.3. The output feeds into a se- 
rial printer, but the arrangement has an 
awkward drawback, I have to initialize 
the KS-232C with a POKE instruction 
before loading Srripsit. If 1 forget to do 
this. I must save my file to tape before 
returning to Basic, or lose everything 
I've typed. The following addition to 
Scripsil does Ihe iniiialization aulomali- 
cally: 

42D9 CD5A0t) CALL OO.^AH 
:CAL],SHSIMT 

42IX' c:jo;i4:i jp 4:io:in 

; JP 'R) ENTRY ADDR 

One convenient way to load Scripsil. 
make Ihe change, and save the revised 
version to disk is via David Trapassos 
Tape48 (■'Tape It Easy," January 1984, 
p. 1 1 2), This utility lets you load any ma- 
ehine-language program, read out its 
name and three key addresses, change 
memory eonlenls, write to tapcal 500 or 
1.500 baud, and verily the result. The 
original and revised addresses for Scrip- 
sil 1,3 are: 

Original Revised 

Star! address- 42E9 42D9 

End address- 6AA8 6AAR 

1 ransfcr address: 4303 42IJ9 

The same pattern could apply to many 
other programs. Naturally, you'd make 
these changes to a copy of your software. 
not the master tape, 

John li. Srhoberg 

1049 McMurdo Drive 

Kan^lnops. BC 

Canada V2C 3C8 

The Seekers 

I'm using a Model III, and would like to 
find a C compiler that produces source 
code compatible with Microsoft's Maero- 
80 (MHO) assembler, 

Dan Henderson 

6770 65 Ave. 

Red Deer. Alherla 

Canada T4P IA5 



80 Micro. September 1985 • 25 



Circle 232 on Raadoi Service card. 




MODEL 4 



ELECTRONICS 



MODEL 6000 



MODEL 12 




256KMOD2000W/MONOMONITOR ... 1319.00 
256KMOD2000W/COLORMONITOR . . . 1629.00 

256KMOD1200HD1DR 1499.00 

128KMOD1000W/MONO1 DR 839.00 

128KMOD1000W/COLOR2DR 1199.00 

256K MOD 1000 W/10 MEG HD 1439.00 

24KMOD 100 PORT 399.00 

24KMOD200PORT 769.00 

64KMOD42DR 925.00 

512KMOD60002DR 3099.00 

80KMOD122DR 1199.00 

15MEGHARDDISK 1329.00 

35MEGHARDDISK 2059.00 



CGP220PRINTER 499.00 

DMP105PRINTER 145.00 

DMP120 PRINTER 249.00 

DMP430 PRINTER 585.00 

DMP2100PPRINTER 1019.00 

DWP220PRINTER 429.00 

DWP510PRINTER 999.00 

TRACTOR DWP 220 99.00 

TRACTOR DWP 11/510 159.00 

TRACTOR FEED DMP2100P 99.00 

PARALLEL PRINTER SWITCH 96.00 

PARALLEL PRINTER CONTROLLER .... 179.00 
70MEGHARDDISK 2949.00 



NEW DMP2200 PRINTER 1149.00 

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CASHIERS CHECK OR MONEY ORDER MUST ACCOMPANY ALL ORDERS 



(817) 825-4027 



NOCONA ELECTRONICS • box 593 • nocona, tx 76255 



26 • 80 Micro, September 1985 



READER EXCHANGE 



I'm liKikinff for a repairman who can 
fix ii disk tonirnller on an LNW 80-2. The 
drives begin lo spin on reset, but then 
quit bclore the DOS has a thanre In load 
liilly. I've tried a number of DOSes and 
had I he drives iheekcd. If anyone knows 
of a fiood LNW repair outlet, or has had 
the same problem, 1 eould use some 
help. 

Alan Schmautz 

1321 5th Aoe. E. 

Kalispell. MT 59902 



I have a Model I with a Lobo inlerfaee. 
The interfaec has a 40-pin edge card con- 
nector for a printer. I'm not able to find 
a compatible printer for a reasonable 
price. Radio Shack cant get me a modi- 
fied cable or adapter with a 40-pin edge 
connector and a 36-pin plug connector. 
Can someone help? 

Peter M. Puchkowski 

21 7 Strathearn N. 

Montreal W.. Quebec 

Canada H4X 1 Yl 



Progmni Listing 


2, Lines 


missing /rom Tape Check object code listing. 


BBAia 


VERCHK 


DEFL 


S 


00440 


ERRMSG 


DEFW 


0D0DU 


00450 




DEFH 


'*** ERROR - TAPE BAD - TRY AGAIN ***' 


00460 




DEFW 


0D0DH 


00470 


READY 


DEEM 


'**** READY CASSETTE ****' 


00480 




DEFB 


0H 


00490 


TAPEOK 


DEFW 


0D0DH 


00500 




DEFH 


'*•* TAPE OKAY ***' 


00510 




DEFB 


0U 


00520 


VERIFY 


DEFB 


0DH 


00530 




DEFH 


'*** VERIFYING SOURCE TAPE - PLEASE 


WAIT ***' 






00540 




DEFH 


0D0QH 


00550 


TPENME 


DEFH 


'SOURCE TAPE NAHE IS ' 


00560 




DEFB 


0H 


00570 


*LIST ON 










End 



Error Trap 

Several lines are missing from the ob- 
ject code listing of Jay Walton's Tape 
Cheek program (November 1984. p. 92). 
You should insert the lines in Program 
Listing 2 after line 420. 

—Eds. 

My Model 4 conversion of Bruce A, and 
Jeffrey P. Graebner's Grapher program 
(April 1985. p. 40) has a problem. Graph- 
er assumes the module PRINTR Is 
within the main body of the program, 
but It isn't. This causes line number er- 
rors. The following addition to Program 
Listing 1 should clear up the trouble: 

145 CHAIN MERGE TRINTR'MM.ALL 

Line 145 loads In the module before the 
main program executes. 

Dauid Engelhardt 
10221 W. Wist. Place 
BroomJleM. CO 80020 

Line 1972 of Howard Potvin's modifi- 
cations to NovaCalc (Reader Exchange, 
July 1985, p. 25) contained a typograph- 
ical error. The less-than character [<) 
should be a left parenthesis. 

-Eds. 



Circle 374 on Reader Service catO 



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Dirccloiy on I icrcen li .:.iLumfii taiita Fut'I 

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BACKMOD modified files Quii-k, tuiumaiic 
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DI-'MP FILE IN HEX - Fuimtiicd dump iif file m 

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• Available in medium decay European 
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80 Micro. September 1985 • 27 



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REVIEWS / edited by Ryan Davis-Wright 



Supercross/XT Bridges the 
Gap of Incompatibility 



by John B. Harrell in 

• ••• 

SnpercroB>/XT runs on 
the Models I (double-density 
drives required), 111, and 4/ 
4P. Powersoft Products, 
17060 Dallas Parkway, 
Suite 1 14. Dallas, TX 75248. 
214-733-4475. Supercross/ 
XT $99.95. Hypercross 
available from Hypersoft, 
P.O. Box 51155. Raleigh. 
NC 27609. 919-847-4779. 
S49.95 to $129.95. 

Easy to use: ir -k it ir it 

Good docs: • • • • • 

Bug free: * it * ii -if 

Does the job: * -k it it -Cr 

Supercross/XT is a ver- 
satile disk-based utility that lets 
you easily transfer files between a TRS- 
80 computer and a CP/M or MS-DOS ma- 
chine. It also supports full file transfer 
between CP/M and MS-DOS computers 
with no intermediate steps. I can use the 
Hies 1 transfer between systems with vir- 
tually no change. 1 also use Supercross 
to format disks for my Tandy 2000 to 
transport Information to my IBM PC/XT. 
This is the most useful program I've seen 
in quite some time. 

Supercross was originally developed 
by Hypersoft (as Hypercross) and they 
license it to Powersoft. Hypersoft mar- 
kets four different versions of the utility: 
40 CP/M formats, four MS-DOS formats 
(1. 1/2.X), 70 CP/M and MS-DOS formats, 
and 130 CP/M and MS-DOS formats. 
Since Supercross and Hypercross are es- 
sentially the same, all comments made 
about Supercross apply to Hypercross. 

Getting Started 

Supercross comes on a standard disk 
compatible with the format you order. 
The Model 4/4P version contains the 




complete disk operating system and the 
software (including back-up copies In 
case of disaster). 

The Model m version comes without 
an operating system but works with any 
of the popular Model III operating sys- 
tems; however. I tested it only under 
LDOS 5.1.4. The Model 1 version comes 
on single-density disks and requires the 
double-density modification to work 
properly. 

When you first run Supercross. you an- 
swer several questions describing your 
computer system and the configurations 
available for the alien disk formats (see 
Fig. 1 ). A uUIity on the disk builds aconfig- 
uratlon file that bypasses these prompts 
on subsequent runs. You can set up to 10 
user-defined configuration files. 

Supercross Commands 

Once you have Supercross running, a 
simple menu displays the disk formats 
you selected and summarizes the com- 
mands (see Fig. 2). In addition to the 
complete command set. Supercross pro- 
vides quick commands, an easy-to-re- 



member subset of the most 
frequently used commands 
that you can abbreviate to 
one or two letters. 

You can display a disk di- 
rectory of the selected drive. 
The command syntax Is 
identical to TRSEXDS's and 
you can specify either a di- 
rectory of the default alien 
drive or the default TRS-80 
drive. 

Supercross distinguishes 
between the native TRS-80 
drive formats and the alien 
formats by the drive desig- 
nator. Drive numbers 0-7 
indicate standard TRS-80 
disks and drives A-D desig- 
nate disks in either CP/M or 
MS-DOS format. 

Under TRSDOS 6.X (and 
LDOS). you can reassign logical disk 
drive numbers to any physical drive de- 
vice. But Supercross doesn't allow drive 
remapping with alien formats; drive A 
represents physical disk drive unit zero. 
The versatile Copy command sup- 
ports transfer of a file to and from the 
TRS-80 format to any other format. The 
XFER command transfers data between 
CP/M and/or MS-DOS formats. You can 
enter the command in full or use the 
quick format. 

Unfortunately, Supercross doesn't 
support wildcard file names. Copy and 
XFER support three types of file trans- 
fers: image, ASCII, and random. 

The image mode copies an exact im- 
age to the target disk. This Is the usual 
method of transferring binary files such 
as data bases and spreadsheet files. 

The ASCII file transfer mode compen- 
sates for the differences in storing ASCII 
nies on TRS-80 and MS-DOS or CP/M 
computers, including carriage-return/ 
line-feed variations, end-of-file marks, 
and certain nonstandard TRS-80 char- 
acters. 



BO Micro. September 1985 • 29 



REVIEWS 



The random mode transfers a TRS-80 
file stored with the logical record length 
set to fewer than 256 bytes. Supercross 
otherwise transfers the file in the image 
mode. 

To remove files from the target disk, 
use the command with which you're 
most familiar. Supercross offers four al- 
ternative commands corresponding lu 
the respective disk operating systems. 

The Format command lets you format 
a disk in any of the available formats. 
You identify the target disk drive as you 
do for the Directory command. However, 
the Format command doesn't duplicate 
the code found in the boot sectors of the 
source disks. While the documentation 
states that some programs may reject 
these disks if ihey check the boot sector, 
I haven't experienced this in many 
transfers to MS-DOS systems. 

You can change your transfer config- 
uration by pressing the C key from the 
main menu: this takes you to the Config- 
uration menu (see Fig. 3). You can select 
a new format from either of the two alien 
formats, change the default drives, the 
formats, or the actual disk drive config- 
uration. The user command also pro- 
vides a convenient way to access 
different user areas on CP/M disks. 

Supercross has a powerful facility for 
moving files in bulk. The Tag command 
displays the directory of the source disk 
one item at a time and lets you select the 
option for transferring the file or for file 
removal. 



SuperCROSS DOS Format Selection 


Menu. Enter 2 character Code, 


*** SupeiCross 






Seri 


al No: P41022XT *** 






Type 


rks/Sds/Den 


Type 


rks/Sds/Den | 


lA PC/MS-DOS 1.1 


40 


S5 


DD 


IB 


PC/MS-DOS 2.0 


40 


SS 


DD 


IC PC/MS-DOS 1.1 


40 


DS 


DD 


ID 


PC/MS-DOS 2.0 


40 


DS 


DD 


IE PC Tandy 2000 


80 


DS 


DD 


IF 


Aardvark 


35 


SS 


DD 


IG Access Matrix 


40 


SS 


DD 


IH 


Access II 


40 


DS 


DD 


11 Altos 


80 


DS 


DD 


IJ 


Ampro Ltl Bd. 


40 


SS 


DD 


IK ATR 8000 


40 


SS 


DD 


IL 


CCS 


35 


SS 


DD 


IH Cromemco Z-2 


40 


SS 


SD 


IN 


Cromemco Z-2 


40 


SS 


DD 


lO Cromemco 


40 


DS 


DD 


IP 


DEC VT180 Robin 


40 


SS 


DD 


IQ DEC RainDOw 


80 


SS 


DD 


IR 


Eagle 


80 


SS 


DD 


IS Epson 


40 


DS 


DD 


IT 


Epson QX10 


40 


DS 


DD 


lU Florida Gcphics 


80 


DS 


DD 


IV 


HP 125 


40 


DS 


DD 


2A IBM PC CP/M- 86 


40 


SS 


DD 


2B 


Kaypro II 


40 


SS 


DD 


2C Kaypro 4 & 10 


40 


DS 


DD 


2D 


LNW-80/Team 


40 


SS 


DD 


2E Lobe Max-Se 


40 


SS 


DD 


2F 


Hax-80 CPM 3,0 


40 


SS 


DD 


2G Morrow MicroDec 


40 


SS 


DD 


2H 


Morrov 


40 


DS 


DD 


21 NEC PC-8001 


40 


SS 


DD 


2J 


Osborne-I 


40 


SS 


SD 


2K Osborne-I, Exec 


40 


SS 


DD 


2L 


Otrona 


40 


DS 


DD 


2H Sanyo 1000 


40 


DS 


DD 


2N 


Sanyo 1250 


80 


DS 


DD 


20 Sanyo 2000 


80 


SS 


DD 


2P 


SD Computers 


40 


SS 


SD 


2Q Superbrain 


35 


SS 


DD 


2R 


Superbrain D 


35 


DS 


DD 


2S Teietek 


35 


SS 


SD 


2T 


Teietek 


35 


SS 


DD 


2U Teietek 


35 


DS 


DD 


2V 


Televideo 802 


40 


SS 


DD 


3A Televideo 802 


40 


DS 


DD 


3B 


Televideo 1603 


80 


DS 


DD 


3C TRS80 1 CPH 1.4 


35 


SS 


SD 


3D 


TRS 80 1 FEC 


40 


SS 


SD 


3E TRS80 1 FEC 


40 


SS 


DD 


3F 


TRS80 1 Omikron 


40 


SS 


SD 


3G TKS80 1 Omikron 


40 


SS 


DD 


3H 


TRS80 3 Holmes 


40 


SS 


DD 


31 TBS80 3 Huccicn 


40 


SS 


DD 


3J 


TRS80 3 MM Shfl 


40 


SS 


DD 


3K TRS80 3 Omikron 


40 


SS 


DD 


3L 


TRS Mtzuma 1.30 


40 


SS 


DD 


3M TRS Mtzuma 1.30 


40 


DS 


DD 


3N 


TRS Htzuma 1.4x 


40 


SS 


DD 


30 TRS Mtzuma 1.4x 


40 


DS 


DD 


3P 


TRS Htzuma 2.2x 


40 


SS 


DD 


3Q TRS Mtzuma 2.2x 


40 


DS 


DD 


3R 


TRS 80 4 CPH 3.0 


40 


SS 


DD 


38 Xerox 820-11 


40 


SS 


SD 


3T 


Xerox 820-11 


40 


DS 


SD 


3U Xerox 820-11 


40 


SS 


DD 


3V 


Xerox 820-11 


40 


DS 


DD 


4A 2enith-Hth H89 


40 


SS 


SD 


4B 


Zenith-Hth H89 


40 


SS 


DD 


4C Zenith-Hth H89 


40 


DS 


DD 


4D 


2enith-Hth H89 


80 


DS 


DD 


4E Zenith-Hth Z90 


40 


SS 


DD 


4F 


Zenith Z100 


40 


SS 


DD 


4G Zenith 2100 


40 


DS 


DD 


4H 


Zenith Z100 8re 


40 


DS 


DD 


41 Zorba 


40 


DS 


DD 


4J 


Zorba Z2000 


40 


DS 


DD 


4K Zorba Q 


80 


DS 


DD 


4L 


Zorba Z2000Q 


80 


DS 


DD 


4H 8 inch CPM std. 


77 


SS 


SD 












Figure 


J- 


SuperCROSS/XT formats. 









The Star Ratings 

80 Micro's star ratings refiect our 
reviewer's impression of a product. 

In most cases, the overall rating is 
an average of the ratings in each of 
the four specific categories. However, 
some overall ratings may be higher or 
lower than this average, depending 
on the reviewers subjective opinion. 
The stars mean: 

***** Superior: 
* * * * Excellent: 
* * * Good: 
* * Fair: 
* Poor. 

The ratings terms translate as 
follows: 

Easy to use: How easy Is it for the 
new user to use the hardware/soft- 
warc/book? 

Good docs: Is the documentation 
clear and helpful in explaining the 
products use and anticipating user 
problems? 

Bug free: Did the reviewer encounter 
any bugs while using the product? 
Does the job: How well does the prod- 
uct do what it was designed for? 



* SuperCROSS/XT * TRS-80 <-> MS-DOS & CP/M File Transfer 

Copyright 1985 HyperSOFT, Published by PowerSOFT Products 

Serial No. P41022XT 



Drive - B C D is format Fl 
Drive A - - - is format F2 



PC/HS-DOS 1.1 40 SS DD 



Enter Conanand or select from Quick Menu: 



DA 

DT 

T 

FA 

H 



Directory of Alien disk TA 

Directory of TRS-80 disk TT 

Copy TO alien from TRS-80 F 

Format default Alien drive C 

Help X 



Tag Alien default disk 
Tag TRS-80 default disk 
Copy FROM alien to TRS-80 
Set Configuration 
Exit to DOS 



Figure 2. Main menu of SuperCROSS/XT. 



Drive - B C D is format Fl PC/HS-DOS 1,1 
Drive A - - - is format F2 

Drive Tracks Format Skip Default 

A 40 2 N TRS-80 

B 1 40 1 N Alien 

C 2 40 1 N 

D 3 40 1 N 

Choose from one of the following: 



40 SS DD 



A,B,C or D Set drive config. X 

1 Select new format Fl 3 

2 Select new format F2 4 



Exit to command level 
Select default TRS-80 drive 
Select default Alien drive 



Figure 3. Configuration menu of SuperCROSS/XT. 



30 • SD Micro. September 1985 



REVIEWS 



For example, you could decide to 
transfer all the Basic files to the target 
disk— Just tag all the files with a fBAS 
extension. A simple set of keystrokes 
moves the entire group of flies from the 
source disk to the target disk. 

If you exit the Tag command menu, 
you can reenter the menu with the pre- 
vious file status. This is a blessing if you 
mistakenly exit loo soon or want to re- 
petitively copy the same group of files to 
several disks. You can also save the tag 
list in a file and then reload it later for 
batch processing. 

Appendixes in the documentation pro- 
vide additional information on disk for- 
mats and the ronversions performed. 
One provides a short set of instructions 
on making an initial configuration file 
containing the features you want. 

It's Great But. . . 

Supercross is really a time-saver. Before 
using it. I used the RS-232 port for inter- 
computer data transfers, which Is slow. 

But all products have blemishes: The 
first copy of Supercross I received didn't 
work very well, and Powersoft was re- 
sponsive in quickly providing a new re- 
lease. 

I still feel that Supercross has a few 
problems. First, if you try to access a 
disk with the wrong format, the system 
will probably hang up. requiring a reset. 
This often happens when you try to ac- 
cess an 80-track double-sided disk with 
only single-sided drives, for example. I 
can't see any reason for the system to 
reset to solve this problem; a simple er- 
ror message would be sufficient. 

The original version of Supercross 
would sometimes silently die while 
copying or formatting an alien disk. 
Whfie the newer version exhibits two re- 
lated problems, the reliability is substan- 
tially improved. 

First of all, the disk error-handling rou- 
tine Is highly critical of simple problems. 
Supercross sometimes rejects disks that 
format perfectly under CP/M. TRSDOS, 
and MS-DOS as bad. For instance, it 
claimed that one disk had flawed sectors 
In five tracks, but 1 could later format 
this disk on the Tandy 2000 (in 80-track 
quad-density mode). 

Supercross still periodically slips Into 
silent death whfie copying files. This is 
the same problem I identified with the 
earlier version but it doesn't happen so 
often. It now occurs so infrequently that 
I can live with it. 

Conclusion 

The value of this program far exceeds 
its price. If Powersoft fixed the few prob- 
lems mentioned, Supercross would be an 
outstanding utility. As it is. if you work 
with different computers, ifsamust.B 



Customer Billing 
In a Big Way 

by Wynne Keller 

• ••• 

Accounts RecelTsble Version 1.S5 

runs on the Model III (48K1 and requires 

two disk drives. It also supports a hard 

disk drive. Holman Data Products, 2366 

Lincoln. Oroville. CA 95965, 916-533 

5992. $149.95. 

Hard disk version $199.95. 

Easy to use: it it * ii -^ 

GcKxl docs: **■*■■*■ li- 

Bug free: it -k -k ir iz 

Does the Job: ir * -kit -ij 

Holman Data Products' Accounts 
Receivable, a large-capacity work- 
horse for customer billing, offers all the 
features you need in a data manager of 
this type, but it fails to provide the con- 
venience features, like error-trapping 
and alphabetical sorting, you'd expect in 
a software package today. While this 
doesn't detract from the program's util- 
ity, it does make it more difficult lo use 
than it should be. 

Accounts Receivable handles large 
files: You can fit approximately 300 cus- 
tomers on a disk and use up to 30 disks. 
While you probably wouldn't want to do 
that much disk swapping, the point is 
that the program grows with your busi- 
ness. If you start with one customer disk. 
you can continue to split the file and add 
disks as the need arises. 

One of Accounts Receivable's unusual 
features is that hard disk users can write 
files back to floppies and use them 
should the hard disk fail. 

Customer Data 

You must enter customer data, or at 
least step through each field in a record, 
before you can exit the data entry mode. 
If you type In an entry in incorrect for- 
mat, the program gives you an "Invalid 
entry" error but doesn't specify it. When 
you finish with a record, you make cor- 
rections by typing in the line number 
containing the error and retyping the 
line. 

You can Include a status code for each 
customer signifying anything of interest 
to you, such as a customer's credit rat- 
ing or type of account (retail or whole- 
sale). For example, you could request 
one-third of the t>alance due on selected 
statements with these codes. Other in- 
formation on each customer includes 
the date you set up the account, interest 
rate (percent per month), date of last 
payment, and credit limit. 

While you can use lowercase letters in 
customer records, the program doesn't 



recognize them. Also, the program sup- 
ports five-digit zip codes only Tn help re- 
duce errors on data entry, you can 
specify a range of numbers you want the 
data base to accept: it rejects any num- 
ber outside this range. 

You access customer records by ac- 
count number only, rather than by cus- 
tomer name Unfortunately, you cant 
sort records by customer name either, 
only by number. The manual suggests 
that if you need to order names alpha- 
betically, you should assign customer 
numbers relative to position in the al- 
phabet, using numbers 1-26 to start off 
the account number 

You can record subaccount numbers 
by separating them from the account 
number with a decimal point. 

You have to have the proper customer 
disk in drive 1 whenever the program ac- 
cesses an account. Instructions to do 
this appear on-screen and you must 
press the enter key to continue on. even 
if you already have the correct disk in 
the drive. Companies that have all their 
data on one disk would probably find it 
more helpful for the program to request 
a disk switch only if you had the wrong 
disk in the drive. 

Transactions 

Accounts Receivable supports 99 
transaction codes to define the types of 
entries you make. For instance, one ccxie 
represents an invoice (to charge a sale), 
another a payment. For each transac- 
tion, you have to supply the account 
number, invoice number, date, transac- 
tion code, and tmiount. 

To make corrections, you enter the 
edit mode and choose one of seven op- 
tions to delete, change or locate a trans- 
action forward or backward. 

You can verify the sum of all transac- 
tions before posting them to disk to t ii- 
sure that you haven't omitted any. Tlie 
manual wisely suggests that you donl 
enter more than 150 transactions in one 
session. 

Accounts Receivable sorts transac- 
tions before posting them to keep disk 
swapping to a minimum. It fiags and de- 
letes any transaction with an invalid ac- 
count number during the posting. You 
can then reenter the transaction. Hol- 
man Data Products ofi"ers an optional in- 
voicing program. It supports a customer 
purchase order number (the statements 
do not) and posts a single-line entry to 
the statement transaction file. Another 
optional program supports discounts on 
statements. 

Reports 

You can review a customer's status on- 
screen, displaying old and current bal- 
ances and aging Accounts Kcccivabie 



80 Micro. September 1985 • 31 



Circle 85 on Reader Service card. 



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retype everything, buy modems* RS232*s, cables and communications software? 

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ANSWER: Use our CNV3TDi*C utility to do 95"., or more of the conversion for you. It automatically iiiM-rls all required spaces 
iR-lwecn keywords, replaces I'RINT@'s (even those with variables) tcj UX'ATE's, adjusts TAB addresses, corrects the exponen- 
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So, there you have it, HVPERCROSS gets you "over there" and ("NVUTDPC t>erforms most of the required program changes. 
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32 • 80 Micro. September 1985 



REVIEWS 



offers an option to calculate finance 
charges, too. Each account can have a 
different percentage rate for interest, no 
rate at all, or you can set a minlmuni 
dollar amount for finance charges. You 
can rerun this option If necessary with- 
out posting the finance charges twice. 

Aging reports offer several options. In- 
cluding active accounts, zero balance 
only, credit balance only, over credit 
limit, and past due. You can Invoke the 
options for all customers, a specific 
range, or dollar totals. You print out the 
reports according to the most recent 
end-of-month status or, If 15 days or 
more have elapsed since the end-of- 
month, you can age the balances. 

Accounts Receivable prints state- 
ments on standard 7-lnch invoice forms 
or on regular paper. As with aging re- 
ports, you can do all or selected ac- 
counts, and restart a complete run at 
any selected account. 

You can print statements by aging cat- 
egory and optionally print zero- or credit- 
balance statements. You can also select 
printouts by status code: if you coded 
your customers as retail and wholesale, 
you might print all the retail or all the 
wholesale clients separately. 

The program even prints mailing la- 
bels In case you don't use windowed en- 
velopes. Here again, your choices arc 
flexible. Including status code, range of 
zip codes, and range of account num- 
bers. You can even select the number of 
lines per label If you use nonstandard la- 
bels. The only thing missing is an option 
to use two- or three-across labels. 

End-of-Month Updates 
And UtUiticB 

At the end of the month, run the up- 
date program to erase the transactions 
and update balances. This also gener- 
ates an audit report. 

The utility progrnms help with special- 
ized problems, like splitting the file when 
a disk becomes full. One utility clears all 
transactions and another deletes selected 
transactions. The utilities aren't as easy 
to use as the main prc^rams. You must. 
for example, add 50 to the disk number 
when asking the system to scan a cus- 
tomer disk; if you enter the wrong num- 
ber you can't cleanly escape. 

Conclusions 

The trend In software these days Is to- 
ward hard drives and you'll find little soft- 
ware available for large files on a floppy 
system. Certainly using Accounts Receiv- 
able entails some disk swapping, but it 
minimizes this as much as possible. The 
screen-editing features aren't state-of-the- 
art nor is the error-trapping, but the pro- 
gram can do a big Job inexpensively and 
Is well worth investigating.! 



The Enhancer 

by David B. Dalton 

• •••• 

Sapeniiod4 runs on the Model 4 (64K). 
Intcllltech Corp.. formerly Intelligent 
Technok^lcsCo., 21 Campbell Drive, Dbi 
Hills. NY 1 1746, 516-462-6970. ^49.95 
Easy to use: ■*■■*■*♦*■ 
Good docs: •*■*■*♦ 
Bug free: • • • • * 

Does the job: * * * ♦ * 

If you use a Model III DOS even though 
you moved up to a Model 4. you don't 
have to sacrifice the 4's increased capa- 
bUlties: You can choose from a number 
of programs that give you the Model 4's 
extra power in Model III mode. 
Supennod4 Is the best one I've seen. 

In Model III mode. Supermod4 enables 
an 80-character by 24-llne screen, 
speeds up the processor from 2 mega- 
Hertz (MHz) to 4 MHz, spools text £ind 
data to your printer, and activates an au- 
dible key click through the 4's built-in 
speaker. And Supermod4 eats up no 
user memory, even for the printer 
spooler: every Model 4 has at least 16K 
of memory not normally accessible in 
Model III mode, and that's where 
Supermod4 resides. 

Using Saperinod4 

You can select a number of options 
when you call up Supermod4, Including 
those for screen size, 4 or 2 MHz opera- 
tion, the printer spooler, an audible key 
click, clearing or resuming spooler op- 
eration (with no data loss, even during a 
reboot], or canceling the program. 

In addition, you can assign any key- 
board character or any other ASCII char- 
acter to the Model 4's three function 
keys. Unfortunately (and this is one of 
my few disappointments with Super- 
mod4) the function keys can be pro- 
grammed only for one character. It 
would be nice if they were macro keys so 
that each function key could be used for 
an entire string of characters, such as a 
commonly used command. 

One of Supermod4's nicest features is 
its printer spooler. It's the only I've seen 
that's both useful and easy to use. The 
spooler uses up to 14K of the Model 4's 
invisible memory. If you want to print 
out a Basic program of fewer than 14K, 
you regain control of the computer Im- 
mediately when Supermod4 loads the 
program Into the spooler. The printer 
may slow down a little if the computer Is 
busy: It slows down quite a bit if you read 
from or write to a disk. 

Like most spoolers, this one has some 
limitations. It works only with the Model 
4's built-in printer routines: that in- 



cludes listing and printing from Basic. 
Consequently, most word processors 
won't work with the spooler because 
they use their own printer routines. 

Video 

Supermod4 works with all the video 
formats available on the Model 4: 80 
characters by 24 lines, 40 by 24, 64 by 
16, and 32 by 16. It automaUcally cor- 
rects most problems that arise from us- 
ing a Basic program written for the 
Model Ill's 64-character by 16-llne dis- 
play. For Instance, it automatically cor- 
rects the Basic statements PRINT®. 
PRINTTAB. PCS. Set. Reset, and Point. 
It also lets you use reverse video. In Ba- 
sic, printing a CHR$( 16} enables reverse 
video, and CHR8(17) or CLS turns it off. 

Supermod4's video features work only 
with programs that use the built-in video 
drivers. This Includes, of course, pro- 
grams written in Basic or compiled pro- 
grams written in languages such as 
fiscal or C. Many Assembly-language 
programs also use the built-in video driv- 
ers and work fine with SuperTnod4. 

Unfortunately, most word processors 
use their own video routines and won't 
work with Supermod4 (Scrlpslt and Su- 
perScrlpsit, for example). In Basic. 
PEEKS or POKES directly to the video 
RAM won't work correctly, either. 

You'll have to test your favorite pro- 
grams to see how they work with 
Supermod4. 1 found that Micro-Systems' 
Mlcroterm, one of my favorite terminal 
programs, works fine with Supermod4 
even though Its menu is a bit skewed on 
the 80 by 24 screen. I had no problems 
with Aspen Software's Grammatlk. ei- 
ther. Even eSoft's The Bread Board Sys- 
tem (TBBSl bulletin board software, 
which is complex, works well. 

All the NEWDOS/80. LEXJS. and DOS- 
PLUS functions (such as directories) 
look fine on the 80 by 24 screen. 
TRSDOS. though, directly addresses 
some of the video memory, and Its direc- 
tories don't look pretty. 

Conflgnratlon 

Supermod4 works under TRSDOS. 
LDOS. and DOSPLUS. but it was devel- 
oped and works best under NEWDOS/80. 

Supermod4 comes on an unprotected 
TRSIX)S data disk. The current version 
won't work on the 4P, but Intellltech 
says that a 4P version Is In the works. 

Conclusion 

Supermod4 has become almost as es- 
sential to me as my DOS. When I'm not 
working on my computer, I use it as a 
TBBS bulletin board. I've had Super 
mod4 running almost full-time on the 
BBS for many weeks and it hasn't mal- 
functioned yet.l 



BO Micro. September 1985 • 33 



REVIEWS 



Little Brother, 
Little Price 

by Hardin Brothers 

• ••■*■ 

Little Brother runs en the Model 4/4P 
(64K with one disk drive and a hard disk 
or 128K and two disk drives) and the 
Tandy 1000 and 1200 (128K and two 
disk drives, or one drive and a hard disk). 
Logical Systems Inc.. 8970 N. 55th St.. 
P.O. Box 23956. Milwaukee. WI 53223. 
$99. 

Easy to use: it -k it ^ -Ci 
Good docs: it it a-ii -Ci 
Bug free: • • • * • 

Docs the Job: •*••■& 

Little Brother is a new data base pro- 
gram for the Model 4 and the 
Tandy 1000 and 1200. While its similar 
to the Profile data bases available from 
Radio Shack. It costs considerably less 
and offers a lot of versatility in such an 
Inexpensive program. But the documen- 
tation is disorganized and It requires 
some disk swapping if you don't have 
large capacity drives or a hard disk drive 
unit. 

Getting Started 

Defining and using a data base file is 
relatively simple, considering the num- 
ber of options available. You start by de- 
fining fields for your data base records. 
Then you define one or more input screens 
and one or more report or label forms. 
When you finish, you can begin entering 
information Into your data base. 

The Data Fields 

Little Brother recognizes nine differ- 
ent types of data fields. Text fields com- 
prise alphabetic, uppercase alphabetic, 
literal, or uppercase literal characters. 
Only literal and uppercase literals allow 
numbers and punctuation. 

You specify numeric fields as left- or 
right-justified standard types or as dollar 
or Ooatlng-point types: The standard 
types allow numeric Input of any length 
(up to 254 characters), the fioating-polnt 
type allows up to eight places on each 
side of the decimal point, and the dollar 
type allows a maximum of eight places 
to the left of the decimal point. 

You can also define calculated fields, 
where input derives from mathemati- 
cally manipulated constants or numeric 
values from elsewhere In the data base. 

Each field label in the data base holds 
up to 254 characters, except for dollar 
and Hoattng-point numeric fields. You 
can dcfmc a maximum of 64 fields per 
record, each with a maximum of 1.024 



characters, and save up to 65.534 rec- 
ords per data base (If your disk can hold 
that much). 

The Input Screen 

After you define the fields, you create 
an Input screen, the template where 
you'll enter data. Each Input form must 
fit In the top 22 rows of a single video 
screen, and you can mix data input 
fields and normal and inverse text. Little 
Brother reserves the screen's bottom 
two lines for Its own use. 

Once you define the input screens, you 
can begin entering data. Be sure that 
everything is the way you want, because 
you can't redefine the field formats. 

Little Brother exhibits one peculiarity 
during data entry. When you finish en- 
tering information in one field and press 
the enter or return key. the cursor 
doesn't move to the next field on the 
form. Instead, it moves to the next field 
that you input when you initially defined 
the fields. Consequently, you should de- 
fine the fields in the order that you will 
want to enter data. 

Reports and Indexes 

You can define up to 10 report or label 
formats to print out your files. WhUe you 
can use up to 20 lines for each report, 
you can also use Information from your 
data base in a full-page form letter, as 
long as the letter's not too wordy. 

One of Little Brother's nicest features 
is the variety of reports It can produce. 
Unlike some other data-handling pro- 
grams. Little Brother doesn't assume 
that you'll always want to generate col- 
umnar reports. You can print out each 
report on a separate page, print each rec- 
ord more than once, and print multiple 
reports per column. 

Like most other data base programs, 
you can sort or select records based on up 
to eight fields and store an ordered list of 
the files in one of five special disk files. 

Little Brother also provides an unusual 
type of index, called an add index. If you 
enable the add Index while entering 
data, the program automatically sorts 
records as you enter them. You can then 
use the add index to quickly retrieve rec- 
ords In a predetermined order. However, 
the add index only sorts newly entered 
records: it Ignores all other information. 

You can create a Job file to automate 
your keystrokes for performing various 
tasks, such as sorting your data base or 
printing out Information. First, tell the 
program that you want to create such a 
file and give the file a name. Then, per- 
form the procedure you want to auto- 
mate. Every key you press will be echoed 
to the job file. You can later use the job file 
by specifying its name either from within 
the program or In the command line when 



you call up Little Brother from DOS. 

Little Brother stores its files in ASCII 
format, padded with zero bytes. This 
way, you can use the data in other pro- 
grams. For example, you could easily 
write a Basic program to read your files 
and manipulate them in ways that Little 
Brother can't. 

Problems 

Generally. I like Little Brother. How- 
ever, it has some problems that may 
make it unsulted to some applications. If 
you use it on a two-drive Model 4. you'll 
feel cramped for disk space. You have to 
store all your data, as well as your Input 
screens, report forms, and index files, on 
a single disk. A hard disk is almost man- 
datory to use Little Brother with a large 
data base, unless you want to constantly 
swap disks. 

Although the add Index is handy. It 
should let you use previously entered data 
with it. It's useless if you start using it 
while in the middle of adding informa- 
tion to a file, or if you forgot to turn It on 
when you started the data entry session. 

Little Brother's weakest feature is Its 
documentation. The manual Is both dis- 
organized and confusing. For example, 
the first thing you must do with a new 
data base is define fields, but the manual 
doesn't discuss this until page 59. after 
it tells you how to define input screens 
and report formats. To add to the confu- 
sion, the descriptions of screen and print 
formats both assume that you have al- 
ready defined your data base's fields and 
understand that topic well. 

Once you learn how to use Little 
Brother, the manual is only fair as a ref- 
erence, since it lacks an index as well as 
any clear quick-reference charts. 

The documentation is supplemented by 
on-line help which is mtwe clear than the 
printed documentation, but tends to be too 
wordy. I finally dumped the help screens 
to my printer and used them Instead of 
the manual to teach myself the system. 

One other problem that two-drive 
Model 4 owners will face (which, unbe- 
lievably, the documentation doesn't dis- 
cuss] is how to correctly use the separate 
creation and run-time disks. Nothing 
tells you which disk should be In your 
system for which functions. 

Conclusions 

Despite its documentation problems 
and its unwieldy nature. Little Brother Is 
a good value compared to other similar 
programs. It doesn't have all the bells 
and whistles of Profile 4. but it works 
well and I didn't find any bugs. If you 
have the patience to leam the program, 
you will find that it is a good choice to 
manage a moderately sized data base. ■ 

Conllnued on p. 100 



34' BO Micro. September 19B5 



Picture this on a 
$2,500 CAD program. 



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Autodesk. Inc 
2320 Marinshtp Way 

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(415)331-0356 

or (SOO) 443-0100 EXT. 406 

Te.F.X 275946 ACAD UD 

circle 275 on Reader Service card. 



1 



m 







V 




You Co/K, Get There from Here 



The most common question computer 
users ask these days is, "How do 1 get 
data from one computer to another?" 
Consider these scenarios: 

► You have a file you want to share with 
someone else in your office. 

► A friend has a Basic program on his 
Model 2000 that you'd like to use on your 
Model 4. 

►■You've got a Model III at home, and you 
want to use your word processing files on 
an IBM PC or PC-compaUble at work. 

Unfortunately, you can't simply take a 
disk out of the first computer, pop it Into 
the second, and boot up a program: you 
might Just as well try starting your car 
with a house key. 

Even though the microcomputer indus- 
try is 10 years old, we're still light years 
away from a standard that will let you in- 
terchange disks as you can records or 
compact discs. Nearly every computer has 
Its own disk operating system and disk 
format — if it uses disks at all. Even If you 
have Identical hardware, you might run 
into major problems, as anyone who has 
tried to move a file from DOSPLUS 3.4 to 
LDOS will tell you. 

Nevertheless, you can. transfer flies be- 
tween machines, and with a minimum of 
pain. Given the right hardware and soft- 
ware, you can send data back and forth as 
if it were second nature. 

In this article. I'll discuss three methods 
of file transfer: direct, remote, and soft- 
ware. I'll cover the pros and cons of each, 
and give you a way to solve the three prob- 
lems mentioned above. 

1 won't discuss how to transfer data 
from one software package to another, 
however: that's In 80 Micro's next issue. 
I'll limit myself here to taking Information 
from a disk formatted on one kind of com- 
puter and putting it on a disk formatted 
for another kind. 

They Went Data Way 

Before going any further, consider some 
of the fundamentals of how computers 
send and receive data. At the heart of file 
transfer is the American Standard Code 
for Information Interchange (ASCII). AS- 
CII uses a standardized system by which 
It represents characters. For instance, it 
stores the letter "A" as the decimal num- 
ber (or ASCII code) 65 . the number " 1 " as 
49. and the question mark as 63. Nearly 



all popular computers store data accord- 
ing to this system. 

In most cases, you want to use ASCII code 
when transferring files: It ensures that both 
computers speak the same language. The 
first computer sends a string of ASCII 
numbers, and the second one receives 
them. When you retrieve the file — with, 
say. a word processor or data base man- 
ager—the computer translates the ASCII 
number back to the original character it 
represents. 

You should be aware, however, that 
even this "standard" has its problems. 
Note in Table 1 that the printable charac- 
ters run from 33-127. The first 32 are re- 
served for special codes, and not all 
computers use the&e codes in the same 
way. For instance, 29 represents a line 
erase on the Model 4. and moves the cur- 
sor left on the IBM PC. A 7 emits a beep on 
the PC. but has no function on the 4. 

Then there's the extended (non-ASCII) 
character set. I won't get bogged down In 
details here, but the computer can assign 
sp*K!ial characters to the decimal numbers 
128-255. These characters vary widely 
from computer to computer. 

Despite these obstacles, the ASCII set 
can make your life a lot easier when you 
need to move a file. 

Directing Trafflc 

Direct file transfer is the fastest and 
most reliable of the two hardware solu- 
tions. As the name implies, you link two 
computers together directly. The tools 
you need are RS-232 ports on both com- 
puters, an RS-232 cable, a null modem 
adapter, and terminal software. 

Using the direct file transfer method, you 
can transmit data from one machine to an- 
other at rates of up to 2,400 baud. This ts 
twice the transmission speed of most mo- 
dems, which transfer data over phone 
lines. The relatively short length of RS- 
232 cable used to link the computers pro- 
vides minimal electrical resistance to the 
data signal, and the absence of external 
static ensures reliable, nongarbled data. 

As mentioned above, direct transfer re- 
quires that both computers have RS-232 
ports. An RS-232 port Is a 25-pln connec- 
tor whose spcciflcatlons. established by 
the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) 
in 1969. are designed to standardize the 
way In which computers send and receive 




Everything you need to know 
about moving fiies from 
one computer to anotiier. 

by Bradford N. Dixon 



80 Micro, September 1985 • 37 



ASCncode 


Video 


ASCncode 


Video 


ASCncodc 


Video 


(dec:iiiial) 


display 


{decdxtial] 


display 


(decimal) 


display 


32 


BLANK 


64 


@ 


96 




33 


I 


65 


A 


97 


a 


34 


• 


66 


B 


98 


b 


35 


# 


67 


C 


99 


c 


36 


$ 


68 


D 


100 


d 


37 


% 


69 


E 


101 


e 


38 


& 


70 


F 


102 


f 


39 


1 


71 


G 


103 


g 


40 


( 


72 


H 


104 


h 


41 


) 


73 


I 


105 


1 


42 


• 


74 


J 


106 


J 


43 


+ 


75 


K 


107 


k 


44 


r 


76 


L 


108 


1 


45 


- 


77 


M 


109 


m 


46 


. 


78 


N 


110 


n 


47 


1 


79 


O 


111 


o 


48 





80 


P 


112 


P 


49 


1 


61 


9 


113 


q 


50 


2 


82 


R 


114 


r 


51 


3 


83 


S 


115 


s 


52 


4 


84 


T 


116 


t 


53 


5 


85 


U 


117 


u 


54 


6 


86 


V 


118 


V 


55 


7 


87 


w 


119 


w 


56 


8 


88 


X 


120 


X 


57 


9 


89 


Y 


121 


y 


58 


: 


90 


Z 


122 


z 


58 


; 


91 


[ 


123 


{ 


60 


< 


92 


BLANK 


124 


1 


61 


> 


93 


1 


125 


} 


62 


> 


94 


" 


126 


- 


63 


? 


95 


— 


127 


t 




TabU 


1 . Values Jor ASCII codes 3; 


1-127. 





data. When you connect two RS-232 ports 
with an RS-232 cable, you're ensuring 
that one computer can transmit informa- 
tion in such a way that another computer 
can easily accept It. Table 2 lists the pin 
assignments of a standard RS-232 cable. 

Within Tandy's line of computers, the 
Models II. 12, 100, 200. 2000. and 6000 
come with an RS-232 already installed. 
The Model 111/4 RS-232 board and cable 
(catalog number 26-1 148) costs $99 and 
should be Installed at a Radio Shack Com- 
puter Center. The Tandy 1 OCX) and 1200HD 
use identical RS-232 boards; they cost 
$99.95 apiece and you can Install one 
yourself. 

An RS-232 cable (catalog number 26- 
1048) costs $19.95. and the null modem 
adapter (catalog number 26-1496) is 
$29.95. You can also make your own null 
modem cable: a tutorial in February 
1984s C'Notes C'Pin Pals." p. 194) tells 
you how. 

Unfortunately, like the ASCII code, the 
RS-232 standard has its variations. In 
fact, the EIA has approved 13 such "stan- 
dards." The most common version is the 
RS-232C, which most major brands of ml- 



Pin 


Signal 


Direction 


1 


FJirth ground 




2 


Transmitted data 


ToDCE 


3 


Received data 


lb DTE 


4 


Request to send 


ToDCE 


5 


Clear to send 


lb DTE 


6 


Data set ready 


lb DTE 


7 


Logic ground 




8 


Carrier detect 


To DTE 


9 


Reserved 




10 


Reserved 




U 


Unassigned 




12 


Secondary carrier detect 


To DTE 


13 


Secondary clear to send 


To DTE 


14 


Secondary transmitted data 


ToDCE 


15 


Transmit clock 


To DTE 


16 


Secondary received data 


lb DTE 


17 


Receiver clock 


lb DTE 


18 


Unassigned 




19 


Secondary request to send 


TbDCE 


20 


Data terminal ready 


ToDCE 


21 


Signal quality detect 


TbDTE 


22 


Ring delect 


To DTE 


23 


Data rate select 


ToDCE 


24 


Transmit clock 


TbDCE 


25 


Unassigned 






Tlablc 2. Pin assignments for RS'232port. 



Let's Talk 

Good Software 
12900 Preston Road 
Dallas. TX 75230 
214-239-6085 

Pile Transfer 

Personal Computer Products 
1400 Coleman Ave., Suite C- 18 
Santa Clara, CA 95050 
408-988-0164 

Microllnkn 

B.T Enterprises 
lOCarloughRoad 
Bohemia, NY 11716 
516-567-8155 

Omniterm 

Lindbergh Systems Inc. 
49BeechmontSt. 
Worcester, MA 01609 
617-263-5049 

Mlcroterm 

Micro- Systems Software Inc. 
4301-18 Oak Circle 
Boca Raton. FL 33431 
305-983-3390 

DeskMate 
Videotex Plus 

Tandy/Radio Shack 
One Tkndy Center 
Fort Worth. TX 76102 
817-390-3011 

Sapercroas/XT 

17060 Dallas Pkwy. 
Suite 1 14 
Dallas. TX 75248 
1214-7334475 

Table 3. Manufacturers' addresses. 



38 • SO Micro. September 1985 



Powerful Programming Tools 
At Bargain Prices 



C compiler 

for the model ! or 3 using 

TRSDOS, LDOS, NEWDOS, 

DOSPLUS, or MULTIDOS; 

includes full screen text editor and 
advanced development package 

List Price S2^^=^ 
Sale Price $89.95 



Multi-Basic compiler 

for the model 1 or 3, or 4 using 
TRSDOS, LDOS, NEWDOS, 
DOSPLUS, or MULTIDOS; 

includes full screen text editor and 
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List Price SS^^^ 
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This is a full K & R standard implementation of 
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If you've been wanting to learn C, this is the 
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Features 


Include 


char 


8 bits 


initializers 


short 


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lypedef 


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static 


unsigned 


16 bits 


aulo 


long 


32 bus 


extern 


float 


32 bits 


struct /bit fields 


double 


64 bits 


union 



Execution speed on the Model 3 for 10 
iterations of the prime number program 
published in Byte, Jan 83, page 284. 



LC Compiler 
Alcor C 



105 sees. 
78 sees. 



Special Bonus 

Buy one version for $89.95 and get the version 
for the other model for onlv 52 1 . 



Multi-Basic is a TRS-80 BASIC compatible 
compiler. The Model 4 version supports 
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except the COMMON statement. The same 
support is provided in the Model 1 and 3 
versions so programs are portable. The CMD 
statement is the only statement from the Model 
1 and 3 BASIC interpreters that is not 
supported. 

Multi-Basic also supports advanced language 
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functions, recursion, and dynamic string 
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Execution speed on the model 3 for 10 iterations 
of the prime number program published in Byte, 
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BASIC Interpreter 
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4570 sees. 
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C Compiler 



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Muili-Buic II ■ trademark of Alcoi Syilcmi 
TRS-SO ii ■ rcpilered irBdemBrk of Tandy Corp 
MSDOS 19 I irademark of Microsoft 
CF M is a trademark of Digital Research 
I'nin IS a trademark of Bell T,«botaionei 
1 C u ■ Irademark of Misoiyt 



Circle 427 on Rsadei Service card 



.^^P •J •Jt^.^^B 



' Vhat mak>i f^nSO raally uoiquB. ii ihm( ihs tnlira utar I 
I file and Bextage baw ore m metaory ■ The retuli' 



mmimHL ni?t:ETTE werr 



I Tou can conrigun your raflflO ithbb ig it hardly ew»r | 

Koei lo Aik Think of ihe diikrfte nTtnc*' Vhat't nore. 
I rntn II vriTien eniirciy in nachine languaee and ] 
I viih atl 4ai* in meDory ihai makai TaatBD 



THCrflSTEST BBS nTowni 



rkitllO luei a IZSK Mo4el 1 running TRSDOS or DOSPLUS 
and luppani a rui range of auio-aniTcr modemi 
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crocomputers use. The RS-232C works 
with all operating systeTns. so you can link 
your Model 4 to any other micro as long 
as It also uses an RS-232C port. 

You'll also have to connect one of the 
computers lo the cable with a null modem 
adapter (see the Photo). This simply 
crosses the send and receive lines in the 
cable so the two machines can communi- 
cate. Without the null modem, the send- 
ing computer wouldn't know when to 
send another character and the receiving 
computer can't tell the sender It's ready 
for more. 



Now for the software. Both computers 
will need terminal programs to send and 
receive data in a mutually acceptable for- 
mat (word length) and at a mutually ac- 
ceptable speed (baud rate). You can 
choose between two types of terminal 
packages — one that's designed specifi- 
cally for direct transfer or one that handles 
both direct and remote transfers. Direct- 
transfer software is, as you might expect, 
more ef[iclent than a dual-purpose pack- 
age, but it isn't as flexible. Which one you 
choose depends on your needs and budget. 
The advantage of direct-transfer software 



TK eo nSDOS LSOS CF/H ind Cr/n riua HT iMidnrA 
IrBdicnuki al Radiii StiKk. hdiB Sh«k LDlinl iyiTmM Ik 
biHtml l^wwc^ tut Di|j'«l Itowich iTjyrclitlT 




Photo. Null modem adapter. 



IBM PC 

PC/MS-EX3S1.1 
PC/MS-DOS 2.x 

PC IBM 5550 Japan 
DEC Rainbow 
T^ndy2000 
Televideo 1603 

CP/M 

Aardvark 

Access Matrix 

Access II 

Altertext 

Altos 

Ampro LitUe Board 

ATR8000 

Avatar 

CCS 

Clffer 2683 

Columbia 

Cromemco Z-2 

CromeTnco 

Cromemco CDOS 

DEC VT 180 Rohm 

DEC Rainbow 

Eagle 

Epson 

Epson QX- 10 

Florida Graphics 

Gemini 

GroupU m 

HP 125 



IBM PC CP/M-86 

Idea Bitelex 

Kaypron 

Kaypro4&10 

LNW80/Team 

LoboMax-80 

LoboMax-80CP/M3 

Micral9050 

MlcroBce 

Monroe 2000 

Morrow MlcroDecision 

Morrow 

NCR Decision Mate 

NECPC-8001 

NECPC-8801 

Northern Tel 803 

Octopus 

Olympta ETX n 

Olympla EX 100 

Osborne 1 

Osborne I Executive 

Osmosis 

OSM Zeus 

Otrona 

Pled Piper 

PMC- 101 CP/M 3.0 

Reynolds TCI 000 

Sanyo 1000 

Sanyo 2000 

Sanyo 1250 

SD Computers 



Sharp YX3200 
Superbraln 
Superbraln D 

Systel n 

Teletek System Master 
Televideo 802 
Televideo 1603 
Texas Instruments 
Tbshiba 10O/2O0 

TR8-60 Model I CP/M 

Lifeboat CP/M 1.4 

FED 
Omikron 

TRS-80 Model m CP/M 

Holmes VID-80 
Hurricane Comjiactor 
MM SHUFFLE Board 

TRS-80 Model 4 CP/M 

Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2 

Radio Shack CP/M Plus 

Zerox 820-n 

XORIOO 

Zenith-Heath H89 

Zenith-Heath Z90 

Zenith Magnolia 

Zenith Z 100 

Zorba 

Zorba Z2000 

Zorba 

Zorba Z2000A 



Table 4. Formats available on Supercross/XT. 



40 • SO Micro, September 1985 



Circle 357 on Reader Servk:e card. 



The Perfect Host 

by Bennett Shulman 



You can put your Model 4 In host 
niode so that it accepts ASCII flies 
at rates of up to 2.4O0 baud by using 
Memdlsk. My examples use the Model 
100 or 1000 as the terminal, but the 
principles apply lo any computer with 
the proper terminal software. 

First, connect the two computers 
with an RS-232 cable and null modem 
adapter. Set the terminal computer's 
parameters using the following 
procedures: 

For the Model 100. enter Telcom and 
press the F3 key. Enter 67E 1 E after the 
STAT prompt. The "6" configures the 
100 for 2.400 baud, while the "yElE ■ 
sets it for 7-bit words at even parity. 1 
stop bit. and XON/XOFF protocol ena- 
bled. Now put the 100 in terminal mode. 

On the Model 1000. boot up Desk- 
Mate and enter Telecom. From the 
menu, choose 2.400 baud, 7-bit words, 
even parity, and 1 stop bit. Press the 
F7 key to save this configuration. Be 
sure to add the .LOG extension to the 
file name so you can hereafter call the 
parameters directly from DcskMatc's 
menu. Put the 1000 in terminal mode. 

Now you need to set up the 4 as a 
host. You normally tyf>e in LINK 'DO 
•CL and then LINK 'Kl 'CL at TRS- 
DOS Ready (DO stands for "device out- 
put." CL for "communications line." 
and Kl for "keyboard input"). Since 
TRSDOS lets you copy flies to devices 
and devices to flies, you should be able 
to copy 'CL to Flle/DAT:0 and upload 
from the terminal. Unfortunately, the 
Model 4 can't keep up the pace, even at 
300 Ijaud. The solution is Memdlsk. 

Using a word processor or the Build 
command, create the Job control lan- 
guage (JCL) file In the Program Listing. 
Name it Host/JCL. Reset your com- 
puter and. using the Do command, run 
the JCL file. When the file ends, you'll 
see the message "Job done" on both 
computers. Here's what Host/JCL docs: 

The System command begins to in- 
stall Memdisk as drive 2. "A" selects 
the top half of user memory to locate 
Memdisk. If you have I28K. you can 
replace the "A" with "B," "C." or "D." 
which will select bank 1. bank 2. or 
both. "D" selects double-density. "5" 
is the numljer of cylinders, which will 
be 4.5K each for a total of 22. 5K. "Y" 
tells the computer to format the disk. 

The Set command installs the forms 
filter program. 

The Forms command selects options 
in (he filter program. The computer 
sets a line width of 40 characters and 
sends a line feed with each carriage re- 
turn. This permits proper screen width 



and scrolling on the Model 100. For the 
1000, set the line length for 80 char- 
aclcrs, and eliminate the ADDLF op- 
tion. The next Set command installs 
the communications driver and links it 
to the RS-232 port. The SETCOM com- 
mand sets the baud rate to 2.400. 

The Filter command filters the RS- 
232 port output as set by the Forms 
command, and the two Link com- 
mands link the screen (DO) and key- 
board (HI) to the RS-232 port. 

Time to Upload 

Now follow these steps on your 
Model 100 or 1000: 

First, type in CREATE FILE/DAT:2 
(SIZE= 16), This creates an empty IGK 
file on your Model 4 Memdlsk- 

Type in COPY 'CL TO FILE/DAT:2. 
This opens File/DAT and copies the 'CL 
to it until you enter conlroi-C. The mes- 
sage "Copying 'CL to File/DAT:2" ap- 
pears on both screens when the Model 4 
is ready to receive. Don't use the Copy 
command's echo option: it will slow the 
transfer and possibly lose data. 

At this point, upload your data from 
the terminal, then press control-C. 

Now type In COPY FILE/DAT;2 ;1 on 
the terminal. This copies the files from 
Memdlsk to the disk In drive I . Finally, 
type In REMOVE FILE/DAT:2 to remove 
the file from Memdisk, 

When you first use this method, 
carefully check the files received. If 
they aren't exactly what you send, re- 
duce the baud rates on both computers 
until the flics arrive intact. ■ 

Write to Bennett Shulman at 1414 
W. Shiawassee St.. Lansing. MI 4891 5. 



I'rogram Listing. Host/JCL. 

SYSTEM (DRIVE=2,DHIVER="MEHDISK"} 

A 

D 

5 

Y 

SET *FP TO FOHMS/FLT 

FOBMb (CHARS'^49, ADDLF) 

SET *CL TO COM/DVR 

SETCOM (BAUD-240B) 

FILTER 'CL "FF 

LINK •IX) 'CL 

LINK *KI "CL 

//EXIT 



System Requirements 

Model 4 
64K RAM 

TRSDOS 6.x 



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80 Micro. September 1985 • 41 



is its ease of use. You don't need to worry 
about bufler controls. DOS commands, op- 
tional transfer protocols, or making selec- 
tions from extensive menus. All you do is 
set the sending computer and the receiv- 
ing computer to the same transfer param- 
eters and let the software do the rest. 

If you own a Model 100, 200. or 1000. 
you get a terminal program that lets you 
send and receive files directly or remotely. 
The 1 00 and 200 come with Term in ROM . 
while the lOOO's terminal program, called 
Telcom. is part of the DeskMate package. 
(DeskMate is also available for the Models 
1200 and 4.) With Term, you can directly 
transfer data at speeds ranging from 75 to 
19.200 baud. 

The Model 4 doesn't come with a ter- 
minal program, but the Disk System 
Owner's Manual tells you how to config- 
ure the RS-232 so you can use the 4 as a 
terminal. Pages 1-34 through 1-46 list the 
key combinations for direct connections 
to another computer and via a modem for 
telephone communications. The docu- 
mentation is. however, difficult to follow. 
Bennett Shulman's sidebar on page 41 
gives some simple instructions for using 
the direct method of data transfer at high 
speeds. 

If you're only going to send data directly 
through an RS-232. several packages are 
made specifically for that job. Good Soft- 
ware's Let's Talk, for instance, comes with 
disks formatted for the Model 111/4. IBM 
PC/Tandy 1000. Tandy 2000. and Model 
11/12/6000; moving information between 
any combination of these machines is a 
snap (see Table 3 for a list of manufactur- 
ers' addresses). 

File Transfer, from Personal Computer 
Products, is similar. In addition to PC/ 
1000 and II1/4 disks, it comes with a null 
modem adapter. 

Example No. 1 

V\\ take you through one of the situa- 
tions listed at the beginning of this article 
to demonstrate how direct transfer works. 

One of your employees (we'll name him 
Fred) uses a Model 4. while another (Louise) 
has a brand-new Tandy 1000. Fred has a 
VfsiCalc file that Louise wants to Integrate 
into a report she's writing with WordStar. 
Their desks are right next to each other and 
they both have RS 232 ports, so direct 
transfer is feasible. How do they go about 
getting the VisiCalc file from Freds 
TRSDOS disk to Louise's WordStar disk? 

First. Fred should save the spreadsheet 
using VislCalc's print file option with the 
PF command described in the VisiCalc 
manual. VisiCalc saves the print file in AS- 
CII format for transferring it via an RS-232 
cable or modem. 

Next. Louise plugs the null modem 
adapter into the RS-232 port of her 1000. 
(Fred could put it on his Model 4. but his 
RS-232 prorl is on the bottom of the ma- 
chine, so Louise's is easier to access. 
Newer 4s have the RS-232 more conve- 




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42 • ao Micro. September 1985 




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niently located at the back of the com- 
puter.) They then connect the two ma- 
chines' ports with an RS-232 cable. 

Radio Shack computers send asyn- 
chronous data through the RS-232 ports: 
that is, they permit gaps of varying length 
between the characters. The advantage of 
asynchronous transmission is that you 
don't have to send characters one right 
after another; you can send them as 
they're available, such as when you're 
pressing keys. 

Fred and Louise load and run Good Soft- 
ware's Let's T^lk on their machines. They 
conflgure their computers to transfer the 
Print file at 2,400 baud and instruct the soft- 
ware to prompt them before sending or re- 
ceiving any files. The RS-232 port in Radio 
Shack computers can send and receive 
asynchronous data at rates as slow as 75 
baud and as fast as 19,200 baud when 
you've got two computers directly con- 
nected. However, the maximum rate of 
data transfer using Let's T^lk Is 2,400 baud. 

It doesn't matter to Let's Talk whether 
Fred sends the file to Louise or Louise re- 
ceives it from Fred's 4. but for this exam- 
ple, we'll have Louise receive the file. 
Louise presses control-R on her Tandy 
1000 to Initiate the transfer. The software 
prompts her for the name of the file she 
wants to receive and for the name she 
wants to save it under on her Tandy 1 000. 
Once she does this, the program transfers 
the file and writes It directly to Louise's 
MS-DOS disk. 

When Let's Talk completes the transfer, 
it returns to its conversational mode and 
waits for instructions to transfer another 
file or to exit back to DOS. With the 
VislCalc file safely transferred, Louise can 
go on with her job of merging the new file 
with her WordStar document. In all. in- 
cluding the time it takes to hook up the 
two machines, the process should take no 
more than a few minutes. 

Remote File Transfer 

Remote file transfer means sending data 
over the telephone lines from one com- 
puter to another. You'll need an extra 
piece of hardware for remote transfer, a 
modem. The modem converts the digital 
data pulses transmitted from the RS-232 
port to tones the telephone line can han- 
dle. The receiving computer must also 
have a modem to convert the tones back 
to digital data. 

1 could easily get lost in a discussion of 
the different kinds of modems available. 
For our purposes, you need only know 
that the two basic types of modems are 
acoustic and direct-con nect. A direct-con- 
nect modem can be either Internal (as a 
card) or external. 

An acoustic modem (also called an acous- 
tic coupler) has a cradle for the telephone, 
while a direct-connect modem has a plug 
for your phone jack. Both connect to your 
computer via the RS-232 port, with one 
exception. An internal modem doesn't 

80 Micro, September 1985 • 43 



Circle SOB on Reader Servk;« card. 




need an RS 232. since Ifs attached di- 
rectly to your computer's Innards. 

Modem hardware continues to evolve. 
Three-hundred baud has been the standard 
transmission rate, but 1,200-baud modems 
have Improved significantly. Modems that 
transfer at 2.400 baud are becoming 
prominent as high-speed data transfer be- 
comes more important. For microcompu- 
ter enthusiasts. 300- or 1.200-baud com- 
munications is the most common. 

When you send data over phone lines, 
the computer receiving the call Is known 
£is the host. You must conflgure it to an- 
swer a call from the remote computer set 
up in the originate mode. 

You can use remote transfer to send 
data directly from one computer to an- 
other, or you can use the host as a way 
station— that Is. the host computer can 
hold data you want retrieved later by an- 
other remote computer. 

For Instance. 80 Micro's authors will 
sometimes upload files to CompuServe, 
and the editors will download the files at 
their convenience. 

As Is the case with direct data transfer, 
most remote data transfer requires that 
you put the Information in ASCII format. 
However, you do have an alternative: 
Xmodem (sometimes called Christensen. 
after its author Ward Christensen). This 
protocol lets you send compressed Basic 
nies. binary (/CMD) flies, and ASCII flies. 
It features a superior method of checking 
for errors during transmission. Xmodem 
is a public-domain program available on 
many electronic bulletin txiards and as a 
feature of many terminal programs, such 
as Mlcrolink II. 

As with direct transfer, you need soft- 
ware. You have a little more flexibility 
here, since most terminal packages let 
you access most host computers. 

If you own a Model III or use your 4 in 
III mode, you can pick from several pro- 
grams still on the market. These include 

44 • aO Micro. Scomber 1985 



SuperCross/XT-P/w5 

Now SUPPORTS 170 formats! 

Easily transfer files from the TRS-80™ 
TO MS-DOS™ OR CP/M™ AND back! 

See the 4-STAR Review in this issue*! 

80-MICRO summed ii up;'Jhe value of this program far exceeds its price... 

It you work wilti different computers, it's a must." 

' Newer, improved version has t>een shipping tor months. 

'Don't be cor^tused by competitors that are really BASIC translators 

with very limited transfer capabiiities! 

'Don't be strapped to a program that only support PC-DOS 1.0! 

'Make sure you don't get a stripped-down version of HyperCross! 

'Copy your files direct to YOUR version of DOS'! 

'SuperCross/XT and SuperCross/XT-Plus are the MOST powerful 

disk format file-transfer utilities available lor the TRS-801 

SuperCROSS/XT wM aHow you lo COPY files back and forth between cJinerenl ODeraijnfl systems. 
Up to 170o)!hefTi- inclurtina PC'MS-DOS l.x.2-x/3,x (single or double-sided). CP'Mt, or CP'W 2.2 
on youf TRS-eO™ Model 4/4P. III. or l/DD. You can do inis wiin your existng hardware and 
SuperCROSS/XT. eliminating mooems, cables, and lermmal program Iranslers. SuperCROSSOCT 
runs as a /CMD file under your TRS 80 operating sysiem . Data Iiles, spreadsheet tiles, and text 
files can also be usefully moved between machines, like years ot Visicalc™ tiles, business 
letters, legal drafts, or medical records, tor example. 

Comments and letters on-fiie trom registered users are unusually entriustiastic about this product 
and its ease of use. It WILL do what you think it will do. its easy, and it WORKS GREAT! New 
features in SuoerCROSS/XT include 'taaflina' files tor multiple COPY'S or KILL'S to eliminate 
man^ unnecessary keystrokes! 

Some unsolicited customer comments from our registration cards... 

'Powerful & easy to use' - GFP, Chicago IL 

'A very handy product worth much more than the price. '- KA, Port St Lude FL 

"Superb pnsductr - JF. Calgary Canada 

"Excellent producil Works as advertised. ' - GF, Boise ID 

'Really worfis well. " - RK, Monmouth OR 

"Works! Rejoice! I can now talk to PC's!" ■ ON, Sanaloga PA 

'I love SuperCross! i love PowerSoft'!" - TAG, Gadsden AL 

'Excellent. No problems at all. ' - RH. Santo l>>mineo Dominican Republic 

"Super! it performs the task i needed done. ' ■ 7T, Rockville MD 

'Fantastic! I transferred my files within 1 hour!" - PJS. Rolla t\AO 

'LOVE ITr ■ Col. CDL. APO San Fransisco CA 

"Doc is straightforward & understandable- Solves my problem. ' - DG, C.Chase. MD 

Top Notch! Works forme.' DB. Lancaster PA 

"Great product as usual. ' - CL, Laurel MD 

'Will save 100's of hours' It'll protect my 4P from obsolesence'-RJ, Denver CO 

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"Program woriis very well. I like it!' - MDM. Rochester. NY 

'Superb. Easy to understand documentation. " - RES, St. Louis. MO 

CNVBASIC-'CMD, available sepe^atety. "preps" your BASIC programs before sending over witti 
SuperCROSS'XT. It will make most of the syntax and spacing changes required for converting 
fvlodel l/lll BASIC programs for use on MS BASIC. CP'M BASIC, or fvtodel d BASIC. Complex or 
commercial business packages written in BASIC probably wiH not convert 100% over by our or any 
other BASIC translator. So why put the bulk of your money into a translator when what you 
REALLY need is a great disk format FILE-TRANSFER utility? 

■Som« of lh« DOS Formata Supporled: PC/US DOS variations indud« 1 x, 2.X/3.X tingle tx (toubl»-s>ded 

(l8M arxJ rrxisl comtwubies). am) Tandy 2CXM, CP/M varalons mciuda mos! well krxwn singfe and Oouble-sided 
formal s I rx:ludinQ TCP/M 3.0*, Monlezuma Wco 2.2 laffvo^ons). HoItws and ud lo 160 or^ef? includino ALTOS, 
CROMEMCO DEC EAGlF, EPSON, HP 126.CP/W 86. KAvpflO. LIVW-SO. MAX-80. UORROW.NEC.OraORNE. 
OTRONA, SANVO. SUPEflBRAiN, TELETEK. TELEVIDEO. TRS-SO LIFEBOAT/I, OMIKqON;i. HOLMES'S. 
HURRICANE COMPAQ TEfV3. SHUFFLE BOftflDO. XEROX. ZENfTH-HEATH. & 8" SanOard CP/W 

Important! Please specify Mod l/DD, 111, AMP, or Max-80 computer type required. 

SuperCross/XT (70 disk formats)* $ 99.95 

CNVBASIC/CMD alone $ 29.95 

'BOTH! • COMBO Special! $119.95' 

SuperCross/XT-PLL/S (170 disk (ormats) $129.95 

'BOTH! • SuperCross/XT PLUS Combo Special! $149.95' 
'includes CNVBASIC/CMD 

* SuperCross/XT is also available from Expreas-Order-Software at all Radio Shack^ 
Computer Centers or any other Radio Shack™ store - as well as from us or any of our dealers. 

• Order infurmation on next page. Thank you. • 



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Omniterm from Lindbergh Systems, Mi- 
croterm from Micro-Systems Software, 
and Radio Shack's Videotex. Model 4 own- 
ers can choose, in addition to Model 4 ver- 
sions of the above. Microlink II from B.T, 
Enterprises. Many public-domain BBSes 
also cany simple terminal programs, as 
do publications like 80 Micro (see Related 
Articles at the end of this article). 

Most terminal software is functionally 
the same; some packages allow more 
buffer space for transferring files, some let 
you perform DOS commands while on- 
line with a host computer, and some sup- 
port transfer protocols other than ASCII, 
The best way to get the most out of a ter- 
minal package is to define exactly what 
you will be doing with it and then find the 
program that meets those needs. 

Another Example 

Time for another case study. John and 
his Model 4 live in Duluth, while Peter has 
a Model 2000 in Miami. I^ter has a simple 
data encryption program written In Basic 
that he would like to send John. How do 
they go about transferring the program? 

The software John has for his Model 4 Is 
B.T. Enterprises" Microlink II, while Peter 
runs Radio Shack's Videotex Plus. Since 
Videotex Plus does not support Xmodem 
transfer. Peter will have to send It in ASCII. 
The first step for him is to save the encryp- 
tion program in ASCII format using the 
SAVE "FILE NAME"",A command. 

John and Peter then load and run their 
terminal programs and set them to the 
same baud rates and word lengths. Ei- 
ther can act as the calling, or remote, 
computer while the other plays host, but 
for this example, let's set up Peter's as 
the hcMt system. 

As the remote system . John must set up 
his modem in the originate mode, while 
Peter's system must be in the answer 
mode. These two configurations work au- 
tomatically in smart modems or you set 
them with dual in-line package (DIP) 
switches inside each modem, 

John then calls Peter's computer. After 
they make the connection, they can con- 
verse via the keyboard while they're in ter- 
minal modes. To transfer the ASCn flic. 
Peter first loads it into Videotex's capture 
buffer while John opens his buffer and 
waits for the file. When Peter loads the file, 
he sends the contents of the buffer over 
the phone, where it enters the buffer on 
John's machine. 

John closes his capture buffer and saves 
it to a disk file, types in "Goodbye." and 
exits the terminal program. With the AS- 
CII file now on his disk. John can look at 
it with a word processor to delete any mis- 
cellaneous characters caused by static on 
the phone line, and save the clean file. 

In Bask:. John can load and run the ASCII 
file. Bask; will convert the ASCII to com- 
pressed Basic and run it as usual, but to 
save time in the future you should save the 
file again in Its compressed format. This 

BO MCTD, September 1985 • 45 



Cir(,lt.' 282 on Headc Sfifvice Card 




way, Basic won't have to convert the ASCII 
file every time John runs the program. 

Software Solutions 

Some companies have taken a software 
approach to file transfer: Their products 
iel your computer read data from an alien 
disk (one written by another computer) 
and move that data to its own disks or 
write a file to disk that a different com- 
puter can read. Powersoft's Supcrcross/ 
XT and Tandy's PC Maker are two such 
products. 

Supercross/XT Is Powersoft's version of 
Hyperaoft's Hypcrcross. It lets you trans- 
fer files to and from disks in a variety of 
formats. Including MS-DOS. CP/M, and 
the various 1/III/4 DOSes (sec T^ble 4 for a 
complete list of I/III/4 formats). It also lets 
you format a disk that another computer 
can read. For example, with Supercross/ 
XT in drive zero of your Mode) 4, you can 
format an MS-DOS disk in drive 1 , transfer 
TRSDOS 6.X.X files to the MS-DOS disk, 
and then read the MS-DOS disk on a PC or 
PC-compati ble . 

PC Maker is TSmdy's attempt to make 
the Tandy 2000 more IBM PC-compaUblc 
by providing an intermediate disk format 
that lets the 2000 write flies that both ma- 
chines can read. Normally, the Tandy 
2000 can read flies from PC disks, but 
since the 2000 uses 80-track. quad-den- 
sity disks, any flies you write to a PC disk 
that you might want to read with the 40- 
track. double-density PC drives won't 
load. Asa tiand-aid approach to the 2000's 
Incompatibility problem with the PC. PC 
Maker Is only a partial solution. 

Example No. 3 

Here's an example of how you use Su- 
percross/XT to solve our remaining prob- 
lem. Diane uses Scrlpslt on her trusty 
Model 111 at home to write reports that she 
distributes on her company's e-mail sys- 
tem, which runs on a Tandy 1200HD. Nel- 

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ther her Model III nor the Tandy 1200 can 
read the other's disks, so she uses Super- 
cross to write the file on an MS-DOS disk. 

First she boots her Scrlpsit disk with the 
report and Supercross on it in drive zero 
and puts the MS-DOS disk in drive 1. She 
runs SX3/CMD (the Supercross program) 
and configures it for the Model III format 
her system disk uses. 

On the first page of the list of disk for- 
mats Supercross supports, she finds 
choice ID. which is the MS-DOS 2.0 dou- 
ble-sided, double-density format used by 
the Tandy 1200. She enters ID and the 
screen changes to another menu from 
which she can pick what she wants to do 
with the alien disk. Pressing the T key 
transfers a file from a TRS-80 disk to an 
alien disk. 

After Diane presses the T key, the pro- 
gram asks which file she wants to transfer. 
She enters the file name. Then Supercross 
asks if she wants an ASCII or image trans- 
fer. Image transfers are sometimes a little 
quicker than ASCII transfers because they 
copy data sector by sector. For this exercise, 
though. Diane chooses the ASCII transfer. 

Supercross then reads the file from the 
TRS-80 disk and writes It directly to the 
MS-DOS disk. It takes no more time than 
TRSDOS 1.3's Copy command. Once she 
has transferred the file, she goes to work, 
puts the MS-DOS disk in the 1200. and 
submits it to the e-mail system. The whole 
process takes very little time and is the 
most direct method of moving informa- 
tion from one computer to another with- 
out using the RS-232 port. 

Now What? 

So you've finally figured out how to 
move files between machines quickly and 
easily. Now you face two additional l>ar- 
riers: how to convert programs written 
with other Basics so they'll run properly, 
and how to massage data files so the pro- 
gram you want to process them can do so. 
We'll tackle these problems next month. ■ 

Bradford N. Dixon is a technical editor 
on the 80 Micro staff. 



Related AitldeB 

Balonls. Ronald. "Pin Pals," February 
1984, p. 194. Make a null modem cable. 

Fischer, David M., "Smart Talk." May 
1984. p. 50. Debugs: October 1984. p. 32; 
February 1985, p. 33. DynaTerm. a smart 
terminal program for the Models I and 01. 

McGarvey. Richard C, "Basic Communi- 
cation." June/July 1982. p. 324. Basic ter- 
minal program for the Model I. 

Means, Jack. "Croasdos." October 1981. 
p. 288. Utility to copy Model I TRStXS flics 
to CP/M. 

l^yne. Douglas. "Talk to the Big Guys." 
September 1983. p. 230. Debug. December 
1983. p. 20. Using the Model UI as a dumb 
terminal to access mainframes. 



80 Micro, September 1985 • 47 




48* 80 Micro. September 1985 



Add zip to your Basic programs 
with these utilitarian maciiine-ianguage routines. 




ost computer programs perform 
three tasks: get data, manipulate 
that data, and then put the data some- 
where. Basic, though sometimes slow, 
has enough power to do most tasks and, 
with Its Print Using command, it's better 
at displaying information than many 
other languages. 

However, Basic's Input and screen-han- 
dling commands often leave much to be 
desired, especially if you're writing large 
application programs. Some functions 
that would be useful in simplifying data 
input for a user are either difficult or im- 
possible to write in Basic. 

To simplify my own programming, I've 
written a number of machine-language 
subroutines that I merge into my Basic pro- 
grams. You'll find lOof them for the Model 
4 in Program Listing 1 , along with a dem- 
onstration of how the routines work. Pro- 
gram Listing 2 shows the same routines for 
the Model lU. The only differences in the 
demonstration portion of the listings are 
due to the differences in the Models III and 
4 Basics and their screen sizes. 

I've adopted several conventions that 
make these routines easy to use. The ini- 
tialization routines, which run once at the 
beginning of a program, always start at 
line 61000: 1 call the subroutines with GO- 
SUBs to lines between 60000 and 60999; 
and 1 reserve all variables beginning with 
the letter Q for these routines. 

The final convention Is perhaps the 
most Important. Since Basic does not use 
local variables except In user-defined 
functions, you must avoid variable con- 
flicts in a program. The 40-character vari- 
ables Model 4 Basic allows help avoid 
conflicts, but I've found that reserving a 
whole class of variables names for library 
subroutines speeds up my programming 
substantially. I can merge these routines 
into a program without worrying about 
accidentally altering variables that are im- 
portant in other parts of the program. 

The Routines 

Basic's Input and Line Input commands 
exhibit a major weakness: You can't con- 
trol the number of characters you're al- 
lowed to type in, even though programs 
often must define maximum lengths for 
various data fields. 

My first routine overcomes this problem 
by displaying an input Held and restricting 
input to a given number of characters. Be- 
fore you call the routine, you must print any 
necessary prompts on the screen and posi- 



tion the cursor to the start of the input area. 
Your program then loads the maximum 
size of the input field into the variable Q% 
and calls the routine at line 60 100. The pro- 
gram automatically displays the Input 
field and accepts all normal keyboard in- 
put, as long as you don't try to type be- 
yond the end of the field. When you press 
the enter key. the input goes back to the 
program in the variable Q$. 

You'fi find the next two subroutines use- 
ful for standardizing input in a form that 
a program can easily handle. The routine 
at 60200 strips any trailing blanks from a 
string so you can work with Its true 
length. And the routine at 60300 converts 
a string's lowercase characters to upper- 
case. Though you could write these sub- 
routines entirely In Basic, they would 
require more programming space and 
more execution time. 

I wrote the fourth and fifth routines to 
give Model 4 Basic two Model III functions. 
The fourth protects up to seven lines at 
the top of the screen from scrolling. In 
Model III Basic, you can protect the top of 
the screen with a simple POKE; because 
the Model 4 has no set addresses, you 
must use a short machine-language rou- 
tine that communicates with the operat- 
ing system via a supervisory call. 

The fifth routine sets, resets, or tests the 
current state of the Caps Lock key. In the 
Model III, tm entire byte holds the state of 
that key; the Model 4 uses a single bit of 
one of the flag bytes to show whether the 
machine will translate lowercase input to 
uppercase. You must use a supervisory 
call in machine language to find that byte. 

The next four routines give you com- 
plete control over data entry. Routine 6 Is 
a simple full-screen editor that lets you 
move the cursor around the screen at will 
and type in anything anywhere. 

Before you call the full-screen editor, 
you can print any messages and prompts 
you want and set the cursor anywhere on 
the screen. Then you pass control of the 
screen to the keyboard by calling the sub- 
routine. While the editor is running, most 
keys operate normally. If, however, you 
press the shift and arrow keys, you can 
move the cursor without erasing. To move 
down on the Model III, you have to press 
the shift/down-arrow/Z keys. To leave the 
editor and return to Basic, press the clear 
key on the Model III or the shift and clear 
keys on the Model 4. 

The full-screen input editor will not let 
you scroll off" the bottom of the screen with 



the shift and down-arrow keys but it will 
let you type off the bottom. The machine- 
language routine would have to be much 
longer to prevent that from happening. 
However. I've found that this routine 
works well for everyone except those In- 
tent on trying to bomb programs. 

Once a program gets some data, it must 
have some way to copy that information 
into a string to process it. The seventh sub- 
routine does just that. The Model III version 
is fast; it operates by pointing a string at a 
line of the screen and then copying every- 
thing in that line to a new string. 

The Model 4 video display Is not nor- 
mally in addressable memory. Therefore, 
the Model 4 Line Copy routine uses one of 
the supervisory calls and copies the 
screen row to a string 1 byte at a time. 
Though noticeably slower than the Model 
III routine, the Model 4 version can still 
copy the entire screen to 24 strings in 
slightly over a second, which should be 
fast enough for most applications. 

Sometimes you'll want to copy a single 
line from the screen to a string. At other 
times, you might need to copy the entire 
screen to an array of strings. Routines 8 and 
9. written entirely in Basic, use the Screen 
Copy utility to copy the entire screen. 
Your program can capture everything you 
type on the screen and then manipulate 
that Information as necessary. The final 
routine, which appears only in Program 
Listings 2 and 4, takes advantage of the 
Model 4 In the Model III mode. If you try 
to use it on a standard Model III, nothing 
happens. If you try it on a 4 In 4 mode, 
you'll be faced with certain catastrophe. 

The Model 4 has 2K bytes of video mem- 
ory. However, it uses only half that for the 
Model III mode's 16-column by 64-char- 
acter display. The other half generally sits 
unused. This routine lets you switch be- 
tween two video pages. 

When you do so, the cursor moves to the 
second page, although its position is the 
same. When you switch a screen out of 
view, its information hides from the rest of 
the system until you call It back. 

I've used this second page to display a 



System Requirements 

Models m and 4 
Disk Basic 



80 Micro. SeptBmber 1985 « 49 



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50 • SO Micro. September 1985 



help screen of a previous version of data 
that has been edited. 

The Listings 

I wrote the programs in Listings 1 and 2 
in a style I often use. Even though each 
Basic Hne has several commands, no pro- 
gram line has more than one, and all loops 
have consistent indenting. Programs like 
these are easier to debug than those with 
several commands squeezed together. 
However, once you've debugged a pro- 
gram, you might want to remove extra 
spaces. 

You might wonder why the Model 4 sub- 
routines never use element zero of any ar- 
ray. I often use the Option Base command 
in Model 4 Basic programs to make arrays 
begin at 1 instead of zero. By completely 
Ignoring the zero element of each array, 
these subroutines are compatible with all 
Basic programs whether they use Option 
Base or not. 

Program Listings 3 and 4 provide the 
Assembly-language source code for the 
subroutines. Although the Model III and 4 
Basic listings look almost Identical, the 
real work done at the machine-language 
level is quite different. 

By studying the differences between the 
Models III and 4 versions of the source 
code, you can learn a great deal about the 
peculiarities of each machine. Notice, in 
particular, that the Model 4 version has no 



Call instructions to outside routines. 
Since the Model 4 is completely RAM- 
based, I can't guarantee that routines will 
be In a specific location in difTerent ver- 
sions of TRSDOS. However, Logical Sys- 
tems has guaranteed that the supervisor>' 
calls will stay the same in all versions of 
TRSDOS 6.x, so most programs interact 
with the DOS only through the SVCs. 

You can link a machine- language sub- 
routine to Basic in many ways. The 
method I've used here — loading each rou- 
tine into an integer array— is one of the 
most flexible and easiest to use once 
you've converted each routine to Its inte- 
ger equivalents. You can make that con- 
version by hand, of course, but it's easier 
to let the computer do It for you if you fol- 
low these steps. 

First, write and assemble your routine 
with an origin near the top of memory. 
From DOS, clear memory, then protect 
high memory and load the assembled rou- 
tine. Enter Basic and invoke your routine 
with an appropriate USR or Call instruc- 
tion to debug it. Once you're sure you've 
thoroughly debugged the program, you 
can convert It to integer form. 

You must know the beginning and end- 
ing addresses of the routine in high mem- 
ory. Run Program Listing 5, and the 
integer equivalents of your program will 
appear on your screen or printer. If you 
cleared memory before you started, you 



can ignore any trailing zeros in your list of 
integers. Finally, write a short installation 
routine in your Basic program that will 
read those integers into an array, and 
you're all set. 

If you keep disk files of routine libraries, 
write these so that their line numbers 
don't conflict. You'll soon be able to write 
programs as a simple series of calls to bug- 
free routines. ■ 

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80 Micro, Septemtier 1985 • 51 



Program LisUng 1. Model 4 subroutines and 
demonstration program. 



1* 



Model 4 Subroutines 



20 GOSUB GlBSfl 'Initializt 

30 CLSt PRINT 'MENU of DSBOs't PRINT 

41 PRINT * 1. Formatted input* 

S0 PRINT ■ 2. Strip blanks' 

60 PRINT * 3. Convert to upper case' 

70 PRINT ■ 4. Capa-locK utility" 

B0 PRINT ■ 5. Scroll protect" 

90 PRINT " 6. Full screen input" 

100 PRINT ■ 7. Capture acreen-cow in string" 

110 PRINT • 8. Full Bcre«n capture (1)" 

120 PRINT ' 9. Pull screen capture (2)" 

130 PRINT ' 0. End Deno' 

140 PRINT) PRINT "cboice"> "i 

150 A5-INPUTS11)! A - VAL(AS)i IP A<0 OR A>9 THEN 

QOTO 150 ELSE IF A =■ THEN CLSi END 
160 ON A GOSUB 180,220,260,290,360,410,470*520,5701 

GOTO 30 
170 • 
180 CLSi PRINT "Formatted Input "t INPUT 'How many 

characters to input (1 - 2S4)*tQ« 
190 IP Q%<1 OR Ql>254 THEN GOTO 180 ELSE PRINT 

'Input your 8tring"> 'i:GOSUB 69100 
200 PRINTi PRINT "Your string «> "lOSi A$-INPUTS(1) i 

RETURN 
210 ■ 
220 CLSt PRINT"Strip strings") INPUT "Length of text" 

(Ati INPUT "Number of blanks'iBt 
230 OS - STRINGS{A%,"»") + STRINGS(B%," ") ) PRINT QSl 

" Length>*)LEN(Q$) t GOSUB 60200 
240 PRINT Q5( 'Length-"! LD)(QSlt A5-IHPnT$(l) iRETURN 
250 ■ 
260 CLSt PRINT "Convert case'i PRINT 'type in string 

"> "iiLINE INPUT OS 
270 PRINT 0$t GOSUB 60300: PRINT QSi A$-INPUT$(1] i 

RETURN 
280 ■ 

290 CLSi PRINT" Caps lock utility* 
300 QX - 01 GOSUB 60400) PRINT "Caps lock Is nov off 

[type someEhing) '): LINE INPUT Q 5 
310 0% - li GOSUB 60400) PRINT "Caps lock is now on 

(type something) 'tt LINE INPUT Q$ 
320 PRINT) PRINT'Set caps lock however you wish and 

type soaething "m LINE INPUT 0$ 
330 Q\ - 2t GOSUB 604001 IP Q% THEN PRINT "Caps lock 

on" ELSE PRINT "Caps lock off" 
340 AS - INPUTSd)) RETURN 
350 ' 

360 CLS: PRINT "Scroll Protect' 
370 FOR II - 1 TO 5) INPUT "• of lines to pcoteot'iQ* 

iGOSUB 60500 
380 CLS) FOR J% - 1 TO 30t PRINT Jl ) NEXT Jt ) FOR Jt 

- 1 TO 30) PRINT) NEXT J% ) NEXT 1% 
390 A$-INPUTS(1) I QI^Oi GOSUB 605001 CLS) PRINT 'Done 

with scroll protect") AS-Input$<1) s RETURN 
400 ■ 

410 CLS: PRINT "Full Screen Input" 
420 PRINT "<shi£t> -•■ arrows will move the cursor, 

<Shif t><Cle«r> to end" 
430 GOSUB 60600 

440 PRINT « (23,33), "Done with that"r 
450 A$-INPUTS(1) : RETURN 
460 ■ 
470 CLS) PRINT"Capture screen row in a string — fill 

screen with whatever you wish' 
480 PRINT "Press <Shift><Clear> to end") GOSUB 60600 
490 FOR It'=2 TO 23> PRINT 9 (It,0),I%i" "i: NEXT It) 

PRINT (0,0) ,STRING5(79,' ') ) PRINT 8 (0,2), 

'Which row to capture?';) LINE INPUT A5)A>VAL(A$] 
500 IF A < 2 OR A > 23 THEN GOTO 490 ELSE Ql =■ Ai 

GOSUB 60700: CLS: PRINT 0$: A$-IKPUT$(1) : RETURN 
510 • 
520 CLSt PRINT 'Full screen capture (1 — each line 

saved in an 80-character string' 
530 PRINT "Type whatever you want then press 

<Shift><Clear>")GOSUB 60600 
540 GOSUB 60800) CLSi PRINT "Press a key to see tbt 

captured screen";: A9-INPUT$(1) 
550 Q$(24)-LEFT$(Q$(24) ,79) ) CLSi FOR I%-1 TO 24l 

PRINT QS(It) It NEXT It: A$ - INPUT9(l)l RETURN 
560 ■ 
570 CLSi PRINT 'Full screen capture #2 — trailing 

spaces stripped from lines' 
SSO PRINT 'Type whatever you want then press 

<Shi£t><Clear>") GOSUB 60600 
590 GOSUB 60900: CLS: PRINT "Press a key to see the 

captured screen'; i AS'INPUTS(l) 
600 CLS) FOR 1% - 1 TO 23l PRINT Q$(I))t NEXT lit 

PRINT Q$(24);i A9 - INPUT$(l)t RETURN 
610 ■ 

60000 ' Model 4 version — Data handling subroutines 
Be sure to initialize routines with GOSUB 61000 
before use 
61198 ' Formatted input — shows input field with 
*.' characters and restricts number of 
characters user can enter. Calling sequence) 
Ql = number of characters allowed (1 - 254) 
GOSUB 60100 



60099 
60100 



60101 
60199 



60300 
60201 
60299 



60300 
60301 
60397 



60398 



60399 

60400 

60401 
60499 



60500 
60501 

60599 



60600 
60601 
606 99 



' Input string returned in QS 
IF QKl OR Ot>2S4 TBEN RETURN ELSE Q$-STRING$ 
(01+1,32)1 Q»-VARPTR(QS) ) Q1»-VARPTR{Q1»(1)) ) 
CALL Ql% (Q%)i RETURN 

' Strip blanks from end of a string 
Calling sequence! QS > string to strip 
GOSUB 60200 String returned in QS 
DEP USR9 - VARPTR<Q2«(1)} t QS-U6R9(QS]) RETURN 

' Convert lowercase characters in a string to 
uppercase Calling sequence: Q$ > string to 

convert GOSUB 60300 String returned in QS 
DEP U5R9 - VARPTR<03%<1)) : QS-USR9(Q$): RETURN 
I 

' CAPS-Lock utility: turn CAPS on or off, or 

test present condition Calling sequence: Ql - 

function request (0 - turn CAPS off 1 ■ turn 

CAPS on 

' 2 - test present state) GOSUB 60400 

If test function is chosen then Ql returns 

present state of CAPSi 

■ if CAPS are on, Ql - -1 (true) 

if CAPS are off, Q| - (false) 

Qlt - VARPTR(Q4I(1)) : CALL Ql% (Ql) : RETURN 
■ 

' Scroll protect — protects 0-7 lines at 
top of screen froB scrolling (but not from CLS) 
Calling sequence: Q% ■ number of lines to 
protect GOSUB 60500 
DEP USR9 - VARPTR[Q5l(l)) : QI-USR9(QI): RETURN 

'Pull screen input user can freely move 

around screen and enter input anywhere 
<Sbift> + arrow moves cursor non-destructively 
Calling sequence: GOSUB 60600 

DEF U8R9 - VARPTR(Q6I(1)) : Qt-USR9(e)i RETURN 



' Copy screen row to a string 

Calling sequence: Ql - row of screen to copy 

(0 - 23) GOSUB 60700 String returned in Q$ 

60700 Q$-STRINGS(80,32) t Q1%-VARPTR(Q$} i 02%-VARPTR 
(Q7%(1)); CALL Q2I(Q1I,Q«) I RETURN 

60701 ■ 

60799 ' Full screen capture — Capture all screen 
characters in array Each string returned is 80 
characters long. Calling sequence: GOSUB 60800 
Screen returned in Q$(l) through QS(24) 

60800 FOR QI-0 TO 23 :GOSUB 60700)0$ (QI+1) -QSeNEXT 0%' 
RETURN 

60801 ' 

60899 ' Full screen capture as above — each string 
in QSO array is stripped of trailing blanks 
Calling sequencei GOSUB 60900 Screen returned 
in QSd) through Q$(24) 

60900 FOR QI-0 TO 23: GOSUB 607001 GOSUB 602001 
QS(QI+1)-QS: NEXT Qli RETURN 

60981 ' 

61000 ' Initialization for Model 4 subroutines 
GOSUB 61000 once at beginning of program 

61100 ' Routine 1 — Formatted input 

61101 DATA 9086, 28518, 18149, 32291, 26147, 1391, 
-14907, 11790, 574, 4335, -15877, 6158, 574, 
4335, -15877, 2366, 14575, 8197, 30723, 536, 
62, 30689. 201 

61102 DIM 011(23): RESTORE 61101: FOR Qt-l TO 23: 
READ Qll(QI) I NEXT Q% 

61103 ■ 

61200 ' Routine 2 — Strip blanks from string 

61201 DATA -S163, 9038, 9086, 28518, 6, 11017, -386, 
8224, 11012, 8205, -7689, -13967 

61202 DIM Q2l(12)t FOR QI-1 TO 12i READ Q2%(0%)t 
NEXT Ql 

61203 ■ 

61300 ' Routine 3 — Convert to upper case 

61301 DATA 18155, 32291, 26147, 32367, 25086, 1848, 
31742, 816, 24550, 9079, -3824, 201 

61302 DIM Q3l{12): FOR Ql-l TO 12: READ 03%(0I)) 
NEXT 01 

61303 ■ 
61400 
61401 



' Routine 4 — Caps lock utility 

DATA 25918, 32495, 470, 32509, 14346, 10253, 
-13553, 15983, 10240, 15617, 9079, -13961, 
-20533, 536, -4149, 30717, -14070 
61402 DIM 04* (17): FOR 01-1 TO 17: READ Q4l(QI)i 
NEXT Ql 



61403 
61500 
61501 
61502 
61503 
61600 
61601 



' Routine 5 — Scroll protect 

DATA 1614, 15879, -4337, 201 

DIM Q5%(4): FOR Ql-l TO 4) READ 05t(0%):NEXT Ql 



' Routine 6 — Full Screen input 

DATA 318, 8431, -261, -14305, 6910, 3104, 1631, 

15876, -4337, -388, 31511, -6104, 15951, -4350, 

-7656 

61602 DIM Q6I(15): FOR Qt-l TO 15) READ Q6%(QI)i 
NEXT Q% 

61603 ' 

61700 ' Routine 7 — Screen to string utility 

61701 DATA 9086, 28518, 9030, 9086, 28518, 26347, 46, 
-10811, 262, 3902, -11793, 4882, -16084, -3568, 
201 

61702 DIM 071(15): FOR Q*-l TO IS) READ 071(0%) ■ 

Ltsttng 1 conttnued 



52 • BO Micro. September 1985 



Citcte &34 o" Resdei Seivtce csra 



Ltsting 1 continued 

NEXT Q% 
61783 • 

61B00 ' Create space for necessary vailablea: 

61B01 Qlt-et Q2I-0I DIM 0$(24)i RETURN 



End 



100 PRINT 
lla PRINT 
120 PRINT 
130 PRINT 
140 PRINT 
150 PRINT 
160 PRINT 



Program Listing 2. Model III subroutines and 
demonstration program. 

10 ' Nodal 3 SubcoutlMS 

20 ■ 

30 CLEAR 2000 

40 GOSUB 61000 'Initialize 

5B CLSt PRINT 'MENU of Demoe"! PRINT 

60 PRINT ■ 1. Formatted input" 

7B PRINT ■ 2. Strip blanks* 

80 PRINT ■ 3. Convert to uppercase" 

90 PRINT ■ 4. Capa-lock utility" 

' 5. Scroll protect' 

' 6. Full screen input* 

' 7. Capture screen cow " 

' 8. Full screen capture (1}* 

' 9, Pull screen capture (2)" 

' 0. Screen swap" 

' X. End Deno* 
170 PRINTi PRINT "choice"> "j 
1B0 GOSUB 200: IF INSTRC'Xx'.AS) THEN CLSi END ELSE A 

-VU(A$): IP A-0 AND A$<> "0" THEN GOTO 180 
190 OH A+1 GOSUB 660, 220, 260, 300, 330, 410, 4SB, 

510, 560, 610: GOTO50 
200 AS-INKEYSt IF AS-"" THEN 200 ELSE RETURN 
210 ■ 
228 CLSi PRINT "Formatted input "i INPUT "How nony 

chaiacteis to input (1 - 254) "iO% 
230 IF Q%<1 OR Q»>254 THEN GOTO 220 ELSE PRINT'Input 

your string — > "j: GOSUB 60100 
240 PRINTi PRINT "Your string »> ')0$e GOSUB 200: 

RETURN 
250 • 
260 CLSi PRINT"St[ip strings"i INPUT "Length of 

text"iA%i INPUT "Number of blanks'rB% 
270 QS = STRINGS{A»,"#"1 + STRIKGS(B%," ") l PRINT 

0$;' Length-"! LEN{Q$)i GOSUB 60200 
280 PRINT QSj" Length-";LEN(QS}i GOSUB 200: RETURN 
290 ■ 

319 CLSt PRINT "Convert case": PRIHT'type in string 
"> "|i LINE INPUT 05 

310 PRINT OS: GOSUB 60300: PRINT QS: GOSUB 2|gi 
RETURN 

320 ' 

330 CLSi PRINT* Caps lock utility" 

341 0% - 01 GOSUB 604001 PRINT "Caps lock is now off 

{type some thing] 'n LINE INPUT QS 
350 Q% - li GOSUB 60400: PRINT "Caps lock is now on 

(type sone thing] "m LINE INPUT QS 
360 PRINTi PRINT "Set caps lock however you wish 

and type soae thing '| iLINE INPUT Q$ 
370 Q\ - 2i GOSUB 604001 IF Q% TEEN PRINT "Cape lock 

on" ELSE PRIMT "Caps lock Off* 
380 GOSUB 2001 RETURN 
390 ' 

400 CLSi PRINT 'Scroll Protect" 
410 FOR I\ - 1 TO 5i INPUT "I of lines to 

protect"iQ«i CLSi GOSUB 60500 
420 FOR J% - 1 TO 301 PRINT J%l KEXT J»l FOR J% - 1 

TO 30: PRINT : NEXT Jt : NEXT 14 
430 GOSUB 200: Q%-0i GOSUB 605001 CLSi PRINT "Done 

with scroll protect": GOSUB 200i RETURN 
440 ' 
450 CLSi PRINT "Full Screen Input. <Shift> -•- Arrow 

moves the cursor" 
460 PRINT '<shift><Down A[row><z> moves down <Clea[> 

to end" 
470 GOSUB 60600 

400 PRINT e (985), 'Done with that") 
490 GOSUB 200: RETURN 
500 • 
510 CLSi PRlHT"Capture screen row — fill screen with 

whatever you wish" 
520 PRINT "Press <Clear> to end't GOSUB 60600 
530 FOR It-2 TO ISi PRINT 9 (1**64) , It t : NEXT It: 

PRINT e [0], STRINGS(63,' "]iPRINT 9 (2), "Which 

cow to capture?") 1 LINE INPUT A5i A - VAL(AS) 
540 IF A < 2 OR A > 23 THEN GOTO 420 ELSE Qt - Al 

GOSUB 607001 CLSi PRINT OSi GOSUB 200t RETURN 
550 • 
560 CLSi PRINT 'Full screen capture tl — saved in 

64-character strings" 
570 PRINT"Type whatever you want then press 

<Clear>":GOSUB60600 
580 GOSUB 60800:CLSiPRINT'PceBe a key to see the 

captured screen']: GOSUB 200 
590 05(15)-LEPT$(QS(151 ,63) I CLS: FOR H=0 TO 15i 

PRINT QS(It}l! NEXT It: GOSUB 20Bl RETURM 
600 ■ 
61B CLSiPRINT'Full screen capture 12 — trailing 

spaces stripped fconi lines* 
620 PRINT'Type whatever you want then press 

<Cl«aE>'(GOSUB6060B 



iJnlinq 2 ciintlniH-d 



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Listing 2 continued 

638 GOSOB 6S9Bfl] CLSiPRiNT 'PceBS a key to eee the 

captured screen'} i GOSUB 200 
640 CLS: FOR 1% - TO 14t PRINT Q$(I%] : NEXT It: 

PRINT 0$(15]ti GOSOB 200t RETDRN 
650 ' 
660 Q(>0i GOSUB 609501 CLS: PRINT 'Screen Swap — 

Model 4/4P in Model III Mode onlyJ'i PRINT "Type 

something then press <CLEAR>': GOSUB 60600 
570 Ql=li GOSUB 609501 CLSi PRINT "Type something 

else, then press <CLEAR>'i GOSUB 6B600: Ot-0: 

GOSDB 60950 
eBB PRINT e960-Q»*10, "Press "S" to swap screens, "Q" 

to qulfi) GOSUB 20« 
690 IF INSTR{'Qq',A5) THEN RETURN ELSE IF 

IHSTRCSS',AS) THEN Q% - HOT 0%: GOSUB 60950 
7BB GOTO 680 
710 • 

60000 ■ Model 3 Version Data handling 

subroutines. Be sure to initialize routines 
with GOSUB 61000 before use 

60098 • Formatted Input — shows input field with '.' 
characters and restricts number of characters 
user nay enter. Calling sequence! Q% - length 
of input field (1 - 254) 

60099 ' GOSUB 60100 Input string returned in Q$ 

60100 IF Q%<1 OR 0%>254 THEN RETURN ELSE 
0S-STRIHG$(0t-t-l,32) t DEPUSR9 - VARPTR(01% (0) ) t 
0% - USR9[VARPTR(0S)) r RETURN 

60101 • 

60199 ' Strip blanks front end of a string Calling 
sequencei Q9 - string to atrip GOSUB 602BB 
String returned in Q$ 

60200 DEPUSR9 - VARPTR{Q2% (B) ) i 01%-USR9(VARPTR(Q$) ) t 
RETURN 

602B1 ■ 

60299 ' Convert lowercase characters in a string to 
uppercase Calling sequencei 0$ - string to 
convert GOSUB 60300 String returned in QS 

60300 DEFU5R9 - VARPTR (03t (0) ) ) Q%-USR9 [VARPTR(OS) ] i 
RETURN 

60301 ' 

60397 ' CAPS-Lock utllityi turn CAPS on or off, or 

test present condition. Calling sequencei Q% > 
function request (0 - turn CAPS off 1 - turn 
CAPS on 2 ■ test present state] 

6039S ' GOSUB 60400 If test function is chosen then 
Q% returns present state: Q% - -1 (true] means 
CAPS on 0% - (false) means CAPS off 

60400 Qlt - fcH4019l IP Q% -> AND Q% < 2 THEN POKE 
Ql%,Ot ELSE 0% - (PEEK(QI«)<>B) 

60401 RETURN 

60402 ■ 

68499 ' Scroll protect — protects B - 7 lines at top 
of screen from scrolling (but not from CLS) 
Calling sequence: Q% - number of lines to 
protect GOSUB 60500 

60500 POKE &li4214,Q%: RETURN 

60501 ' 

6B599 ' Pull screen input — user can freely move 

around screen and enter input anywhere <Shift> 
+ arrow moves cursor non-destructively . Calling 
sequence: GOSUB 60600 

60600 DEFUSR9-VARFTR[Q6l(01)lO%-USR9(01 iPRIKT 
CHRS(15) tiRETURN 

60601 ■ 

60699 'Copy screen row to a string Calling sequencei 
Q% - row of screen to copy (0 - 23) GOSUB 60700 
String returned in Q$ 

60700 QS(16)-" "i Q1%-VARPTR(QS(16)1 I 
Q2t-«H3C00+Q«*64: POKE Qll,64: PORE Qll+l,Q2t 
AND 255: POKE Q1%+2,INT(Q2*/2S6) i QS- QS(16)i 
RETURN 

60701 ■ 

60799 ' Full screen capture — — Capture all screen 

characters in array or 64-character strings. 

Calling sequence: GOSUB 60B00 screen returned 

in O$(0] through Q$(15) 
60600 FOR Qt=0 TO 15: GOSUB 607001 QS(Q%)-QS: NEXT 

Q\: RETURN 
60801 ■ 
60B99 ' Full screen capture as above - each string in 

OSO array is stripped of trailing blanks. 

Calling sequence: GOSUB 60900 Screen returned 

in QS(B) through QS[15) 

60900 FOR Q%-0 TO 15i GOSUB 607001 GOSUB 60200: 
QS(Q%)=Q$: NEXT Q%: RETURN 

60901 ■ 

60949 ' Screen Swap — For use ONLY on a Model 4/4p 
in Model III model Calling sequencei Q»» page t 
(even for page B odd for page 1) GOSUB 6B950 

60950 DEFUSR9-VARPTR(Q9%(0)) : Q%-nSR9{Q%]: RETURN 

60951 • 

61000 ■ Initialization for Model 3 subroutines GOSUB 
61BB0 once at beginning of program 

61001 DATA H0DEL3 

61002 RESTORE 

61003 READ QSl IP QS <> "MODELS" THEN GOTO 61003 

61004 ' 

61100 ' Routine 1 — Formatted input 

61101 DATA 32717, -4854, 8283, -6848, 18133, 8965, 
9086, 28518, 16069, -13010, 51, -1264. -11839, 
21485, 16416, 16589, 14336, 30723, 536, 62, 
30689, 201 

Usllng 2 conHnued on p. 104 



Ci'cio 107 on Reader Service card 



niSDSYS 

Pf^C'fassicisI Sctftiisrs 



NEW for 1985' 

PfSC-lTB 

WINDOW 4 APPLICATION MANAGER 

o User definable activation character 

o Up to four nestable windows 

o Export end Import of data across windows 

o Tunction key invocation of applications 

o Online HELP facility 

o LIB EXEC gives access to DOS LI6 commands 

□ ADDRESS rotating canJs and mailing labels 

o BRINGUP tickler file and appointment book 

CAL month at a glance perpetual calendar 

o A four function Floating Point CALCulator 

o Seven function RPN CALC in base 2, 8, 10, 16 

J >i 5 CARD filer and notepad 

o CHARSET computer character set table 

Telephone list and autoDIALER 

DOSAVE screen_to_disk saver 

o TERM mini-terminal facility 

PSORT utility to sort data files 

WINLINK device driver access from BASIC 

Requires 128K Hfhp TrtSDOS 6.2 or equivalent 

$59.95; SiH $3 US, $4 Canada, JIO Foreign 
$49.93 Special Introduction Offer until August 31st! 



MRAS - Relocating Macro Assembler 

o Generates Microsoft compatible /REL files 

o 16-bit evlernal references. 

Powerful Macro support: REPT, IKP, IRPC 

o Nested include/get files. 

Nested conditionals. 

o Upwardly compatible with MAS. 

o Fast binary-searched symbol table. 

o MLIB KEL/IRL librarian included. 

o MLINK linker supports virtual memory file, 

REL. and IRL library search, does not generate 

object code for D5 regions. 
o SAID full-screen text editor included. 

Specify: PRO-MRAS 4/4p; MRAS Model I/III 
$74.95; SAH $3 US, $4 Canada, $1L) Foreign 



COD add $1.75, VA residents add 4* Sales Tax 

HISCSIJSJIS 

p. O. Box 239 

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703-450-4181 

TH5DOS is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 






80 Micro, September 1985 • 55 



DRAWING IN DETAIL 



by Jim Abbasslan and Glen E. Sparics 

MacPaint-Style graphics bring out the best 
In your Model III or 4 high-resolution board. 



wish my computer could do graphics 
like that." Maybe Model III/4 owners 
don't say that out loud, but they probably 
think it when they see an Apple Macintosh 
or a Tandy 1000 in acUon. 

You don't have to put up with that 
gnawing feeling of inadequacy. By install- 
ing Radio Shack's high-resolution board, 
you'll be the envy of the neighborhood, 
with graphics that outshine an IBM PC's 
with 18 percent higher resolution. 

Rembrandt is a Model 1II/4 icon-driven 
high-resolution (hl-res) graphics program 
that gives you a plethora of drawing and 
editing commands (see Program Listing 
1). It lets you: 

• Draw line figures. 

• Paint sections of the screen with 16 patterns. 

• Mix text and graphics. 

• Manipulate predefined geometric shapes, in- 
cluding rectangles, circles, polygons, cones, 
and cylinders. 

• Cut and paste: that Is. define a section of the 
screen and duplicate it elsewhere. 

• Save screens to disk or dump them to a Radio 
Shack dot-matrix printer with dot -address- 
able graphics capability. 

• Erase the screen pixel by pixel or all at once. 

As you read the documentation below. 

you'll get an Idea of Rembrandt's potential 
for design, business, and entertainment 
applications. You can modify the program 
for special needs, such as architectural 
drawing, model design, and mapping. 

In the Beginning... 

While Rembrandt isn't hard to use, 
you'll need a few practice sessions to mas- 
ter It. If you start by trying to create an on- 
screen version of the Mona Lisa, you'll be- 
come frustrated and confused. 

Type in and run Program Listing 1 from 
BasicG. (The high-resolution board comes 
with BasicG. which supports a number of 
GW-Baslc commands.) Don't save the pro- 
gram in ASCII format; some lines will be- 
come too long to load, causing a "Direct 
statement In file" error. 

After a pause for Initialization, you'll see 
Rembrandt's icon menu to the left and a 
pattern menu along the bottom of the 

56 • ao Micro, September 198S 



screen (see Fig. 1). The rest of the screen 
is free for graphics. 

Rembrandt has three modes: the cur- 
sor, function, and paint modes. In each 
mode, the cursor changes Its appearance 
to indicate which mode you're in. In the 
cursor mode, the cursor is arrow-shaped 
and movable. In the function mode, it 
changes to a stationary inverse-video ar- 
row; here, control passes to the icon menu 
so you can choose a function. In the paint 
mode, the cursor becomes a stationary 
spray can. 

A La Mode 

On boot-up. Rembrandt starts out in the 
cursor mode. You use this mode to f)osi- 
tlon the cursor only, to get it where you 
want to start drawing on the screen. The 
arrow keys move the nondestructive cur- 
sor around the screen in a total of eight 
directions. Use single keys to move up. 
down, right, and left; combine keys to 
move diagonally. 

To create and manipulate shapes, you 
switch to Rembrandt's function mode, 
with its icon menu on the left of the 
screen. Press the sfjacebar once to enter 
this mode: the cursor changes to inverse 
video. Use the arrow keys to position the 
cursor on the icon of Interest. Rembrandt 
highlights each icon as the cursor travels 
through it. 

Pressing the spacebar again returns the 
cursor to its previous position and Invokes 
the highlighted function. If, for example, 
you choose the Circle function, the circle's 
center is at the cursor's on-screen posi- 
tion. To exit the function mode and restore 
cursor control, hit the spacebar again. 

Iconography 

I'll take you through the function menu 
Icon by icon, starting in the upper left- 
hand comer. Refer to Fig. 1 if you don't 
have Rembrandt up on your computer. 

The first icon represents the Line func- 
tion, which draws lines one at a time. To 
see how it works, get Into the function 
mode by pressing the spiacebar. use the 
arrow keys to get to the line icon, and 



press the spacebar again. The line starts 
at a fixed point, determined by the cur- 
sor's position when you entered the func- 
tion mode. You control the second end- 
point by using the arrow keys to extend 
the line and give it direction. 

To make a freehand line drawing, alter- 
nately enter the line mode, draw a line, 
exit to the function menu, then select the 
Line function again, starting your new 
line where the last one left off. This sounds 
Involved, but it actually takes only a few 
seconds. 

The second function, the Eraser. lets 
you clear the screen selectively. Just like a 
blackboard. As you move the eraser 
around the screen with the arrow keys, 
you permanently delete everything it 
passes over. 

The Triangle function is a little tricky. 
but useful. One vertex is fixed at the cur- 
sor's position. You can manipulate the 
other two vertices, but only one at a time. 
Press the enter key (hold it down, don't 
just tap it) to switch between the two vari- 
able endpoints. and use the arrow keys to 
pivot the triangle or change its size. You 
can also draw triangles with the Line func- 
tion, or with the Polygon function, de- 
scribed below. 

The Box/Rectangle function works like 
the Line function. The cursor's position 
defines the top left corner of the box. You 
control the opposite comer and use the ar- 
row keys to change the box's length and 
width. 

The Circle function draws circles or el- 
lipses. The up- and down-arrow keys con- 
trol the X. or horizontal, axis; the left- and 



System Requirements 

ModcU m and 4 

64KRAM 

BulcG 

Hi^-reaolution board 

Dot-matrix printer optional 




80 Micro, September 1985 • 57 






A. a 

6 Q 



•<c 



CD 



CD 



Pa 


[t 




ct 


4- 




SfS 


& 


tn 


m 


>S< 


m 



**i!tt..M»'- «ac> . Sdi. "JFIM Flirt' 




^^IF 



I I I iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiH^ I mil I I 



Figure 1 . A Rembrandt graphics screen showing the icon arui tile menus. 




Photo I . Geometric figures automatically drawn by Rembrandt. 




Photo 2. Demonstration of cut-and-paste function: Dotted lines Indicate area 
to be pasted. 

58 • SO Micro, September 1985 



right-arrow keys control the Y. or vertical, 
axis. 

You can use the next function, the Poly- 
gon, to create a regular polygon of any size 
and shape. The left- and right-arrow keys 
change the figure's size. The up- and 
down-arrow keys control the number of 
sides. The lower and upper limits to the 
number of sides are three (a triangle) and 
20 (roughly a circle). You can increase the 
number of sides to more than 20, but your 
figure won't look much different from a 
20-slded one, and will take longer to draw. 

The rest of the icons in the top half of 
the function menu represent a variety of 
cones and cylinders. You control the 
lengths of vertical shapes with the up- and 
down-arrow keys and change their radii 
with the left- and right-arrow keys. You 
control horizontal cones or cylinders in a 
similar manner. Photo 1 shows three fig- 
ures drawn using these functions. 

Impeccable Paste 

The bottom half of the function menu 
begins with several Cut-and-Paste icons, 
which let you move or duplicate parts of 
your graphics screen. 

First, move the cursor to the upper left- 
hand comer of the section you want to cut 
and paste. Now select the Cut function us- 
ing the scissors icon. Use the arrow keys 
to adjust the dotted-llne box until it sur- 
rounds the area you want to cut and press 
the spacebar (see Photo 2). The dotted 
lines should disappear, indicating that the 
figure Is stored in the buffer. If they don't, 
reduce the size of the outlined area and try 
again. 

The area inside the box doesn't move. 
Rembrandt reproduces the image and 
stores it in memory. You can paste the im- 
age elsewhere on the screen using the five 
Paste functions, shown on the menu as 
paste bottle icons. 

Move the cursor to where you want to 
paste the stored image. Now select one of 
the paste functions. The "P" bottle pastes 
an image exactly like the original, over- 
writing anything else on that part of the 
screen. The "I" bottle pastes an inverse- 
video Image of the memory buffer, mean- 
ing the whole area in the dotted box. 

The "A." "O." and "X" paste bottles 
compare the image on screen to the image 
in the buffer using the Boolean operators 
And. Or. and XOR. This means you can 
combine images or select parts of the 
stored image to display. 

You can reverse the pasting process by 
pasting with the "X" bottle twice. This re- 
stores the screen to its original condition. 

Once you've captured an image in mem- 
ory, you can paste it over and over again 
using different paste bottle options [see 
Photo 3). 

Text Talk 

You can add text to your graphics 
screen using the ABC and crossed-arrows 
icons. Use ABC to select the Text function, 
then go to the crossed arrows to select the 



TRS-80 " MODEL 1, 3, AND 4 TRS-80'" - TANDY - MS-DOS 
|P SOI-l«/ARE IBM - CP/M SOFTWARE 


TYPITALL Word Processor $129.95 
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Word Processor upwardly compatible wjth SCRIPSIT — it reads >wjf 
old SCRIPSIT files and uses the fofmatling and cursor movement 
commartds you are already familiar witfi But rt is a completely new word 
processor with so many advariced features that we can't even mention 
all of them here 

Send any control or graphic/ special character to the printer Control/ 
graphic characters irKluded In the twrt so tfiai you have complete 
control of all features of your printer. Print the formatted text on the 
screen before going to the printer Send formatted text to a disk file for 
later printing. Merge data from a file during printing. Names, addresses. 


SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING $99.95 

Newly revised, this program is based on tfie Dome Bookkeeping 
Record #612, and handles general ledger and payroll for a small 
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expenses Monthly, through last rrxxith. and year-todate summanes 
computed, Start the fiscal year vi'ith any month. 

Payroll section handles up to 99 employees Automatic computations 
for F I.C.A. federal and state income tax Three optional deduaions also 
included- Pnnt both payroll and expense cfiecks using same forms. Reports 
include monthly quanerty. and year-to-date summaries. 941 and W-2 
forms Simple and easy to learn — ideal for first-time computer users. 


and other text can be inserted durir>g printing. No need for a separate 
program for "mail merge" capabilities. Print while editing (spooling). 
Assign any sequence of keystrokes to a slr>gle control key Call up to 
16 help screens at any time. Move cursor forwards or backwards by 
character, word, lirie, or page Reenter the program with all text Intact 
ifyouaccidentallyexitwjttxJut saving the texL Optional spelling cfiecker 
comes with 29.500 word dictionary. Verifya 3.500 word document in less 
than two minutes. True Model 4 (80 x 24 display. TRSCXDSi) and Model 
l/lll versions. 


HOME BUDGET and 
CHECKBOOK ANALYST $59.95 

A complete checkbook pirogram together with budgeting, irxome and 
expense analysis, compansons, and projections. Enter arxl print checks. 
enter deposits, and compute yrxir current checking balarKC. Program also 
handles norvcheck expenses, bank debits, and income. Monthly and 
year-to-date summaries and yearly projections based on data through a 
krxjwn month. Monthly expenses compared to a pre-established budget 






SYSTEM DIAGNOSTIC $99.95 

Is your computer working correctly? Are you sure? System Diagnostic 
fias complete tests for every component of your TRS-80 Model 1 , 3. or 4 
(separate versions necessary for each model) 

ROM: checksum test RAM: three tests irKluding every Icxation and 
data value Video display: character generator, video RAM. video signal 
Keyboard; every key contact tested Une printer: character tests with 
adjustable platen length Cassette recorder read, write, verify data. 


MAILING LIST $69.95 

Build and maintain mailing lists of up to as many names as you can fit 
on standard diskettes ( l .250 for TRSDOS and CP/M. 2.500 for MS-DOS). 
Fcxjr-line labels with optional line that can be used either for unprinted 
data Of as part of the label. Add. change, delete, or find names Son acccx- 
ding to data in ariy fiekJ. Print labels in I. 2, 3. or 4 adjustable columns 


Disk drives: disk controller, drive select, track seek, read sectors. 
formatting, re*^ write/ verify data with or without erasing, disk dnvt 
timer, disk head cleaner. Single or double density, 1-99 tracks. RS-232-C 
Interface: connector fault, data transmission, framing, data loop, baud 
rate generator 


SMALL BUSINESS 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM S299.95 

A complete point-of-sale program for a small business. Handles 
order enay, invoking. Inventory, and bookkeeping, including 
general ledger, accounts receivable, and accounts payable Includes up 
to 999 S-character part numbers Items deducted from inventoiy wtien 
orders entered Handles both customer acccxjnts and single orders 
Invoices printed on forms or plain paper and include discounts, sales 
taxes, arid shipping and fiandling charges General ledger prcxJuces 
rrwnthly and year-io-date totals. Receivables tracked to invoices. 
automatically updated as irxome entered Inventory reports track sales by 
part numbers. 


SMART TERMINAL $74.95 

The Intelligent telecommunications program for your TRS-SO Mcxlel 
1 , 3, or 4. or Model 2 CP/M Memory buffer for seriding arxJ receiving 
f\\e% Automatic transmission of outgoing data Automatic storage of 
incoming data Character translations. True BREAK key Help screens. 
line feed filters, echo and line printer toggle switches, and more 






TRS-80™ MODEL III 




ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 516.95 

A complete course in assembly language, written for the beginner. 
Contents include' The Z-SO instruction set; TRS-SO"" Model 111 ROM and 
RAM. using the Editor/ Assembler reading, printing, and moving data. 
anrhmeiic operations with integers, f loan r>g- point and BCD numbers; 
logical arxJ bit operations, cassette input and ougDul: USR subroutines in 
BASIC, RS-2J2-C data communications, disk input and cxjtput, the 
TRSDOS 1 3 disk operating system. 








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MONITOR #5 $22.95 
Book and MONITOR #5 S29.95 

A comprehensive machine language monitor and detxjgging 
program Display merrrary in ASCII or fieaxdecimal formal. Disassemble 
memory to show machine language commarxJs. Move and compare 
blocks. Search arxl modify memory Relocate machine language 
programs Read arxl write cassette tapes. Unk>ad programs in low RAM 
on disk Print optionally on video display or line printer Save and load 
disk files Input arxl output of disk sectors, bypassing disk operating 
system Complete debugging package, including semng and 
displaying registers, single stepping through machine instruaions. 
settir)g breakpoints and executirtg machir>e language operations 


















Ptwto 3. Demonstration of cut-and-paste feature: The original design In the 
upper left-hand corner is pasted using (left to right from the middle of the top 
row) the "P." "I." "A." "O." and "X" options. 




Photo 4. Hexagon design corresponding to Program Listing 3. 




Photo 5. Computer design corresponding to Program Listing 4. 
&)• 80 Micro, SefAember 1985 



direction In which the text reads. To 
switch directions, press the appropriate 
arrow key. Normally, you'll get text in cap- 
ital letters: for upper- and lowercase text. 
press shift-zero. 

You automatically exit the text mode If 
you try to type off the edge of the graphics 
screen. Otherwise, this Is the only func- 
tion you exit by pressing the enter key. 

One note: This feature has a long error- 
checking routine, so you Model III owners 
had better keep your typing speed down, 
or you'll lose characters. Model 4 owners, 
your increased CPU speeds means you 
can type rather quickly. 

Output to Disk or Printer 

The CONFIG icon is the only function 
that calls up another menu. The CONFIG 
menu's first option lets you change cursor 
speed. Choose low values for slow, precise 
cursor movement or high values for 
speedier movement. 

The other options are for the Model 4; 
they define which printer driver you use 
for a screen dump to your Radio Shack 
DMP printer. GPRINT turns your picture 
sideways and flattens it out a bit. GPRT2 
and GPRT3 are simitar drivers that don't 
rotate the image, but you have to set your 
printer to condensed mode or use 15-inch 
paper with them. 

The Printer Icon Is for Model 4 owners 
only: select your printer driver using the 
CONFIG funcUon, then invoke the Printer 
function to dump the screen to your dot- 
addressable Radio Shack DMP printer. 

Model III users can't print out from the 
function menu. If you want a screen 
dump, press the break key. then type In 
RUN. After Rembrandt erases the menus, 
press the break key again before they 
reappear on the screen. Now you can type 
in GPRINT, GPRT2. or GPRT3 for a screen 
dump, or type in CMD"I" to exit to 
TRSDOS. 

Even after you exit to DOS. Rembrandt 
doesn't erase your graphics screen. At 
DOS ready, type in GRON to display the 
screen. At this point you can dump it to 
the printer using the GPRINT option. 

The "S" and "L" Icons let Model 4 users 
save and load graphics files. When you in- 
voke the "S" function, the program dis- 
plays a directory of files with the 
extensions /GR or /HR, then prompts you 
for a file name and saves the file to disk. 
Use the "L" function to load files from 
disk. 

It's not that easy on a Model in. You 
can't save or load graphics from Rem- 
brandt, so you must complete a picture in 
one sitting (blame TRSDOS 1.3, not our 
program). To save a screen to disk, type in 
GSAVE FILE NAME from TRSDOS Ready. 
Tb load a file, type in GLOAD FILE NAME. 
The GRON command displays your pic- 
ture on the screen: GROFF turns the dis- 
play off. You can also print a screen you've 
loaded from disk: use the printer drivers 
discussed above. 



circle 242 on Reader Service card 



Saving a graphics screen to disk takes 
up 75 records and 25 granules, so make 
sure you have enough room on your disk. 

The Tandy logo icon returns you lo DOS 
with no questions asked. Be careful 
around this one. 

The Garbage Can function erases the 
entire graphics screen, again with no 
questions asked. 

The Paint Box 

So much for the function mode. The 
paint mode lets you fill in any enclosed 
area of your design with one of the bit- 
mapped patterns, or tiles, shown at the 
bottom of the screen. This method is 
called painting or tiling. 

After you've drawn a figure or two. 
move the cursor inside an area you want 
to paint. Tap the enter key to invoke the 
paint mode. Indicated by a spray can cur- 
sor. Use the right- and left-arrow keys to 
scroll through the tile menu; you'll see the 
patterns change in the box to the left of 
the menu. When the pattern you want ap)- 
pears in the box. press the space bar. Rem- 
brandt Alls (he area containing the spray 
can with that pattern and returns you to 
the cursor mode. 

The tile menu's Exit option lets you es- 
cape without painting. Just press the 
space bar when you see the word "exit" 
in the tile selection box. 

Make sure you completely enclosed the 
area you paint. Otherwise, the paint 
bleeds out and covers the rest of your 
graphics screen. 

Footnotes 

If Rembrandt happens to crash but 
doesn't return you to DOS. type in RUN 
and the program will reinitialize without 
erasing the graphics screen. 

The three screen dump routines. 
GPRINT. GPRT2. and GPRT3. that come 
with the hl-res package work with Radio 
Shack's DMP series printers. These 
printer drivers are in Assembly-language 
and BasicG calls them as external pro- 
grams. They might not work with non-Ra- 
dio Shack printers. However, the BasicG 
manual prints their complete listings. You 
should be able to modify one of them to 
suit your hardware's configuration. 

Getting Fancy 

We'll touch briefly on a way to create 
more complicated pictures using the hi- 
res board and BasicG. Run Program List- 
ing 2 and send it to the printer. You'll get 
a grid corresponding to the screen's pix- 
els. Cover the grid with plastic and use a 
grease pencil to transfer an image to the 
grid. 

You can plot out the design and write a 
BasicG program that draws the picture. 
It's even more tedious than it sounds, but 
the results are Impressive. Program List- 
ing 3. for example, produces the geomet- 
ric shape shown in Photo 4. Program 
Listing 4 draws the computer shown In 



• • • 



NEW! HARD DISK 
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■ R«qurM MeTwry EntJariHon BovO anin DMA C«ilrD*w (2»- 1D04I 

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80 Micro. Septemtjer 1985 • 61 



Orel* 290 on Raadcc Sorvics card 




FOR TANDY 

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Program Listing 1. Rembrandt graphics editor. 



5 CLEAR 500 'Model 4 users omit this line 

10 IF GF=1 THEN Xl=320 :Yl=120 !CR-10 : LC=10 : AR=.5 iRA-5 :PR$="GPRT3 "iC 

A=10:PF=l:LF=l:LRal0:R=5lSI=10iSD=5!AP=.5:FP=liPI=3.1415 9:SD=5iSI= 

10!DIM GB[25fl) :VIEW{0,0)-(639,239) :DIM T$(17) :G0BUB 1850 sGOSUB 22 

80 :GOSUB 2480 :GET(0,0}-(0,0) rCBiGOTO 170 :ELSE 2510 

20 KE>PEEK(KP) iIF KE AND 1 OR KE AND 128 OR KE AND 8 OR KB AND 16 

OR KE AND 32 OR KE AND 64 THEN RETURN ELSE 20 

30 SP-PI/SD:FOR A=0 TO PI+SP/2 STEP SP: SZ»SI*SIN (A) +.5 sX-SZ •SIN(A) 

+X1:Y=SZ/2*C0S(A)+Y1:IF A-0 THEN 40 ELSE LINE (X0,Y0) - (X, Y) ,00 

40 X0=X:Y0="YiNEXTiRETURN 

50 LINE(X1,Y1)-{X2,Y2) ,00:LINE- (X3 ,Y3) ,00:LINE- {Xl ,yi) ,00:RETURN 

60 XX=LR! CIRCLE {XI, Yl) ,R, 00,1 ,57 ,4 .71 , . 8 !CIRCLE(X1+XX , Yl) ,R,00,4.7 

1,1.57,.8:Z»R/1.25;LINE{X1,Y1+Z)-(X1+XX,Y1+Z) ,00!LINE (Xl , Yl-Z) - (XI 

+XX,Y1-Z) ,00:IF RLS-"R" THEN CIRCLE (Xl+XX, Yl) ,R, 00, 1.57 ,4 .71 , . 8 :RE 

TURNiELSE CIRCLE (XI ,Y1) , R, 00, 4 .71 ,1 .57 , . 8 

70 LINE(X1,Y1)-(X1+XB,Y1) ,00, , 6HC003 :LINE- (Xl+XB, Yl+YB) ,00,,SH8181 

:LINE-(Xl,Yl+YB) ,00, , iHC003 : LINE- (Xl , Yl) ,00, , SHBl 81 : RETURN 

80 CIRCLE {Xl,Yl) ,R,00,,,.3!CIRCLE(X1,Y1+LR} ,R, 00, 3 .14, 6 .28, . 3 :LINE 

(X1+R,Y1)-(X1+R,Y1+LR) ,00:LINE {Xl-R, Yl) - (Xl~R, Yl+LR) ,00!RETURN 

90 CIRCLE (XI, Yl) ,R,00, , 3 .14 , . 3 :CIRCLE (Xl , Yl+LR) ,R,00, , , . 3 iLIHE (Xl 

+R,Yl)-(Xl+R,Yl+LR) ,00:LINE(X1-R,Y1)-(X1-R, Yl+LR) ,00:RETURN 

100 IF KE AND 32 THEN X0=X0-CA 

110 IF KE AND 64 THEN X0=X0+CA 

120 IF KE AND 16 THEN Y0=Y0+INT{CA/2) : IF CA-1 THEN Y0"Yfl+l 

130 IF KE AND 8 THEN Y0-Y0-INT (CA/2) i IF CA=1 THEN Y0=Y0-1 

140 RETURN 

150 CZ-CR/1.25:LINE(Xl,Yl)-(Xl+LC,Yl+CZ) ,0OiLINE(Xl,Yl)-{Xl+LC, Yl- 

CZ) ,00!CIRCLECX1+LC,Y1) ,CR,00, ST, EN, .8 : RETURN 

160 LINE(Xl,Yl)-(Xl+CR,Yl+LC) .OOjLINE (XI .Yl) - (Xl-CR, Yl+LC) ,00:CIRC 

LE(X1,Y1+LC) ,CR, 00, ST, EN,. 3: RETURN 

170 X1-320:Y1-120 

180 Xl=Xl+60:VIEW(0,0)-(639,239) :PUT(Xl,Yl),CU,XORtFOR K-1 TO 5«:N 

EXT:IF BP=25 THEN 1770 

190 GOSUB 20 :IF KE AND 126 THEN VIEW(0,0)-(639,239) :GOSUB 2220 

:F0R K=l TO 20:NEXT:GOTO 330 

200 IF KE AND 1 THEN GOSUB 2040 :GOTO 260 

210 PUT(X1,Y1) ,CU,XOR;X0=Xl:Y0=YliGOSUB 100 :X1=X0 : Y1=Y0 :IF XK61 

THEN Xl=61 
220 IF Xl>628 THEN Xl-628 
230 IP Yl>219 THEN Yl-219 
240 IP YKl THEN Yl=l 
250 PUT(X1,Y1] ,CU,XOSiG0TO 190 
260 PUT(X1,Y1> ,CU,XORlPUT(Xl,yi) ,PC,XOR 
270 GOSUB 20 
280 IF KE AND 126 THEN PUT{X1,Y1) ,PC,XORiGOSUB 2000 :Xl-Xl-60 iGOTO 

160 
290 IF KE AND 32 THEN PF=PF-1:IF PF<=0 THEN PF=1 
300 IF KE AND 64 THEN PF=PF+1:IF PP>=17 THEN PP-17 
310 IP KE AND 32 OR KS AND 64 THEN GOSUB 2040 
320 GOTO 270 

330 PUT(X1,Y1) ,CU,XOR:PUT(Xl,Yl) ,IC,XOR 
340 GOSUB 20 

350 IP KE AND 128 THEN PUT {X1,Y1) , IC,X0R:VIEW(71 ,1 )- (638,219) :POR 
K=l TO 150:NEXT:X1=X1-60!GOTO 410 

360 GOSUB 2160 :IF KE AND 32 THEN FF«FF-1:IF PP<-0 THEN PF-1 ELSE 
IF FF+1=19 THEN FF=14 
370 IF KE AND 64 THEN FF=FF+1:IF PF>=32 THEN PP=32 ELSE IP PP-1-'14 

THEN FF=19 
380 IF KE AND 16 THEN FF«PF+2:IP PF>-32 THEN PF-32 ELSE IP PP-2-13 

THEN FF"19 ELSE IF FF-2-14 THEN FF=20 
390 IF KE AND 8 THEN FF=FF-2iIF FF<=0 THEN PP"1 ELSE IP PP+2-19 TH 
EN FP=13 ELSE IF FF+2-20 THEN FF-14 
400 GOSUB 2220 :GOTO 340 

410 IF FFOl THEN 450 ELSE X2»X1 iY2«Yl ;LINE (Xl^Yl) - (X2, Y2) 
420 GOSUB 20 

430 IF KE AND 128 THEN Xl=X2i Yl-Y2:X2-0 iY2»0 iGOSUB 1880 :GOTO 180 
440 LINE(X1,Y1)-{X2,Y2) ,0:X0-X2:Y0=Y2!GOSUB 100 :X2-X0 : Y2=Y0 iLINE 
(X1,Y1)-(X2,Y2) :G0TO 420 
450 IF FF02 THEN 550 
460 IF Yl>209 THEN Yl-209 
470 IF Xl>554 THEN Xl=554 

480 PUT(Xl,yi) ,E1,PSET:GQSUB 20 :PUT(Xl,Yl) , E2 ,PSET 

490 IF KE AND 128 THEN 180 

500 X0=Xl:Y0=Yl!GOSUB 100 :X1=X0 : Yl=y0 : IP Yl>209 THEN Yl«209 
510 IF YK0 THEN Yl-0 
520 IF XK0 THEN Xl=0 
530 IF Xl>554 THEN Xl"554 
540 GOTO 480 

550 IF FF04 THEN 590 ELSE X2-X1 :y2-Yl iLINE (XI , Yl) - {X2 ,y2) , ,B 
560 GOSUB 20 

570 IF KE AND 128 THEN 180 

580 LINE(Xl,yi)-{X2,Y2),0,B:X0=X2:Y0-Y2:GOSUB 100 :X2-X0:Y2-Y0:LI 
NE{X1,Y1)-(X2,Y2) ,1,B:G0T0 560 

tJattnri I itmUniivd 



62 • 00 Micro, S^ember 1985 



Photo 5. Since your graphics data Is In Ba- 
sic, you can use these designs in other pro- 
grams. 

Epilogue 

With a hl-res board installed, you can 
still run programs that use those misera- 
ble, chunky, block graphics characters. 
But once you discover how easy, fast, and 
versatile the hi-res board Is. you won't 
want to go back. 

Think of our program as a starting 
point. Let it Inspire you. Tinker around 
with it or create your own high-resolution 
applications. Have fun.l 



Jim Abbasstan and Glen E. Sparks are 
writers and programmers. Both, are 
members of the Dearborn. MI. TRS-80 
User's Group. You can write them at 
6168 Custer. S. Rockwood, MI 481 79. 



Related Articles 

Graebner. Bruce A. and Jeffrey P., "Clear- 
Cut Trends." April 1985. p. 40. High-resolu- 
tion line and bar graphs for the Models III, 4. 
1000. and 2000. 

Justice. Steve. "Fractals in Focus." May 
1985, p. 56. High-resolution geometric fractals 
for the Models ID. 4. 1000. and 2000. 



IJstIng I Continue 

590 IF FP05 THEN 670 ELSE RA-10 :CIRCLE (Xl ,yi} , RA, , , , AR 

600 GOSUB 20 

610 IF KE AND 128 THEN 180 

620 CIRCLE{X1,Y1) ,RA,0,,,AR:IF KE AND 32 THEN RA=RA-10: IP RA<0 TH 

EN RA=0 

630 IF KE AND 64 THEN RA=RA+lfl 

640 IP KE AND 16 THEN AR-AR+.05:IF AB>.5 THEN AR=AR+.fl5:IP AR>1.5 

THEN AR=-AR+l:ir AR>40 THEN AR=40 

650 IF KE AND B THEN AR"AR-.05!lF AR<-3 .72529E-a8 THEN AR"-3. 72529 

E-08:ELSE IF AR>.5 THEN AR=AR-.05:IF AR>1.5 THEN AR=AR-1 

660 CIRCLE(X1,Y1) , RA, , , , AR :GOTO 600 

670 IF FF06 THEN 730 ELSE 0O-l:G0SUB 30 

680 GOSUB 20 

690 IF KE AND 126 THEN 180 

700 QO-0:GOSUB 30 :X0=SI;GOSUB 100 :SI=X0rIF KE AND 16 THEN SD- 

SD-1:IF SD<«2 THEN SD-2 

710 IF KE AND 8 THEN SD-SD+lsIF SD>=14 THEN SD=14 

720 00=1:G0SUB 30 iGOTO 680 

730 IF FF03 THEN 670 ELSE X2=*Xl iX3»Xl iy2=Yl : Y3-Y1 

7 40 GOSUB 20 

750 IF KE AND 128 THEN 180 

760 IF KE AND 1 THEN 860 

770 OO«0:GOSUB 50 

760 X0-X1:Y0-Y1:GOSUB 100 :Xl=X0!yi-Y0 

790 00=l:GOStJB 50 :G0T0 740 

800 OO-0:GOSUB 50 

810 GOSUB 20 

820 IF KE AND 128 THEN 180 

830 IF KE AND 1 THEN 790 

840 OQaBiGOSUB 50 

850 X0=X3!Y0=Y3 tGOSUB 100 :X3-X0tY3-Y0 

660 OO-lsGOSUB 50 :GOTO 810 

870 IF FF07 THEN 920 ELSE 00-1 1 STa0 i EN=fi .28 iGOSUB 160 



880 GOSUB 2 

690 IF KE AND 126 THEN 180 

900 OO=0:ST=0:EN=6.28!GOSUB 160 

-XBiIF CR<1 THEN CR-1 



iX0-CRiY0-LCiGOSUB 100 :LC-Y0:CR 



UslUig I co<iliriunl on p. 106 




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Checkbook Maintenance Accounts Receivable....Accounts Payable 



BUSINESS 100 PROGRAM UST 



NAME DESCRIPnON 

1 RULE78 Interest Apportionmenl by Rule of the 78's 

2 AMNUI Annuity computation fwogrnm 

3 DATE Time between dales 

4 DAYYEAR Day uf year a particutar date feOs on 

5 LEASETlT Interest rirtc on lease 

6 BREAKEVn Breakeven analysis 

7 DEP9SL Straightline dcpreciatJon 

8 DEPRSY Sum o( the digits depreci^ior 

9 iXPKiB Dediivng balance depreciatKHi 

1 DEPRDDB Doii^ dechnirtg balance depreciotKXi 

1 1 TAXDEP Cash fkj* vs depreciation tables 

1 2 CHECK2 Pnnts TiEBS checks akmg with daily register 

1 3 CHECKBK 1 Checkbook maintenance program 

14 MORTOAGE/A fAortgage amortuaton tabte 

1 5 MULTMOT^ Computes time needed loi money lo double triple. 

1 6 SALVAGE Detemnnes salvage value of an irweslment 

1 7 RRVAfilM Rate of return oo investment svith variable inflows 

1 8 RRCOMST Rate of return on investment with constant irrflCT*s 

1 9 EFFECT Effect!ve interest rale o( a loan 

20 FVAL Future vakje of an investment (compound interes!) 

21 FVAL Present value o( a future amount 

22 LOAhPAY Amount of fwyment on a kian 

23 REGWTTH Equal u>ithdrawals from ins«strT>ent to leave over 

24 SWUSK Simple discount analysis 

25 DAltVAL Equivalent & nonequivaleni dated values for oblig. 

26 ANNCIDEF Present value of deferred annuities 

27 MARKUP % f^arkup analysis tor items 

28 SINKFUMD Sinking fund amortiiation program 

29 BOMDVAL Value of a bond 

30 DEPLETE Depletion analysis 

31 BLACKSH Black Scfioies options analysis 

32 STOCVALl Expected return on stock via discounts dMdendi 

33 WARVAL Value o( a warrant 

34 BONDVAL2 Value of a bond 

35 EPSEST Estimate at future eomings per share for company 

36 BtTAALPH Computes alpha and t>ela variables for stock 

37 SHARPE I Portfolio selection model i.e. what stocks lo hold 

38 OfTWRlTE Optior writing computations 

39 RTVAL Value of a ngN 

40 EXPVAL E;ipected value analysis 

4 1 ElAYES Bayesian decisions 

42 VALPRIMF Value of perfect information 

43 VALADlriF Value of additional inlormatKm 

44 cmUTY Derives utility fuiK^on 

45 SIWT^EX Linear programming solution by sim^dex mrthod 
4b TRAHS Transportation method for linear programming 

47 EOQ Economic order quantity inventory model 

48 OUEUEI Siigle server queueing (waibrtg hr>e) model 

49 CVP Cost^olumeprcrfit analysis 

50 CONDPROF Condioonal profit tables 

51 OPTLOSS Opportunity loss tables 

52 FOUOQ Foied quar<ity econornic order quantity irndd 

53 FQTOWSH As atjove but with shortages pennitted 

54 FQTOQPB As atxive but with quantity piKe bre^u 

55 QUEUECB Cost benefit waiting line analysis 

56 MCFATiAL r*et cashflow analysis for simple investmer* 

57 PROFIMD Profit^lhty inden of a project 

58 CAPl Cap Asset Pr Model analysis of project 



59 WACC WeiqNed average cost of capital 

60 COMPBAL True rate on ban with compensaortg bal required 

61 DtSCBAL True rale on discounted ban 

62 MERGAMAL Merger analysts computaboni 

63 FURAT Financial ratios for a firrn 

64 rSPV INet present value of protect 

65 PRIMDLAS Laspeyres pnce index 

66 PRIMDPA Paasche price index 

67 ^jASJHD Constructs seasonal quantity indices tui [.ampany 

68 TIMETR Time series analysis linear trend 

69 TTMEMOV Time series analysis rrxsving average trend 

70 FtlPRIMF Future [Xice estimation with inflation 

71 MAILPAC Mailing list system 

72 LTTWRT Letter writing system-links **h MAILPAC 

73 SORT3 Sorts list of names 

74 LABEL 1 Shipping label maker 

75 LABELS fiame label maker 

76 BUSBUD DOME txisif>ess bookkeeping system 

77 TIMECLCK Computes weeks total hours from lirT>eciock info 

78 ACCTPAY In merrrary accounts payable system storage permrtlcd 

79 IMVOtCE Generate invoice on screen and pnnl on pnmet 

80 iMVErfT2 hi memory irtv^ntoty control system 

81 TELDIR Computeriied telephone directory 

82 TIMUSAH Time use analysis 

83 ASSlCn Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job aui^n. 

84 ACCTREC \n merriory accounts lecc.-vaWe system storage ok 

85 TERMSPAY Compares 3 metJiods of repayment of k»ans 

86 PAYMET Computes gross pay required for given net 

87 5ELLPR Computes selling pnce tor given after tai amount 

88 ARBCOMP Arbitrage computations 

89 DEPRSF Snking fund deprecialK>n 

90 UPSZOrtE Finds UPS zones from up code 

91 EJ^ELOPE Types envelope incluthng return address 

92 AOTOEXP Automobile expense analysis 

93 ITHSFILE Insurance policy file 

94 PAYROLL2 In memory payroll system 

95 DtLATiAL Dilution analysis 

96 LOANAFFD Loan amount a borrower can afford 

97 RENTPRCH Purchase pnce lor rental property 

98 SALELEAS Saleleaseback analysis 

99 RRCOMVBD Investor s rate of return on converlable bond 
100 PORTVAL9 Stock martlet portfolio storage-valuaDori program 



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80 Micro. September 1985 • 65 



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.:>--»jfe^ 




A Basic Programmer's 

Best Friend 



k. 



Crosscheck saves 

you debugging time and 

frustration by automaticaily 

cross-referencing Basic 

key words, variables, and 

GOSUB, GOTO, and Restore 

statements by line number. 



66 • 80 Micro. September 1985 



UMi 



by Raymond Pelzer 



Editor's note: The size of this cross-ref- 
erence program prohibits HO Micro from 
pubiishtng it as a source code listing. 
However, because the program is one we 
feel Is of widespread utility, we have 
published it as a space-saving data 
statements listing. If you'd rather not 
type in data statements, the /CMD pro- 
gram and source code, as well as this Ba- 
sic program, are available on l^oad 80 
(see p. 64 for ordering information). 

I ■ grams. In pro|Trams wilh a lot ol 
variables, you can wear yourself out 
irying lo nnd that one Aft that should be 
A%. or the Print statement that should be 
LFRINT. 

Although cross-reference utilities have 
been around since the days of the Model 
I, none has been available for TRSIX)S 
6.x until now. 

Crossrheek loads Model 4 Basic pro- 
grams from disk and eross-referenees 
them bv line numbers in GOSUB. GaiX3. 



^^_ 



and Restore statements, by Basic key 
words, by variables, or by any combina- 
tion of the Ihree (see the Program Ulsling). 
The program displays the resiilts on- 
screen and prints them out in 80- or 132- 
column format. 

Armed with a Crosscheck printout, you 
can go directly lo program lines that in- 
clude a referenced line number to cheek 
for errors or to ensure that an item isn't in 
any lines where it doesn't belong. 

Basic File Formats 

Before examining how Crosscheck 
works, you should understand Model 4 
Basic's file formal. The first byle of a 
Model 4 Basic disk file indicates whether 
you stored your Basic code in compressed 
(FF hexadecimal [hex]). ASCII (30-39 
hex), or protected (FE hex) fonnat. The 
standard Save command stores Basic pro- 
grams in compressed format, the one 
Crosscheck reads. 

In compressed format, all Basic pro- 
grams start at a fixed point in memory. 
Each program line starts with the 2-byte 
memon.' address nf the next line in least- 
significant byic/most-significant byte 
(LSB/MSB) formal (see Fig. I). 

The program's current line number 
comes next, as a 2-byte integer in LSB/ 
MSB format, followed by the rest of the 
line's code. The line tlien ends with a 00 
byle, indicating that the next 2 bytes, 
those that start the next line, identify the 
memory address lor the following line, 

This cycle repeats imtil Basic retrieves 
a 2-byte address of 00 OO. Hex listings of 
Basic programs always end with 00 00 00. 
one 00 byte ending the final line, and 00 



:> 



ct 



os& 



.ILeieJ^ 



e^c 



e toi^ 



tiuro*3®*^'^42fl 







00 representing the address of the next 
(nonexisle-ntl line. 

Model 4 Basic's 

Line Numbers and Constants 

Model 4 Basic stores line numbers aiid 
constants In a Jormat different from Model 
l/[ll Basic, which leaves line numbers and 
numeric constants in ASCII format. Model 
4 Basic saves line numbers in hex as 2- 
byte integers in LSB/MSB format and it 
compresses numeric constanis using spe- 
cial codes (see Table 1). It stores integers 
0-9 as single bytes in the range Il-IA 
hex. Integers 10-255 with an indicator (to- 
ken) byte of OF hex followed by the 1-byte 
hex number, and integers between 256 
and 32.767 with a token byte of IC hex 
followed by 2 bytes In l^B/MSB formal. 

In Model 4 Basic, all single-precision 
numbers appear as a token byte of 1 D hex 
followed by 4 hex bytes. All double-preci- 
sion numbers have a token byte of IF hex 
followed by 8 hex bytes. 

To Basic, negative numbers don't exist. 
It treats minus signs as separate entities 
from their associated numbers. This prin- 
ciple, known as unar\' minus, means thai 
Basic handles any negative number as a 
positive number that it subtracts from 
zero. For example. Basic represents - 5 as 
0-5. It leaves the minus sign encoded as 
F4 hex, which is also the compression (to- 
ken) code for subtraction. 

Key Words 

Some Model 4 Basic key word token 
codes are 2 bytes long. They consist of an 
FF hex byte followed by one of the stan- 
dard 1-bvte token codes. The Model 4/4P 



Disk System Owner's Manual provides 
an alphabetic list of these tokens (in deci- 
mal) by key word (sec the table. "Internal 
Codes for Basic Keywords.*' p. A-80). 

Variables 

Model 4 Basic allows variables ol up to 
40 characters. However, as variables 
names get longer. Basic execution slows 
down because of the increased character 
testing required to verify the variable 

While Model I/Ill Basic lets you tack the 
type declaration characters (%. #. !, or $) 
to the end of a variable. Model 4 Basic 
treats them as part of the variable. The 
same holds true for array variables: the 
left parenthesis is part of the 40-character 
limit 

An Example 

Figure 1 shows a Basic program and its 
equivalent hex listing. The first byte in 
the hex listing (FF hex) represents the 
standard compressed Basic iile. The next 
2 bytes (17 7F) tell Basle that the second 
program line starts at memory location 
7F17 hex. and the OA 00 bytes that follow 
show the line number as 10. 

The main portion of (he line begins with 
the variable X (58). a space (20). the token 
code for the equals sign (Fl). another 
space (20). and the number 5(16. one of 
the special I -byte integers). The 00 byte 
signals the end of the tirst line. 

Basic then looks for a new line address 
(IF 7F|. This is followed by (he 2 bytes tor 
the line number 20 ( 14 00). the token code 
for the Print command (91). a space (20). 
the variable X (58). and the 00 byte that 
ends the line. 



Line 30 shows an Integer value of 100 

in the compressed form of OF 64, and line 
40 provides a line number reference to 
line 20. compressed as OE 14 (X). 

In line 50. the byte sequence ID 00 00 
5C 85 represents the single-precision 
number 27.5. The ID byte tells Basic that 
the next 4 bytes are special cases. With- 
out this byte, Basic could interpret the 00 
byte as an cnd-of-linc indicator and 
scramble the rest of the program. 

The 00 00 00 bytes at the end of the hex 
listing signal the end of the program. 

About Crosscheck 

Type in and run the Listing. It includes 
a form of error-checking known as a 
checksum. When you run the program, it 
adds the numbers in each line and checks 
the total against a predetermined sum for 
that line. If the numbers fail to match, the 
program displays a message telling you in 
which line the errors occur and the pro- 
gram stops executing. Carefully check the 
data line and the checksum total and cor- 
rect the error. 

Run tlie program again. When you have 
all the data statements correct, lines 180- 



8CS 



.111.!.)"- • '-•"■ 



System Requirements 

Model 4/4 P 

64K RAM 

TRSDOS 6.x 

Disk Basic 

Printer optional 



80 Micro. September 1985 • 67 



From Computer Plus to YOU . . . 
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com 




P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton. MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TBS-SO IS o registered trademark of Tandy Corp 



CItcle '37 on Reader Service card 



10 X = 5 












20 PRINT X 












30X = X+ 100 












40 IF X < 1000 THEN 20 










SOX = 300 + 27.5 












60 PRINT X 












70 END 












FF 17 7F OA 00 


58 


20 


Fl 20 16 00 IF 


7F 14 00 91 


X 


20 58 00 2E 7F 


IE 


00 


58 20 Fl 20 58 


20 F3 20 OF 


X X. X . . 


64 00 42 7F 28 


00 


8B 


20 58 20 F2 20 


IC E8 03 20 


d.B.(.. X . ... 


rX) 20 OE 14 00 


00 


56 


7F 32 00 58 20 


Fl 20 IC 2C 


V. 2.X . -. 


01 20 F3 20 ID 


00 


00 


5C 85 00 5E 7F 


3C 00 01 20 


\. ■•■<.■ 


58 00 64 7F 46 


00 


81 


00 00 00 




X.d.F.. .. 


Figure 


. Sampl 


e Basic program in compressed form. 



Line numbers referenced: 20 = > 40 



Basic key words referenced 


+ 


30 


50 


< 


40 




= 


10 


30 50 


END 


70 




IK 


40 




PRINT 


20 


60 


THEN 


40 





Basic variables referenced: X 10 20 30 40 50 60 

Figure 2. The program In Fig. I cross-referenced by line numbers, key 
uxtrds, and variables. 



Special 1-byte integers in Model 4 Basic 








Nnmbcr Hex byte 
Inflle 


Nnmbcr Hex byte 
infUe 


11 

1 12 

2 13 

3 14 

4 15 




5 
6 

7 
8 
9 


16 

17 
18 
19 
lA 


Other numeric representations used: 








Nnmber 


HexByt 


e 


Followed by 


Integers from 10-255 
Integers from 256-32767 
All single-precision numbers 
All double-precision numbers 


OF 
IC 
ID 
IF 




1 byte 

2 bytes • 
4 bytes • 
8 bytes ' 


' Basic stores these numbers in the form shown on p. 
Disk System Owner's Manual. 


2-171 of the Model 4/4P 


Table 1. Model 4 Basic codes for nunteric constants. 



Pu-uneter 


Description 


LINES 


Cross-reference line numbers 


KEYWDS 


Cross-reference kev words 


VAR 


Cross-reference variables 


PRT 


Print cross-reference 


WIDE 


Print cross-reference In 132-calumn format 




Table 2. Crosscheck parameters. 



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80 Micro, September 1985 • 69 



Circle 383 on Reader Service card. 




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220 win write the program file BASREF/ 
CMD. 

Data lines 540-3030 contain Cross- 
check's object code in decimal format. Data 
lines 270-5 10 contain checksum totals. 

Line 40 dimensions the checksum ar- 
ray, and line 50 reads the checksum data 
Into the array. Lines 70-150 is a routine 
to read each number in a data Hne (from 
lines 540-3030) and add it to a total. 

Using Crosscheck 

To run Crosscheck, at DOS Ready, type 
in BASREF followed by the name of the 
compressed Basic file you want to cross- 
reference and the cross-reference param- 
eters in parentheses (see Table 2 for a list 
of parameters). The parameters tell Cross- 
check to reference a program by line num- 
bers, key words, or variables, and let you 
select the printout option. 

Crosscheck automatically invokes any 
parameter you omit in parentheses (ex- 
cept printer parameters) unless you spec- 
ify otherwise. For example, the command 
BASREF APS/BAS (LINES = NO.KEYWDS. 
VAR.PRTWIDE) tells Crosscheck to cross- 
reference the program APS/BAS by key 
words and variables, but not by line num- 
bers, and to copy the display to the printer 
in 132-column format. You can abbreviate 
parameters to their first letter. 

Crosscheck temporarily saves the posi- 
tion of the file name you typed in while it 
displays the banner message, enables the 
break key, and clears any detected break 
or shift-@ entries. It then restores the file 
name and copies it to the flic control block 
(FCB) using the ©FSPEC supervisor call. 
This call also checks for a valid file name 
and converts lowercase letters to upper- 
case. 

If Crosscheck identifies an invalid file 
name, it exits to TRSDOS Ready. It tests 
the parameters (if any) for proper syntax. 
A parameter error forces an error message 
and aborts the program to TRSDOS 
Ready. 

It also tests the special piirameter entry 
of an equals sign with nothing after It. 
For example. Crosscheck considers 
KEYWDS = the same as KEYWDS = OFF. 

After Crosscheck tests and validates all 
parameters, it rechccks the printer pa- 
rameter. If you aren't using a printer. 
Crosscheck ignores the wide parameter. 

If you're using the printer with the wide 
display. Crosscheck modifies three dis- 
play buffer measurements to function at 
the longer length. 

The program then opens the file and 
checks the first hex byte for FF hex. If the 
ojjen file creates an error, or if the first 
byte isn't FF, Crosscheck displays an er- 
ror message and exits to TRSDOS Ready. 

Once Crosscheck opens and tests the 
file, it stores the top of available memory 
and displays a "Loading file" message. 
The program reads and discards the two 
address bytes, then loads the line number 
to the storage buffer. 



As each program byte loads. Cross- 
check compares the top of the buffer to the 
top of available memory. If Crosscheck 
reaches the top before it finishes loading 
the program, it displays an error message 
and returns to DOS, 

After collecting the line number in the 
buffer. Crosscheck continues reading 
bytes to the buffer until it finds a 00 hex 
byte. It then reads and discards the 2 ad- 
dress bytes that follow It. and continues if 
the bytes aren't 00 00. 

Crosscheck deletes bytes between quo- 
tation marks (and the quotation marks 
themselves) after a Print statement, and 
deletes bytes after a Remark statement 
(REM or ') or a data statement to the 00 
(end-of-line) byte. 

Crosscheck ignores bytes for special nu- 
meric constant tokens and the associated 
bytes that follow. An OE hex byte signals 
a line number reference, so Crosscheck 
loads the next 2 bytes to the buffer. This 
prevents Crosscheck from misreading an 
embedded 00 byte as the end of the line. 

When the program has loaded the file 
and the last address bytes are 00 00, 
Crosscheck loads an FF FF byte pair to the 
buffer as the final line number (no valid 
Basic line number is that large). 

To restore the file name. Crosscheck 
closes the file. This lets the program use 
the FCB as the end of the display line. The 
program then skips a few lines and is 
ready to scan. 

Referencing Line Numbers 

Crosscheck tests Its parameter flag 
bytes to see if it must look at program line 
numbers. If not. Crosscheck skips to the 
key word scan. 

IS Crosscheck is examining line num- 
bers, it loads the first line number to the 
HL register. The program eventually loads 
it in ASCII decimal form to the beginning 
of the display line through the ©HEXDEC 
supervisor call. 

Crosscheck then checks the file for OE 
bytes (signaling line number references), 
and compares them to the line numlwr in 
HL. When the values match. Crosscheck 
transfers the line number holding the ref- 
erence to the display buffer. 

This process continues until Cross- 
check has scanned the whole program 
once. It then loads HL with FFFF at the 
end of the buffer. At that point. Cross- 
check has found all references. 

A subroutine loads each reference as re- 
quested to the first available space in the 
display line (every seven spaces). After 
each addition, the subroutine tests the 
display line for a full condition and re- 
turns if it has room for another entry. 

When the line is full, the program sends 
it to another macro for handling. The rou- 
tine then erases the line and resets it to an 
empty state for more references. 

When the routine receives the FFFF 
bytes, it displays any partial line of refer- 
ences, or returns if the line is empty. 



70 • 80 Micro. September 1985 



CifCte 159 on Reader Service cart. 



After the program logs a \'aUd reference 
to the display line, it replaces the OE byte 
with a 01 bvte in the buffer. After the pro- 
gram tests all valid references (all refer- 
ences to existing line numbers), it makes 
an additional pass to look for remaining 
OE bytes and reports references to any 
line numbers that don't exist. It displays 
these as the line number of the line con- 
taining the t>ad reference, followed by the 
bad line number. 

One exception to watch for is any refer- 
ence to a line zero, usually a line such as 
ON ERROR OarO 0. Since this valid line 
resets the error trap in a program, no line 
zero exists in the actual program to 
match, and It appears as a false error. 

However, this permits quick location of 
error-trap routines. Since most programs 
contain few error-checking routines. 
Crosscheck prints them one reference per 
line. Once Crosscheck completes the 
pass, it looks at key word references. 

Referencing Key Words 

As with the line number references. 
Crosscheck tests to determine whether 
you requested a cross-reference of Basic 
key words. If you haven't, the program 
skips to the variables scan. Otherwise, the 
HL register points to a table of key words 
and token codes. 

The key word table is alphabetical to 
force the scan and the listing into alpha- 
betical order. Crosscheck uses the IX reg- 
ister as it scans the buffer for bytes with 
the high-order bit set (the sign of a key 
word token). 

As Crosscheck finds each new token in 
the key word table, it loads the code in the 
BC register. B is 00 or FF hex (depending 
on whether the token is normal or ex- 
tended), and C contains the other token 
byte. The program then loads the key 
word to the display line and begins scan- 
ning line numlx-rs for a token match. 

Referencing Variables 

Crosscheck then scans the Basic pro- 
gram for variables references. This is the 
most complex part of the program, since 
Crosscheck must keep the variables in al- 
phabetical order without building them 
into a new table and sorting. 

The solution is to use multiple scans, 
which are sufficiently fast in machine lan- 
guage. First the program searches the 
buffer for the first character in the range 
A-Z (the only legal characters for the be- 
ginning of a variable). 

Crosscheck compares these to the char- 
acter in the first position of the temporary 
holding area for the variable. If the new 
first character found is less, the entire 
new variable replaces the one in the tem- 
porary holding area. 

Scanning for valid characters ends 

when Crosscheck flnds an invalid char- 
acter or a left parenthesis such as V(X). If 
the new variable found is shorter in length 
than the one in the temporary holding 



area. Crosscheck fills the remainder of the 
area with FF bytes to ensure sorting the 
shortest one first. 

If the first character is equal in value, 
Crosscheck compares each following 
character to the same relative character 
in the temporary holding area until it 
finds an invalid character or a character 
of lower value. 

When Crosscheck has completed one 
pass through the buffer, the temporary' 
holding area contains the variable lowest 
in sorting order. The program displays the 
variable on a line and sets the IX register 
back to the start of the buffer to scan for 
the variable. 

After the program sends each line num- 
ber with a reference to the display line, it 
zaps the variable with 01 bytes. The next 
scan for a variable finds only the next low- 
est variable each time it goes through the 
buffer. 

This process continues until the search 
pass finds no valid variables. Crosficheck 
then displays a message indicating the 
end of the cross-reference, sends a form- 
feed character to the printer (if used), and 
exits to TRSDOS Ready. 

Random Notes 

Some parts of the program call a pause 
routine to detect shift-® or break char- 
acters. 

If you press the break key or if an error 
occurs. Crosscheck loads the HL register 
with nonzero values before exiting to 
DOS. TRSDOS 6.x lets you use a nonzero 
HL to abort any active Job control lan- 
guage (JCL) file, if a JCL file calls Cross- 
check. 

Also, Crosscheck single-spares all 
cross-references by line number and key 
word to save paper. You can find each new 
reference list by looking for an entry in the 
left-most column in the display. 

Crosscheck gives you a powerful utility 
that quickly runs a full cross-reference on 
most TRSDOS 6.X Basle programs. Cross- 
check also prints a list for debugging or doc- 
umenting your programs. A cross- 
reference run for the sample program in 
Fig. 1 appears in Fig. 2. 

Lastly, don't be concerned if you see 
that your variables listing suddenly con- 
tains the variables AS or BASE. Basic 
doesn't convert the word AS into a token 
code when used in a Field statement, but 
leaves it in ASCII format. This means that 
the line 

10 FIELD 1 , 20 AS A$. 20 AS B», 30 AS C$. 40 
ASD$ 

would show four references to the var- 
iable AS in line 10. The same holds true 
for the word BASE, which is in ASCII 
format in the OPTION BASE statement. 
Once you get past these two items, 
you're all set.H 



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TOLL FREE ORDERLINE 
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Informalion Number 
(414) 355-5454 



flO Miao. September 1985 • 71 



CIrcto 538 on Raader Service card. 



TRS-80 



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Orcle 498 on Reader Service card. 



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Mailing Lisl Inwenlory - 

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YES!! Demos are available on all systems'" 



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P.O. Box 205 

Barre, Vermont 0S641 

802-479-0160 



Store and Dealership Iriquiries Welcomed 

us DOS XEMX TraoernarJis ol Mi, nnull Curp 



Program Listing. Crosscheck. 



II 'Read checKsun totals into accay 

20 OH ERROR GOTO 238 

3» CLSiPRINT 9 IBB, ■LOADING CHECKSUM ARRAY" 

40 QIH A(25e) 

51 FOR K-1 TO 2S>:READ A(I[):HEXT 

61 'Calculate checkBim totals 

70 CLS:PRINT 9 185, "CALCULATING CHECKSUM TOTALS'i PBIHTiPHINT 

80 FOB J-1 TO 250 

90 FOR K-1 TO 12:READ X: T-T*X: NEXT 

1B0 IF T-A(J) THEN T-B : GOTO 14B 

110 CL-IHT(J/1B1 •10+270 

120 L-530+J*10: IS-RIGBT$(STRS(J) ,1] : IF VAL(ISl-0 THEN 1$-" 10' 

13B PRINT "TOTAL OF LINE "jLj" DOES HOT EQUAL CHECKSUM TOTAL (LINE "jCLj" 1TB1 

']I$]")": FRIHTiPRINT "CORRECT DATA AND RUN PROGRAH AGAIN" :CLOSE: END 

141 NEXT 

15B IF TO A{J! THEN CL-IHT! ( J-1) /Ifll •lB-t27»:GOTO 120 

16B ' 

17B 'Write CMS file 

IBB CI^iPRlNT 9 190, "WHITING CMD FILE" 

190 RESTORE 54^ 

20B OPEN "0",1, "BftSREF/CMD" 

21B FOR K-1 TO 2997: READ AiFRINTIl ,CHR$ (A) ; iNEXT 

220 CLOSE I END 

23B IF ERR-4 THEN 15B 

240 ON ERROR GOTO B : RESUME 

25B ' 

2G0 'Data BtatenentH for checkHUB verification 

27B DATA 497,945,1849,1117,971,927,645,1167,1198,689 

2BB DATA 1266 , 1361 , 1134 , 1375 , 13BE , 997 ,780 , 803 , 1357 ,1167 

29B DATA 1495, IE38,1B01, 1704, 1490, 1306,1333, 1012, 947, 939 

3BB DATA 1111,1806,1824,1515,1538,1421,2835,1879,1099,1879 

310 DATA 1129, 1171, 1188, 347, 389, 384, 384, 384,384,384 

320 DATA 384,384,384,384,365,1627,1689,1862,1885,1885 

338 DATA 1481,1133,1196,1126,1516,722,1358,1695,2235,1374 

348 DATA 1343,1458,1226,1167,1484,1148,1285,1204,742,1686 

35B DATA 1488,1752,1211,1371,1216,808,1321,556,1867,1725 

360 DATA 1183,1625,1026,795,1459,1679,1346,1228,1788,1449 

37B DATA 1328,1014,1018,1181,968,785,1483,1149,1675,488 

380 DATA 1382,955,1687,1261,1262,1320,693,1267,1323,819 

390 DATA 1860,1114,2815,3068,3860,2412,1254,1262,946,1451 

418 DATA 1111,1362,1415,1181,1462,963,1399,1221,1559,1337 

418 DATA 1602,1480,1613,1429,1442,1396,1138,1384,1582,1349 

428 DATA 1218,1297,1845,1781,1388,1446,1208,1351,1799,1224 

438 DATA 1481,643,1184,972,1829,1420,1877,1292,1357,1231 

448 DATA 1356,1878,1108,1242,1197,1451,1841,1125,965,1063 

458 DATA 1835,1388,1170,1292,1287,1273,1340,1158,1196,1381 

468 DATA 1280,1298,1348,1132,113 8,923,1684,1149,1185,1365 

470 DATA 1388,1232,1139,1338,1216,1335,1245,1164,1121,997 

480 DATA 1096,1354,1346,1360,1318,1249,1269,1813,1809,1154 

498 DATA 1379,1154,1253,1340,1143,1128,1408,1824,940,1073 

580 DATA 1202,668,618,796,858,1185,779,1877,1223,662 

518 DATA 929,777,715,712,668,1569,585,1097,1818,272 

528 ■ 

538 ' Data Stateaents foe CMD tile 

548 DATA 5,6,66,65,83,82,6 9,78,1,2,8,48 

550 DATA 229,33,116,58,62,10,239,33,8,0,62,103 

568 DATA 239,62,181,239,253,203,18,134,253,283,10,142 

578 DATA 225 , 17 , 111 ,60 ,62,76,23 9 ,48 ,7 ,33 , 187 ,5 8 

560 DATA 62,10,239,281,17,16,59,62,17,239,40,7 

598 DATA 33,203,58,62,18,239,281,6,5,33,18,59 

680 DATA 35,35,35,35,35,35,35,35,126,183,40,16 

610 DATA 238,64,32,12,126,254,126,48,7,33,283,58 

628 DATA 62,18,239,181,35,35,16,224,56,76,59,183 

638 DATA 40,21,56,78,59,163,48,15,33,126,8,34 

648 DATA 141,50,33,126,58,34,211,51,34,232,51,253 

658 DATA 283,18,198,253,283,18,166,33,82,59,17,111 

668 DATA 68,6,0,62,59,23 9,194,161,49,62,3,239 

678 DATA 1 94 ,161 , 4 9, 254 ,255 ,48 , 37 ,33 , 222 ,5 B, 62 , 18 

688 DATA 239,201,18,78,185,188,181,32,182,111,117,110 

690 DATA 188,32,45,32,110,111,119,32,106,111,97,108 

708 DATA 185,110,103,46,46,46,18,13,33,158,46,62 

718 DATA 18,239,33,8,0,6,8,62,188,239,34,68 

728 DATA 59,33,144,68,285,149,49,71,285,149,49,184 

730 DATA 32,14,183,32,11,62,255,119,35,285,178,49 

748 DATA 119,195,158,58,285,149,49,119,35,285,170,49 

7S0 DATA 205,149,49,119,35,205,170,49,205,149,49,254 

760 DATA 34,282,135,49,1,2,8,49,119,35,205,178 

770 DATA 49,254,8,40,199,254,228,40,187,254,255,32 

780 DATA 18,285,149,49,119,35,285,170,49,24,221,254 

790 DATA 132,40,89,254,143,40,85,254,14,32,18,285 

808 DATA 149,49,119,35,285,178,49,205,149,49,119,35 

818 DATA 285,178,49,24,191,254,28,32,8,43,6,2 

828 DATA 285,114,49,24,179,254,29,32,8,43,6,4 

838 DATA 285,114,49,24,167,254,31,32,6,43,6.8 

848 DATA 205,114,49,254,15,32,5,205,149,49,24,18 

650 DATA 254,15,216,246,46,254,27,210,248,48,43,195 

860 DATA 248,48,205,149,49,16,251,201,205,149,49,254 

670 DATA 0,32,249,119,35,205,178,49,195,208,48,285 

880 DATA 149,49,254,34,282,248,48,254,8,40,236,24 

890 DATA 242,213,205,8,52,17,111,68,62,3,239,209 

988 DATA 280,79,283,241,33,255,255,62,26,239,22 9,213 

918 DATA 237,91,80,59,235,183,237,82,209,225,208,33 

928 DATA 192,49,62,18,239,62,22,239,10,66,65,83 

930 DATA 73,67,32,112,114,111,103,114,97,109,32,115 

940 DATA 105,122,181,32,181,128,99,101,101,188,115,32 

950 DATA 97,116,97,105,186,97,96,108,181,32,189,181 

9«8 DATA 189,111,114,121,32,45,32,97,98,111,114,116 

978 DATA 46,18,10,13,144,68,8,0,0,8,32,32 

9B0 DATA 1,2,8,50,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32 

990 DATA 32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32 

1080 DATA 32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,3] 

leiB DATA 32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32 

1820 DATA 32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32 

Usltng continued 



72 • 80 Micro, September 1985 



Listing continued 



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DATA 



32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,12,32,32 

32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32 

32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32 

32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32 

32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32 

32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,13 

229,213,197,245,33,254,49,17,255,49,54,32 

1,7 8,0,23 7,176,2 41,193,20 9,225,201,17,111 

60,62,60,23 9,194,161,4 9,33,111,60,1,32 

0,62,3,23 7,177,5 4,13,33,91,60,205,150 

51,14,13,205,165,51,14,13,205,165,51,58 

70,5 9,103,202,223,52,33,122,51,205,150,51 

33, 144, 60, 35, 31, 248,4 9, 42, 144, 60, 34, 250 

49,34,252,49,17,254,49,62,97,23 9,33,61 

62,34,4,50,221,33,146,60,237,75,144,60 

237,67,252,49,42,250,49,221,126,0,183,40 

42,205,8,52,254,14,32,61,1,2,0,51 

221,35,221,7 8,0,221,3 5,221,70,0,221,35 

183,229,237,66,225,3 2,2 24,20 5,180,51,6 2,1 

221,119,253,221,119,254,221,119,255,24,20 8,221 

35,221,78,0,221,35,221,70,0,221,35,237 

67,252,4 9,62,255,185,32,187,184,48,6,24 

182,221,35,24,17 8,205,180,51,42,24 8,49,35 

126,254,14,32,4,35,35,24,246,183,32,243 

35,78,35,70,35,34,248,49,237,67,250,49 

62,255,184,32,4,185,202,6 9,52,197,225,17 

254,49,62,97,239,33,61,62,34,4,50,195 

228,50,76,105,110,101,32,76,117,109,98,101 

114,115,32,114,101,102,101,114,101,110,99,101 

100,58,10,13,7,50,62,10,23 9,58,76,59 

183,20 0,6 2,14,23 9,194,161,4 9,201,62,2,23 9 

58,76,5 9,183,200,62,6,23 9,194,161,4 9,201 

229,197,213,295,8,52,42,252,49,62,255,188 

32,3,189,40,22,237,91,148,51,62,97,23 9 

19,19,237,83,148,51,33,76,50,235,183,237 

62,56,41,237,91,14 8,51,3 3,7,58,183,237 

62,48,29,33,76,50,126,2 54,32,32,3,43 

24,24 8,35,54,13,33,25 4,49,205,150,51,205 

128,50,33,7,1,2,0,52,50,34,14 8,51 

209,193,225,201,253,203,10,70,32,35,253,203 

10,78,200,253,203,10,142,253,203,10,150,213 

245,62,8,23 9,40,12,2 53,20 3,10,70,32,9 

253,203,10,86,40,23 9,241,209,201,33,5 8,52 

62,10,23 9,62,22,23 9,10,10,91,66,114,10] 

97,107,93,10,13,14,13,205,165,51,14,13 

20 5,16 5,51,2 21,33,14 6,60,237,75,144,60,62 

255,184,32,4,185,202,213,52,221,126 ,0,205 

8,52,183,40,45,254,14,221,35,32,241,221 

110,0,221,35,221,10 2,0,2 21,3 5,17,206,5 2 

197,62,97,23 9,193,197,22 5,17,17 0,52,197,62 

97,23 9,193,33,164,52,205,150,51,205,8,52 

24,20 2,221,35,221,7 8,0,2 21,35,221,70,0 

221,35,24,17 9,76,105,110,101,32,35,4 8,4 8 

4 8,4 8,4 8,32,114,101,102,101,114,101,110,99 

101,115.32,110,111,110,45,101,120,105,115,116 

97,110,116,32,108,105,110,101,32,35,57,57 

57,57,57,46,13,14,13,205,165,51,14,13 

205,165,51,58,74,59,183,202,196,53,33,124 

53,20 5,15 0,51,14,13,20 5,165,51,33,154,5 5 

221,33,144,60,126,35,183,202,10 9,53,254,255 

1,2,0,53,6,0,32,3,71,126,35,79 

205,128,50,17,254,4 9,126,203,127,32,8,183 

40,5,18,3 5,19,24,243,2 21,94,0,221,35 

221,86,0,221,35,237,83,252,49,62,255,186 

32,8,187,32,5,205,180,51,24,190,221,126 

0,221,35,183,40,221,254,14,32,6,221,35 

221,35,24,32,184,40,18,254,255,32,4,221 

35,24,21,185,32,18,62,255,184,40,13,24 

8,221,126,0,221,35,185,32,3,205,180,51 

205,8,5 2,24,201,205,180,51,14,13,205,165 

51,14,13,205,16 5,51,24,7 2,10,66,65,83 

73,67,32,75,101,121,119,111,114,100,115,32 

114,101,102,101,114,101,110,99,101,100,5 8,13 

10,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255 

255,25 5,2 55,255,25 5,255,25 5,2 55,255,2 55,255,255 

255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255 

255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,5 8,72,59,183 

202,133,55,205,128,50,14,13,205,165,51,33 

104,55,205,150,51,221,33,144,60,33,153,53 

6,42,54,255,35,16,251,6,42,33,153,53 

221,94,0,2 21,35,221,86,0,221,35,62,255 

186,32,4,187,202,16 8,54,221,1,2,0,54 

126,0,221,35,183,40,2 2 4,205,8,5 2,254,14 

32,6,221,35,221,35,24,235,254,65,56,231 

254,91,4 8,227,190,56,51,32,72,35,5,40 

68,221,126,0,221,3 5,103,40,186,205,123,54 

32,19,4 8,25,119,175,176,40,5,35,54,255 

16,251,6,42,33,153,53,24,186,126,254,255 

40,244,43,24,236,190,40,209,4 8,23,119,5 

40,232,221,126,0,183,40,221,221,35,35,205 

123,54,56,206,40,236,43,2 4,20 8,221,126,0 

183,221,35,202,231,53,205,123,54,56,199,40 

240,24,195,7 9,205,8,52,254,91,4 8,30,254 

65,4 8,30,254,37,200,254,36,200,254,35,200 

254,33,200,254,40,32,2,55,201,254,4 8,56 

4,25 4,5 8,56,4,246,1,121,201,175,121,201 

58,153,53,254,255,202,133,55,6,43,33,153 

53,126,254,255,40,3,35,16,248,54,13,33 

152,53,205,150,51,221,33,144,60,221,94,0 

221,35,221,86,0,221,35,237,83,252,49,62 

255,186,32,19,187,32,16,205,188,51,33,153 

53,6,42,54,255,35,16,251,195,217,53,33 

153,53,20 5,8,52,221,126,0,221,35,183,40 

204,2 54,14,32,1,2,0,5 5,6,221,35,221 

35,24,232,254,&5,56,Z£S,Z54,91,4e,2£4,19t 

40,19,221,126,0,221,35,183,40,17 5,205,123 

54,56,20 8,40,241,2 21,43,24,202,221,34,102 



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55,3 5,126,2 54,13,3 2,10,221,126,0,20 5,123 
54,40,219,24,13,2 21,126,0,190,3 2,211,221 
35,205,123,54,48,227,205,180,51,221,229,221 

42,10 2,55,221,43,221,126,0,2 05,123,54,32 
9,62,1,221,119,0,221,35,48,239,221,225 
24,137,0,0,10,66,65,83,73,67,32,86 
97,114,105,97,98,108,101,115,32,114,101,10 2 
101,114,101,110,99,101,100,58,13,33,82,60 
205,150,51,58,76,5 9,183,33,0,0,200,14 
12,62,6,23 9,24,245,220,39,245,42,243,43 
244,45,246,47,242,60,241,61,240,62,255,134 
65,66,83,248,65,78,68,25 5,149,65,83,67 
255,142,65,64,7 8,171,65,85,84,7 9,182,67 
65,76,76,255,158,67,68,66,76,165,67,72 
65,73,78,255,150,67,72,82,36,255,156,67 
73,78,84,146,67,78,6 9,65,82,195,67,76 
7 9,83,6 9,15 9,67,76,63,184,67,7 9,77,77 
79,7 6,153,67,79,78,84,255,140,67,79,83 
1,2,0,56,255,157,67,83,7 8,71,25 5,17 2 

67.86.6 8,255,170,67,86,73,255,171,67,86 
83,132,68,65,84,65,222,68,65,64,69,36 
151,68,69,70,176,66,69,70,68,66,76,174 
68,69,70,73,78,64,175,68,69,70,83,78 
71,17 3,6 8,6 9,70,83,84,82,17 0,68,69,76 

6 9,84,6 9,134,68,73,77,167,6 9,6 8,73,64 
162,69,76,83,69,129,69,76,66,255,173,69 

79.70.251.69.81.86.166.6 9,82,65,63,69 
215,69,62,76,216,69,82,82,168,69,62,82 

7 9,82,223,69,82,82,83,36,255,139,6 9,88 
80,192,70,73,69,76,66,255,159,70,73,86 
212,70,7 8,130,70,7 9,82,255,143,70,82,6 9 
193,71,6 9,84,141,71,7 9,63,85,66,137,71 

79.84.7 9,255,154,72,6 9,88,36,139,73,70 
252,73,77,80,224,73,7 8,75,6 9,89,36,255 
144,73,78,80,133,73,7 8,60,85,84,219,73 
78,83,84,82,255,133,73,78,84,200,75,73 
76,76,255,129,76,69,79,84,36,255,146,76 
69,76,136,76,69,84,17 7,76,73,76,69,147 
76,73,83,84,15 8,76,76,73,83,84,196,76 
79,65,68,255,17 4,76,79,67,1,2,0,57 
255,175,76,79,70,255,138,76,79,71,255,155 
76,80,79,83,157,76,80,82,73,78,84,201 

76.83.6 9,84,225,77,6 9,77,197,77,6 9,82 

71.6 9,255,131,77,73,68,36,255,17 8,77,75 
6 8,36,255,17 6,77,7 5,73,36,2 5 5,177,77,7 5 
83,36,253,77,7 9,6 8,199,78,65,77,69,148 
76,69,87,131,78,69,88,84,214,78,79,84 
255,153,7 9,67,84,36,14 9,7 9,7 8,191,7 9,80 

6 9,7 8,186,7 9,60,64,73,7 9,7 8,249,79,82 
156,7 9,85,84,25 5,151,80,6 9,6 9,7 5,152,01 

7 9,75,6 9,255,145,80,79,83,145,80,82,73 
7 6,84,194,80,85,84,187,82,6 5,7 8,6 8,7 9 
77,135,82,69,65,68,143,82,6 9,77,172,62 

6 9,7 8,85,7 7,140,82,6 9,83,84,7 9,82,6 9 
16 9,82,6 9,83,85,77,6 9,142,82,6 9,64,85 

82.7 8,255,130,82,73,71,72,84,36,255,136 
62,7 8,68,255,17 9,82,7 9,67,202,82,83,69 
84, 13 6, U2, 85, 7 8, 203, 83, 65, 66, 6 9, 255, 13 2 

83.71.78.255.137.83.73.7 8,205,83,79,85 

7 8,6 8,255,15 2,83,80,65,67,6 9,36,213,83 
80,67,40,255,135,83,81,82,210,83,84,69 
80,144,83,84,1,2,0,5 8,79,80,2 5 5,147 
83,84,82,36,217,63,84,82,7 3,7 8,71,36 
165,83,87,65,60,189,83,89,83,84,6 9,77 

2 09,64,65,66,40,255,141,84,65,78,208,84 
72,6 9,7 8,226,84,73,77,6 9,36,207,84,7 9 
164,84,62,7 9,70,70,163,84,82,79,7 8,218 
85,83,73,7 8,71,211,85,83,82,2 5 5,14 8,66 
65,76,221,86,65,62,60,84,82,150,87,65 
7 3,84,181,87,69,78,68,180,87,72,73,76 

6 9,183,87,82,73,84,69,250,88,79,82,254 
92,247,94,0,10,77,111,100,101,10 6,32,52 
32,66,65,83,73,67,32,67,114,111,115,115 
45,82,101,102,101,114,101,110,99,101,32,65 
116,105,10 6,105,116,121,10,86,101,114,115,105 
111,110,32,4 9,4 6,4 8,46,4 8,32,32,32,82 
74,80,46,32,32,48,54,47,50,52,47,56 
52,10,13,10,66,97,100,32,102,105,108,101 
115,112,101,99,10,10,13,10,80,97,114,97 
109,101,116,101,114,32,69,114,114,111,114,10 
10,13,10,70,105,108,101,32,105,115,32,7 8 

7 9,84,32,105,110,32,115,116,97,110,100,97 
114,100,32,99,111,10 9,112,114,101,115,115,101 
1,84,0,5 9,100,32,66,65,83,73,67,32 
102,111,114,109,97,116,33,10,10,13,128,86 

76.73.7 8,6 9,83,3 2,0,70,59,86,86,65 
62,32,32,32,0,72,5 9,86,7 5,6 9,89,67 
68,03,0,74,5 9,86,80,62,84,32,32,32 
0,76,5 9,86,87,73,6 8,6 9,32,32,0,7 6 
59,0,255,255,255,255,255,255,0,0,0,0 
0,0,1,31,82,60,10,10,6 9,110,100,32 
111,102,32,67,114,111,115,115,45,62,101,102 
101,114,101,110,99,101,32,102,111,114,32,1 
4,143,60,13,0,2,2,0,48 




80 Micro. September 19B5 • 73 



Price Changes 
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80 Micro, September 1985 • 75 



PROJECT 80 / by Roger C. Atford 



Memories are Made of This: 

An I/O-Accessed 

Memory Board 



Now that MS-DOS computers can 
access megabytes of memory. TRS- 
80 users feel left behind. This months 
Project 80 will rectify that: It's an input/ 
output- (lyO-) accessed memory board. 
While the board I'll describe has only 
limited memory, you can add almost as 
much memory as you want. And with 
the proper software driver, you can use 
this memory board as a high-speed RAM 
disk. Also, with certain RAM chips, you 
can access special information when- 
ever you turn on the computer. 

The computer industry supports 
a memory device standard known as 
JEDEC that dictates compatible pin ar- 
rangements for RAM and ROM devices. 
You can Install a number of memory de- 
vices in a socket that conforms to the 
JEDEC standard. In addition, on-board 
jumpers associated with the socket often 
allow for slight pin differences between 
devices. You can buy both 24-pin and 
28-pin JEDEC devices, and 24-pin de- 
vices also work tn a 28-pin JEDEC 
socket. 

The block diagram for the 1/O-ac- 
cessed JEDEC memory board appears in 
Fig. 1 ; see the Photo for a picture of it. 
The memory board contains a 24-pin 
JEDEC standard socket, so you can install 
a 2K or 4K ROM/EPROM or 2K static 
RAM. You access the memory device via 
I/O commands from the TRS-80. instead 
of from memory space. This is particu- 
larly beneficial since many computers 
lack additional processor memory space. 

24-Pin JEDEC 
Memory Devices 

You can install a number of devices on 
the JEDEC memory board, including 
{but not limited to) the 2716 EPROM 
(2K). the 2732A EPROM (4K}. and the 
6116 static RAM (2K). All represent com- 
mon and inexpensive memory devices. 

Another JEDEC -compatible device 
useful in many applications is the Mos- 
tck Zeropower RAM chip [2K] shown, in- 
stalled, in the Photo. This chip works 
like a 61 16 RAM. but with a built-in lith- 




Photo. I/0<iccessed JEDEC memory board. 



ium battery and the circuitry to power 
RAM-based memory when you turn off 
the computer. The battery's life expect- 
ancy is 10 years. 

The implications of such a device are 
broad. You can update information in its 
memory while you use the computer, 
and have the information available the 
next time you turn the unit on. You 
could, for example, keep track of how 
much time you have your computer on, 
or when you last used the computer. 

You should use a memory device with 
an access time of 450 or fewer ns, which 
isn't much of a limitation. 

Building the I/O- Accessed 
JEDEC Memory Board 

The schematic for the memory board 
appears in Fig. 2. Table 1 lists the parts 
necessary, minus the memory devices 
you'll use, since this Is up to you. You'll 
And most of the memory devices avail- 
able from mail-order electronic parts 
companies. Contact Mostek Corporation 



(see Fig. 3 for manufacturers' addresses) 
for your nearest Mostek distributor if 
you want the Zeropower RAM. 

Building the board Is straightforward 
when you follow the schematics in Fig. 
2, though 1 will emphasize some points. 
First, the board uses four I/O address lo- 
cations. Two jumpers near the 74LS138 
let you select one of four address ranges. 

1 chose address range 2CH-2FH by 
jumpering as shown by the dotted lines 
In the schematic. The programs dis- 
cussed later assume this decoding. Table 

2 indicates possible address decoding. 
Second, you can either put jumperson 

the board (for nexibillty in the JEDEC 
device you put in the 24-pin socket) or 
you can hard-wire the socket for a partic- 
ular device. The dotted line on the sche- 
matic shows the jumper scheme I used 
for the Zeropower RAM. 

Finally, be sure the '161 device you 
use is a 74LS161A— don't substitute a 
74161 or use an LS device without the A 
suffix, lest you spend a long time won- 



76* 80 Micro, September 1935 



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I 

'80 I 



eo Micro. September 1985 • 77 



PROJECT 80 



dering why your board doesn't work. 
Most distributors merely list a 74LS161 
part number, so contact them before or- 
dering to make sure it's the correct part. 
The 74LS16IA operates slightly differ- 
ently from the 74161. I ordered some 
74LS161S from one company and got 
74LS16 1 Bs. only to find that (after a cou- 
ple hours of debugging!) you can't sub- 
stitute It for the 74LS161A. 

Besides the parts Indicated in the parts 
list, you will need five 16-pin sockets, two 
14-pin sockets (three for the Models 111 and 
4). and a single 24-pin socket. You will also 
need a + 5-volt power supply capable of 
supplying 400 or fewer milliamps if you 
use the CMOS 61 16 RAM chip. 



Operating the I/O-Accessed 
Memory Board 

The 74LS138 decodes the four-loca- 
tion I/O addressing range the board uses. 
The 74LS 1 39 decodes each of the board's 
four specific addresses. I will use the 
2CH-2FH addressing range for this dis- 
cussion, though you can use other 
ranges (as described earlier). 

The 74LS161AS are actually the key 
chips on this board. They function as 
both 4-bit latches and up-counters. The 
three of them form a 12-bit address reg- 
ister, used to hold the address of the 
memory location accessed In the JEDEC 
memory device. The location the 



74LS161AS point to is read/written 
when either I/O port location 2CH or 
2DH is read/written. 

If you use 1/0 port 2CH to access the 
memory location, the address contained 
in the 74LS161As Is incremented after 
the memory access; If you use I/O port 
2DH. the address is left unchanged. The 
remaining I/O port locations write the 
desired memory access address to the 
74LS161AS. The function of each 1/0 lo- 
cation appears In Tkble 3. 

Because you can only access the mem- 
ory in the JEDEC socket from I/O port 
addresses, you can't execute any rou- 
tines in the JEDEC memory device di- 
rectly. You first have to bring them into 







Part 


Price 


Quantity Description 


Distributor 


number 


(each) 


I 74LS138 3-TO-8 decoder IC 


JDR 


74LSI38 


.55 


I 74LS 1 39 dual 1 -of-4 decoder/ 


JDR 


74LS139 


.55 


multiplexer (LS TTL) 10 








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JDR 


74LS161A 


.65 


nary counter (LS TTL) IC 








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.24 


gate (LS TTL) IC 








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JDR 


7416 


.25 


(O.C.}(LSTTL)IC** 








1 74LS02 quad NOR gate (LS 


JDR 


74LS02 


.25 


TTDIC*' 








2 . 1 UF/50-volt disc capacitor 


RS 


272-135 


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1 47 uF/SS-volt electrolytic ca- 


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1 40-position ribbon cable edge 


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1 40-position ribbon cable 


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socket connector* 








8 Inches 40-conductor ribbon 


DK 


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0.00 


cable* 








1 50-position cable header (W/ 


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6.93 


W)" 








1 50-position ribbon cable edge 


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1 50-posltion ribbon cable 


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*• Models III and 4/4P 








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Table 1 . 


Parts list. 







E2/ E3 


I/O Address Range 


A6/ A5/ 


4CH-4FH 


A6/ A5 


6CH-6FH 


A6 A5/ 


OCH-OFH 


A6 A5 


2CH-2FH 


Table 2. Possible address decoding. 



Port 


Description 


2CH 


Read/write current memory 




location the 74LS161As 




fHJint to. then increment the 




address the 74LS161As put 




out. 


2DH 


Read/write current memory 




location the 74LS161As 




point to without affecting the 




address the 74LS161As put 




out. 


2EH 


Write low byte of the mem- 




ory address to the two low- 




order 74LS 1 6 1 As. 


2FH 


Write the high nibble of the 




memory address to the high- 




order 74LS 161 A. 


Table 3. I/O location functions. 



24-P(N 
JEDEC 
MEMORY 

DEVICE 



JEDEC 

MCMORi DEVICE 

iOOHESS SELECTION 

CmCUtTRT 



TRs-ao 

I/O 

IflTEBFACE 



I/O 

ADDRESS 
DECODING 
ClRCuntl 



Figure I. Block diagram of I/O- 
accessed memory board. 



78 • 80 Micro, September 1985 



PROJECT 80 



the computer's main memory where the 
Z80 CPU can access them for execution. 
This simple one-line Basic program 
reads 2.048 bytes of Information from a 
memory device on the board Into the 
computer's main memory, starting at 
the address assigned to the variable PA 
(30000 below). 

10OUT46.0:OUT47.0:PA = 30000; FOR 
1 = 1 TO 2048:POKE PA.1NP(44|: 
PA = PA+ liNEXTI 

You only need a single-line program to 
move information from the JEDEC mem- 
ory device to the computer's main mem- 
ory [you could also execute the line 
Immediately, without making It a pro- 



gram). This is a particularly useful board 
for non-disk users because you can quick- 
ly load special routines into memory. 

For Assembly-language users, I de- 
signed the board to support the Z80's 
block I/O move instructions: INI, INIR, 
IND. INDR, OUTI. OTIR. OUTD. and 
OTDR. Some of these instructions per- 
mit a single-instruction block move be- 
tween the JEDEC memory and the 
computer's main memory, resulting in a 
high data-transfer rate. 

After building the board, you may want 
to test it. The Program Listing shows a 
simple Basic program that performs a 
memory test on the board (if you use a 2K 
RAM device). It uses the auto-address-in- 



crement capability of the board to step 
through the JEDEC RAM device, writing 
a bit pattern into each location. It then 
starts over to verify that the expected pat- 
tern is in each gf the 2,048 memoiy loca- 
tions. If everything is OK, the test should 
complete in under 2.5 minutes. If thi- pro- 
gram finds an error, it displays an error 
message that includes the RAM address 
of the error, the expected value, and tiie 
value actually read. ■ 



Wrtte to Roger C. Alford at Washtenaw 
Digital Systems. P.O. Box 2014. Ann Ar- 
bor. MI 481 06. Please include a self-ad- 
dressed, stamped envelope for a reply. 



(J3] 




^^'■' 



_ *1 t S 



NOTES I COMNECTOH P'N NUMBEB IN PftREtiTHESES *«E FOB MODELS 3. *, 
OTHERS AHE rOR MODEU I 
2 IC> MARKED WITH . ARE REQUIRED fOR MODELS 1. 4 ONLI 
1 tNVEHTEBS MARKED *ITM •• SHOULD BE '41. SO* FOR MODEL 1 AND 
7416 FOR MODELS l.A PINS 2.A.6.B AND 10 OE THE 7«ie SHOULD 
BE TIED TO -SV THBOUGH mil RESISTORS I ONE PER PINI 
4 MODEL 1 CND B. ?9, iJ MODEL J, 4 GND , ALL EVEN 



OUT 



•^ 



[T>^{>^ 



EJTIDSEL I4il 



:X:y 



t^ 



^±it>^iD-' 



IC POWER/GROUND PINS 1 


DEVICE 


GND 


• 5V 


741 SI6IA 


B 


IG 


'41.504 


r 


14 


7416 




14 


'4LSO0 




14 


74LSO; 


' 


14 


74LSI18 


8 


le 


'4LSIJ9 


8 


16 



d 



iFi 



n 



U 



1. 



Lu 



iii 



^4-plN jeoec 

RAM'EPROM 



T 



Figure 2. Schematic of UO-accessed memory board. 



80 Micro. September 1985 • 79 



PROJECT 80 



Program Listing. Basic memory test for the JEDEC memory board. 



2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 

9 ' 

10 CLS : PRINT •WRITING TEST PATTERN TO RAM" 

26 OUT 46,0 : OUT 47,0 'SET STARTING RAM ADDR @ 000K 



PROGRAM TO TEST 2K RAM CHIP ON I/0-ACCESSED JEDEC 
DEVICE BOARD. A PATTERN IS WRITTEN TO THE DEVICE, 
THEN IS READ BACK FOR VERIFICATION. 

WRITTEN BY ROGER C. ALFORD 



'BREAK COUNTING INTO 8 256-BYTE BLOCKS 
'LOOP COUNTER FOR CURRENT BLOCK 
IF B>255 THEN B=B-255 'GET TEST PATTERN 

'WRITE THE TEST PATTERN AND INC PTR ADDR 



30 FOR 1=1 TO a 

40 FOR J=l TO 256 

30 B=J+I-1 

60 OUT 44, B 

id NEXT J 

66 NEXT I 

9H PRINT "CHECKING DATA" 

IdB OUT 46,0 : OUT 47,0 'SET STARTING RAH ADDR @ 000H 

llfl FOR 1=1 TO 8 'BREAK COUNTING INTO 8 256-BYTE BLOCKS 

120 FOR J=l TO 256 'LOOP COUNTER FOR CURRENT BLOCK 

130 B=J+I-1 : IF B>255 THEN B-B-255 'CREATE TEST PATTERN 

140 A^1NP(44) 'GET RAH VALUE AND INCREMENT PTR ADDRESS 

130 IF A=B THEN 170 ELSE PRINT "ERROR (ADDR/ EXP/ ACT) : "; 

160 PRINT (l-l)*256+J-li"/";B;"/"jA 

1/0 NEXT J 

180 NEXT I 

190 PRINT "MEMORY TEST DONE" 

;;00 END 



Hitat^hi IC Memory Data Book 




Signetics TTL Logic manual 1982 


(dtsci ibes 6116 RAM and other 




(describes 74161/74LS161A 


Jt-bfcC memory devices): 




differences}: 


Hitachi America Ltd. 




Signetics Corporation 


Semiconductor and IC Sales Division 


8 1 1 E. Arques Ave. 


1800 Bering Drive 




P.O. Box 409 


Sail Jose. CA 951 12 




Sunnyvale. CA 94086 


408-292-6404 




408-739-7700 


Mi-.l, k Coiporation (Zeropower 


RAM): 


Intel Memory Components 


l21n W. Crosby Road 




Handbooks (JEDEC memory device 


Cufuiiton, TX 75006. 




data sheets]: 


214 242-0444 




Intel Corporation 
3065 Bowers Ave. 
Santa Clara. CA 9505 1 . 
408-987-8080 


Hgure 3. JEDEC manufacturers and information sources. 



Project Corrections 
For the Models in 
And 4 

In previous projects designed to ac- 
commodate the Models III and 4/4P, I 
Included circuitry to generate the EX- 
TIOSEL/ signal as required for those 
machines. 

It has been brought to my attention 
that I overlooked an important detail 
in generating the EXTIOSEL/ signal: 
the Models III and 4/4P have an inter- 
nal 150-ohm pull-up resistor on the 
line. While I knew of the puII-up. I 
didn't know thai it had such an un- 
usually low value. 

With such a low resistor, the device 
generating the EXTIOSEL/ signal 
must be able to sink approximately 
30 milliamps of current. This is more 
current than LS-TTL devices are de- 
signed for, though they will do the Job 
(and have in units that I have built). 

Now that I know of this problem, a 
correction Is In order. If you have 
built Model III or 4/4P boards using 
an LS-TTL device to generate the EX- 
TIOSEL/ signal, replace the LS device 
with a standard TTL device (for ex- 
ample, replace a 74LS32 with a 
7432). 

The standard TTL device is capable 
of supplying enough current to pull 
EXTIOSEL/ low without undo stress 
on the chip. Future projects will in- 
corporate the appropriate current- 
sinking devices.! 




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DAVE^S MS-DOS COLUMN/by Dave Rowell 



Double-Spaced Out: 
Tackling Printer Woes 



Many new users of Tandy's MS- 
DOS encounter minor problems 
with their Epson printers. In particular, 
they're finding that they're getting un- 
wanted line feeds. I've spent some time 
walking through the forest of printer 
compatibility, and have managed to 
clear some of the underbrush. Here's a 
summary of what your Tandy and Ep- 
son might t>e doing, along with a set of 
problem-solving guidelines. 

If you experience similar problems with 
a non-Epson printer, read on; some of this 
Information might stlU apply to you. 

Tandy software sends control code 13 
{OD hexadecimal [hex]) to Tandy print- 
ers to start a new line. Tsmdy calls the 
resulting carriage return/line feed New 
Line, even though 13 is the ASCII code 
for Carriage Return (CR) only. Other mi- 
cro manufacturers, including IBM. use 
control code 13 followed by 10 [Line 
Feed [LF]) to start a new text line. The 
Tandy 1000 and 1200 also use this com- 
bination for IBM compatibility. 

An IBM PC-compatible printer re- 
sponds to codes 13 and 10 flrst with a 
carriage return to the left margin, then 
with a line feed to the new line. 

Some printers (my Okidata. for exam- 
ple) may also respond to code 10 alone 
with a CR/LF. A printer set for auto 
line-feed— to use with a Model 4, for ex- 
ample — responds to the 13/10 combo 
with two line feeds. That's why you 
might get unwanted double-spacing 
with your 1000. 

You can set the newer Tandy printers 
and most other printers to respond to 
code 13 with either CR or CR/LF using 
DIP switches. Some printers also provide 
a switch for true Line Feed, instead of 
CR/LF. 

If you often move between TRSDOS 
and MS-DOS, leave your printer set for 
auto line-feed. The 1000 has a software 
solution for the extra line feed: the Mode 
command's LF option. Typing in LF. 



System Reqaircments 

Models lOOO. 1200, and 2000 
GW-Baslc 




then MODE LFOFF. from DOS usually 
eliminates unwanted double-spacing by 
controlling the tXDS printer-driver rou- 
tine. Invoke LPINST from DOS to put 
that command sequence in your AUTO- 
EXEC batch file permanently, so that 
the computer modilles the printer driver 
every time you boot from that disk. 

To examine the workings of the MODE 
LFOFF option, I wrote a small machine- 
language routine that sends various 
combinations of the CR and LF codes 
mixed in with text characters. (I first 
tried Basic, but CHR$(10) and CHR$( 13) 



both invoke a CR/LF when put In LPRINT 
statements.) I found that the LFOFF op- 
tion strips out any code 10 that imme- 
diately follows a 13. If your printer is 
then set for auto line-feed. 13/10 triggers 
only one line feed, because the computer 
ignores the tailing LF. The code se- 
quence 13/10/10 produces two line feeds 
because the machine strips out only the 
first LF code. But If an LF precedes a CR 
(10/13). you'll get two line feeds. 

Epson printers (and their clones) gen- 
erate extra line feeds in still another way. 
Printer connector pin 14 is labelled 



Program Listing. Subroutine for checking printer port status. 

1000 REH Subroutine checks printer port for status. If you have a 

1010 REH multi-function board with additional printer ports, change 

the 

1020 REH value for the variable PRINTER when changing ports. For 

example, 

1030 REM when checking LPT2:, assign PRINTER=2. 

2000 PRINTER=l!DEF SEG="6H40 ! PRINTPORT = (PRINTER * 2) + 6 

2010 IF PEEK(PRINTPORT) = THEN PRINT "Tandy 1000 printer 

interface circuitry not working. ■ :RETURN 

2020 STATUS=INPtPBEK{PBINTPORT) + PEEK (PRINTPORT + 1) * 256 + 1) 

2030 IF STATUS = 223 THEN PRINT "Printer ready." 

2040 IF STATUS - 207 THEN PRINT "Printer not ready." 

2050 IF STATUS = 79 THEN PRINT "Out of paper," 

2060 IF STATUS = 95 THEN PRINT "Printer not on." 

2070 RETURN 



B2 • ao Micro, September 1985 



DAVE'S MS-DOS COLUMN 



AUTO FEED XT. A low signal on line 14 
causes automatic line feeds after car- 
riage returns, regardless of any DIP 
switch settings. The signal overrides the 
DIP switch for auto line-feed. It just so 
happens that Tandy computers (and 
printers) ground line 14, providing a per- 
sistent double-spacing with Epson print- 
ers unless you cut line 14 on the printer 
cable. The person I spoke to at Epson 
suggested cutting line 14 at the printer 
end of the cable in case the signal doesn't 
originate from 14 at the computer end. 

Line 14 isn't necessary for Epson op- 
eration: you can still get aulo line-feed by 
setting the DIP switch. 

Working with the information above, 
you can use the following logical steps to 
eliminate unwanted double-spacing. 

• Check for a DIP switch on your printer 
that turns auto line-feed otT. 

• If you have an Epson printer, the DIP 
switch 2-3 won't work unless you cut 
line 14. Make sure it's line 14 from the 
printer's point of view. On my cable 
that's the eighth wire from theuncolored 
edge. Note that my instructions for cut- 
ting the wire in "The Tandy 1000 Tip 
Sheet ■ (June 1985. p. 38) were incorrect. 

• If your printer doesn't have a DIP 
switch or you don't want to change it 
and you have a 1000. use LF.COM and 
MODE LF-OFF from DOS (or LPINST: see 
p. 7 of DeskMate tutorial). 

If you have a 1200 and want to use it 
with an older Radio Shack printer without 
DIP switches for AUTO LINE-FEED. Larr>- 
Boxx of Fori l-auderdalp, FL. offers a solu- 
tion. He reports that Radio Shack Service 
Centers can modify some printers (e.g., 
the LP-Ill and DW 2B) so they don't re- 
spond to code 13 with automatic LF. 

Printer problems have still other, less 
likely, causes. Some software inserts it- 
self into the printing process at a level 
lower than the Mode command, bypass- 
ing Its elTects. PC-DOS's Graphics.COM. 
for instance, intercepts the low-level 
print-screen interrupt. The only solution 
in a case like this might be to modify the 
software (see the patch in "The Tandy 
1000 Tip Sheet"). Printer-switching 
boxes can also affect what gets to the 
printer, either causing problems or, in 
one case I've heard of. solving them. 

If you own one of the early 1 000s, and 
any of the PFS software series tells you 
your printer isn't ready when It is. you 
need a modification to your lOOO's 
printer port. Most 1000s had the fix at 
manufacture. 

The Bottom Line 

The 25th screen-line problem I men- 
tioned in my June article brought in sev- 
eral letters. All corrected my assertion 
that Locate doesn't work on the bottom 
line. If you've removed the function key 



display with Key Off. you can locate the 
cursor on the 25th line just like any other 
line. A simple PRINT STRING$(40,321 
quickly clears the 25th line in the 40- 
column screen modes, as does PRINT 
STRING$(80.' "1 in an 80-coIumn 
mode. If you try Locate 25,1 with the 
function key assignments displayed, an 
"Illegal Function Call" message will zap 
you. I should have consulted the IBM Ba- 
sic manual on this matter. All the details 
are laid out in two pages. The Tandy 
manual simply states that the legal row 
range for Locate is 1-24. 

Chan Shippy of Colome. SD, has laid the 
matter to rest: KEY OFF : VIEW PRINT 1 
TO 25. "You can now use Locate 25 and 
graphics statements in any screen mode, 
and CLS will clear all 25 lines." I tried it in 
all modes and I'm convinced there's no 
Ix'tter way (see "Sifting Through GW-Ba- 
sir.' August 1985. p. 46). 

Status Symbol 

From Charlie Milhans (stationed in the 
Pacinc) comes the Program Listing, a Ba- 
sic subroutine for the 1000 that returns 
your printer status. Line 2000 changes 
the bottom of Basic's data segment to 40 
hex. (The 64K memory block addressed 
by POKE and PEEK will now start at ab- 
solute address 400 hex.) Segment 40 
hex is the start of the ROM BIOS data 
area, where the computer stores all sorts 
of useful information for the BIOS and 
DOS to use. If you're using the normal 
printer port (PRINTER = I ). then the pro- 
gram assigns value 8 to variable PRINT- 
PORT The 2 bytes at offset 8 in the BIOS 
data area contain the port address for 
your printer (LPTl:). Line 2010 checks 
that this address isn't zero, which would 
indicate severe problems with the 
printer interface circuitry. 

Line 2020 turns that 2-byte hex port 
address into a decimal value for the INP 
statement (with the least-significant 
byte first). The value the INP statement 
returns from that port is the printer sta- 
tus. Milhans found the values returned 
in lines 2030-2065 indicated the condi- 
tions printed by the appropriate Print 
statements. My Okidata 82A returns 95 
when the printer is ofT (and when it is not 
ready), 1 19 when it Is out of paper, and 
207 when it is ready. The 8088 can only 
believe what the printer tells it, so you 
might have to figure out the error codes 
for your printer. I inserted a line 2065 
PRINT STATUS to see what was coming 
back from that port. 

The meaning of the returned value is 
determined as follows, according to the 
1000 Software Developers Guide: 

bit = timeout occurred 
bit 1 = (unused) 
bit 2 = (unused) 
bit 3 = I/O error 
bit 4 = selected 



bit 5 = out of paper 
bit 6 = acknowledge 
bit 7 = not busy 

I assume that these bit assignments 
are standard for Tandy printers. 

Drive Woes 

TNT Software's Bruce Tonkin, author 
of The Creator and My Word!, has a woe- 
ful tale of worn drives. He bought two 
lOOOs for software development, and 
was using them to copy a large number 
of disks. The Teac drives in both ma- 
chines wore out after formatting 700 
disks (more or less). That's a lot of for- 
matting, but no more than the average 
Model 1000 owner might do during the 
life of his machine. The drives would still 
format some brands of disks, but not 
others. The local Tandy store replaced 
the Tandy drives. 

Vincent Meyer of the Micro Clinic Ser- 
vice Network in New York state diag- 
nosed the problem (over the phone) as 
worn heads. The signal picked up from 
the disk or head amplitude was starting 
to fall ofl", and results varied with the 
disk brand because of differences in their 
magnetic qualities. Sooner or later no 
disk will format properly. Meyer was not 
surprised, calling the Teacs "cheap, but 
adequate." 

Tandy considers the drives "high qual- 
ity," but price is also a consideration, ac- 
cording to Amy Arutt, public relations 
spokesperson for Tandy's MS-DOS line. If 
this turns out to be a real problem, you'd 
better follow Meyer's advice on drive 
care religiously ("Drive Ways," Septem- 
ber 1984, p. 42). Garbage diskettes (im- 
properly burnished) and "cleaning" 
diskettes will increase head wear. 

Assemble This 

Once converted from quad density to 
1000 disk format (with IBM PC Maker). 
Tandy's MS-Assembler for the 2000 
seems to work fine on the 1000 (and on 
the IBM PC for that matter). It's adver- 
tised in the catalog for all Tandy MS-DOS 
micros. 1 haven't tried conditional as- 
sembly or macros yet. but I've put to- 
gether an 8K program with nine mod- 
ules, using the assembler and the 1000 
DOS's linker (LINK. EXE) without a bug. 

Ken Shea of Lexington, OH, points out 
that you can modify machine-language 
flies with the .EXE extension by renam- 
ing them with a different extension. So 
you can patch DeskMate.EXE to run on 
the 1200 with Debug (see "The Tandy 
1000 Tip Sheet"). Modify the renamed 
program with Debug, then replace the 
file extension with the original EXE.B 



You can write to Dave Rowell at 80 
Micro, 80 Pine St.. Peterborough. NH 
03458. 



80 Micro. September 1985 • 8^ 



Circle 416 on Reader Service card. 



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Machine l-anguage Disk I/O A Other Mysteries. A guide to 
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MODEL 3 UPGRADE 
112K - CP/M - 80 COLUMN 



Thii month Hom< oHvt tn* ilad at Iha y**r Tha 
Hoimai ViD-BO II tilt only plug in pnntad circuil board 
■rtUcTi (ipanoi th* Mod 3 diipUy to 14 hnaa a1 H 
ClUftCWn (n<) MKtwi opwMKin at llM CP/tt 7.1 
opwibnfi ayatam ainn ■ StK TP* Both Mil) *n4 
64 ■ It no<t«a(l»lilabl*lFoniTRSOOS ana BASIC. 
ItHdi and wntoa 1B drfftrtnl diik fomiats (MarP'o, 
OaNHna, Itcl A IDIM Ot ^MK al RAM. Th* (itT* 4IK 
RAM can ba tat op aa a RAM diak throuBh loftwara 
rowtinai thai ara 'umiatiad vtti iha auppliad CPiv 
opafitmg ir«t*m. Tti* V10-BO comai complara mitti 
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26^2027 NCWI&iincs 80 tor umaoirD 

26-2190 Hoo> 1 COBOL 

26-2200 Moon 3 rORTlUN 

26-2201 Wodn 1 FORTRAN . 

26-2203 Moan 1/3 COBOL 



26-2204 Wooal 1/3 Comnla' BASC -„ , IJ 

26-2206 «Do PILOt J 

26-2210 Uooal 3 BASCOM ._ 1( 

26-2211 MoiM 3 AEor PASCAL .._ _ 21 

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76-7113 Moon I LDOS ILSI ■er»ii4 t 

76-7214 Mom 3 LOOS ILSi trnxryj t 

26-2216 CP'M PliH 'a Tlw MoOH 4 t% 
76-(jOOO tne Good CP^ lor ov Moov lIMvnaTtxitat IE 

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76-72>a BASCOM lo- !r« Modal i If 

76-7719 FORTRAN lor i^ Uoat 4 e 

26-2220 23 V-HDte- .siOuS applutais 2 

76-7221 CorT«UH>v.DoA Jones Son-ic ff t 

76-7230 NCurt Mod* 1 C Language 21 

26-7731 Modnl 4 OoubW Duty (ilsf^ wq i 5 

7S-7'1» Mooal 3 PILOI IC 

26-2721 Coloi Coirtvia' lOCO Dish B 

26 2722 COD' Comouta' LOGO ROM Paoi 1 

76 3030 OS-9 fa the Coo Ctmpgla' 5 

76-3036 BASIC - 09 Foi Ttia Caai CompuWi B 

26 303S HEWI C Cwnp*" Kt me CoW CompgW I 

26 3'3G NCWI MS-QOS •»tr BASIC lor Ifw 1200 7 

26 3821 Mode lOC Leanfta laq 2 

26 3879 Minn Mom 100 MuHipun 12 

26 3830 NCWI Model ICO !>>ip»l 3 
ALL CMor Coaipmar OAMES n\ OFF CaialDg Pnca 
ALL PC(VD1) SOFTWARE MS OFF Caulog Pm 

?6-1501 Geoer* Leor^er ■ ■? 
26-4502 lri,erfoi> Mvaqer *r am 

26-4503 P»|roll 2 
26-4^04 Auouni^ H«ei alw 

26 4506 Acaxllls PayatW 7 

26-4508 Medical (MIm ays am iq 

26 4509 M>rK/arii>i"si nivaniiiry Conm 63 

26 4510 Ueiul-e 4 

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?6.4il? ProHB II 9 

76-4513 J(fl Cosnng 9 

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261615 ProHa H Plia 9 

261516 Pfotie T'BTW^g GiMM __ 6 

76 451 f PioMe Pluj Ufli^B* _ » 

26-4520 rma Aaounnng _ __ » 

26 4576 ViiiC* ftmnes ForcaHna „„ ^ G 

261631 SCBtPSJ! 2D . ^ 2S 

261632 3CBIPS1T UTAlf DiH ____ 7 

26-15)4 SCHiPSJt Diclicnaiv , . M 

26-4536 SCfilPSlT pioiitr Orrw _. . „ _. 3 

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26-4550 &aiim Oatfica Analysis PBK 19 

26-4554 AccounH RecA^aOle ^ 3 

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26-1566 ProTie Fains _ j 

26-456' P-oT* Arcl.« J 

26 4558 Prone Pr«on -^, .^_^ II- 

2645^9 ProlocA _^_^ 13 

26 4560 HESTlAW __ _IS 

26-4580 ■A>liF>>i UoSM 2r<^ .___- 21 

26.46C1 Generi. Lai^ir , ... 29 

26-4602 F^rtnrcry ConmJ Syllvn , 1B 

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26 4605 Ao:ru^is Payane 39 

26-1607 OrOIi Enny ICS . , , ]* 

76-1606 sa« AnarysA __„_____, 19 

76-1612 Ouer. COBOl , _ It 

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26-1701 FORTRAAI . , 1* 

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26-17DJ COBOL ^„____^ . 19 

26-1705 Coid™ BASIC _ ..._ 1? 

26-1707 COBOL Camnaoi . at 

26-1710 Program Eovr $ 

26-1712 Assenoy Laniy40e Oevetfljni^ii Syiwn 19 

26^1713 COAS 1 » 

26-l'7l Cilaoiai Fa The Model 7(12/16 A 

26-4725 l««l BASCOM BASJC Cmpta. . 19 

26-4717 CBASiC _^ 

26-1802 aiyenur, W iTpe niril Qaa _. .. _ M 

26-4S31 SCnPSIT K. ma lurd a«_ 29 

;6-4«34 Dcnnary la me Haio DsK M 

26.ia36 SCniPSiT la Timne Dn.« 26. 

AU NC« MQOCl MM OOOtllCS 

26-6710 Garvtf Laoger 331 

2e-S712 AfouiK PaylDa 331 

26-Ut3 Aaxum RHfr.aav 331 

26-5711 havntory ConTroi Sysiam — - _ ^_ .331 

26^6261 BASCOM . 2» 

2C-62K MS«K AisanW ft 

2t-UU fCniRAN . , „ 54! 

26-U6C PASCAL , ti: 

26-6267 COAX . . 47. 

26-6260 Voacaai Pm „_ * 

76-S26I Soltanr __.__ . ^ IS 

76-6300 Lotm t-7-3 _ _ as! 

26-6302 Sioarcac 3 

26-S30S pl>Ma 

26-5306 pliittion 

76-5311 MjnWai . . _ 

26-5314 MWIMKiOiOli ivao ._ . . 

26 5330 Mullau 

26 6340 Home AKOunia^i 

26-6352 OBASE H 

26-537' Plar*ll»ll 

MOOtl 17 t 16 6MI00 SOFIWAM 
t6.6100 COBOL Oe«ic*inwiii Sy^lem 
26 6201 General Ledger 
76-6203 Payroll 
26 6204 AucOvifiK Hecw.Batr 
26-6206 AcfOunlB PaytOa 
26-620f Oioer €nlry(ICS 

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80 Micro, September 1985 • 85 



BASIC TAKES / by Richard Ramella 



All In Order: 
Using Sequential- Access Files 



Basic can store data on a disk and let 
you retrieve it at any time. The 
tieauty of this is that a small Basic pro- 
gram can work on large amounts of data: 
You can manipulate millions of bytes on 
hundreds of disks without straining 
your systems memory. 

Basic handles two kinds of data files, 
sequential-access and direct-access. The 
former is like a string of beads in a gold- 
fish bowl; you must take out the data in 
the same order in which you put it In. 
The latter is like the same beads without 
the string, poured loosely into the bowl, 
with the added magic that you can dip 
into the bowl and tweeze the very bead 
you want. 

As you might think, direct-access files 
are more complex than sequential -ac- 
cess. But don't shy from learning both 
methods; each has its advantages. 

This month I'll discuss how to create 
and handle sequential-access files. I'll 
cover direct-access flies next month. At 
the end of this column I'll also tell you 
how you can receive a free program 
called WhereWolf, which you can use for 
scheduling and to study sequential -ac- 
cess programming methods. 

Getting Started 

Boot up a system disk, and format a 
fresh disk to hold data files. For format- 
ting instructions, see pages 1-78 of the 
Model 4/4P Disk System Owner's Man- 
ua.L Now enter Basic. 

You can manipulate a file four ways: 
open it, put things into it, take things 
out, and close it. Let's start by opening a 
(Ue. 

Type in OPEN "O",!, "CLOWN" and 
press the enter key. The "O" is the letter 
O, standing for output. The 1 stands for 
buffer 1. I'll cover the meaning of buffer 
numbers later. "Clown" is the name of the 
data file you're creating. 



System RequirementB 

HodelB I, m, and 4 
32KRAM 
Disk Basic 




Program Listing 1- Day/BAS. 




ItB REM • Day File * 




IIB CLSi CLEAR: MS»"OCT" 




120 FOR X-1 TO 2 




1311 X5-HIDS(STR5(X1 ,2) 




140 GS-HS+XS 




158 PRIWT "Opening day file "GS 




160 OPEN "O'pljGS 




17 B CLOSE 1 




IBB NEXT X 










End 





Program Listing 2. Roster/BAS. 




IBB 


REM • Rostei * 




IIB 


CLEAR 




12B 


CLS 




13B 


PRINT "KENU": PRINT " ■ 




140 


PRINT ■ 1 - Open files A-Z for extending.' 




15 B 


PRIST ■ 2 - Output new names to files." 




16 a 


PRINT " 3 - Input names foe printing." 




17 B 


PRINT " 4 - End program run." 




160 


PRINT: PRINT "Choicet 1, 2, 3 or 4" 




190 


X$-INXEy$ 




2BB 


IF X?-"" OR INSTR('1234",X5)-0 THEN 19B 




21B 


X*VAL 1 X $ } 




220 


ON X GOTO 24B,36B, 500,620 




23B 


REM 'Creating files A-z 




240 


CLS: FOR X-65 TO 90 




250 


PRINT "Opening letter file "CfIR$(X] 




26 B 


OPEN ■E",1,CHRS{X) 




27B 


CLOSE 1 t NEXT X 




1 280 


PRINT "Files A-Z now open." 




' 29B 


GOTO 59B 




3BB 


PRINT "Opening letter file "CBRSIX) 




31B 


OPEN ■E",1,CHR5{X1 




32 B 


CLOSE 1 




330 


NEXT X 




340 


GOTO 59B 




35 B 


REM • Output new name 




3eB 


CLS 




370 


INPUT 'Last nanie"iL$ 


LIsltng 2 ntnffnued 



86 • 00 Micro, September 1985 



Circle 62 on Reader Service card. 



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80 Micro. September 1985 ■ 87 



BASIC TAKES 



Lisirng 2 conlinuefi 

38B ISPUT "First name",FS 

39fl CLS 

4B0 PRIST ■<y>eB or <n>o, is this correct: 'PSjCHHSOZ) jLS 

*lt ZS-INKEYS: IP ZS-" OR IHSTR( "YyNn", ZS) -B THEN 41B 

420 IP ZS-"N' OR zS-'n" THEN CLS: PRINT 'Let's try it again": PRINTi GOTO 378 

43B FlS-LS+'/'+FS 

44B PRINT "Being filed as "FIS 

45B OPEN "E",l,LEFTStF15,l) 

46B WRITE I1,F1S 

470 CLOSE 1 

4BB GOTO 598 

490 REH * Input names fron files 

500 CLS: FOR X"65 TO 90 

510 PRINT "Names in Pile "CHRSCX): PRIST STRINGS{14,'-') 

52B OPEN "I'jl.CHRSIX) 

525 PRINT LOC(l) 

530 IF EOF(l) THEN CLOSE 1: GOTO 570 

540 INPUT »1,N$ 

550 PRINT N$ 

560 GOTO 530 

570 NEXT X 

5BB REM • BACK TO MENU ROUTINE 

590 PRINT: PRINT "Tap key to return to menu." 

600 vs-inkey; 

gib if v$-" then 600 else 120 

620 PRINT 'Run ended.*: END 



Now type in CLOSE I to close the file. 
This doesn't destroy It, but just turns it off. 

To see tf you've actuedly opened the 
file, go back to TRSDOS and call the di- 
rectory (or you can type in SYSTEM 
"DIR" from Basic). Although it contains 
no data yet, you should see the file 
Clown. 

You've opened a file In one of three 



possible ways. The other two are: 

OPEN "E". 1. "CLOWN ". This opens 
an existing file named Clown so you can 
add material. The "E" stands for extend 
and ensures that the file retains the data 
already there. This differs from "O," 
which replaces any existing flic named 
Clown and erases the material it holds. 
OPEN "I'.l.'-CLOWN". Thlsopensan 



existing file so you can remove data from 
it. The "I " stands for input- 
Rolling Up Your Sleeves 

Now, put these concepts to work. Pro- 
gram Listing 1. Day, creates three files 
for output: OCT 1 . OCT2. and OCT3. You 
could do an entire month by changing 
line 120 to read FOR X= 1 TO 31. but 
I've kept it simple. 

This program introduces a new idea, 
that you can open a file using a variable. 
In this case, the key line is 160. OPEN 
"0".1.G$. with G$ containing the file 
name. G$ equals MS. which is always 
OCT. plus XS. which is the date. Since I 
used the same buffer number (1) 
throughout, you must close the file by 
buffer number, as in line 170, tjefore you 
can open a new one. 

Now that you've opened a file, you can 
put material in and take it out. Program 
Listing 2. Roster, offers a menu of four 
choices. 

Choose option 1 when you first run the 
program. It automatically creates 26 
files, one for each letter of the alphabet. 
Lines 240-330 do this by making a loop 
from 65 to 90. the ASCII values of all up- 
percase letters, and then creating each 
file as CHR$(ASCI! number). 



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Communications Corp. 
713 Edgebrook Drive 
Champaign, I L 61 820 
(217)359-8482 
Telex: 206995 



88 • 80 Micro. September J985 



BASIC TAKES 



Choice 2. in lines 360-470, lets you 
enter and send a new name to the letter 
file matching the first letter of the last 
name. 

Option 3, lines 500-570. opens each 
file and prints all names in it. 

Roster uses sequential-access func- 
tions I haven't discussed, so let me 
brielly tell you about them. PRINT # 
sends data to a file. The form is PRINT 
#1.N$. with the 1 standing for the buffer 
number and N$ the string variable hold- 
ing the material you want sent. Its sim- 
ilar to WRITE # (see below), and when 
used as PRINT # USING will format data 
items in the same ways PRINT USING 
does on the screen. 

WRITE # also sends data to a file; this 
is the form Roster uses. It delimits string 
values by putting them within quotes 
and includes commas between items 
sent to disk. 

INPUT # reads a value from the disk. 
See line 540 of Roster for an example. 
The program can read a literal, but a 
variable value is more handy so the pro- 
gram can return to this point as often as 
needed, sending new values of the same 
variable to the disk file. 

Line Input is an alternative to Input 
and lets you type up to 254 characters 



into a variable value that you can then 
send to disk using WRITE #- It differs 
from Input because it accepts commas 
and quotes as part of the string, accepts 
input for the value of but one variable 
value, and includes leading blanks. 

EOF stands for end of file Programs 
use an EOF marker to recognize the end 
of a sequential file. You'll find it in line 
530, which translates, "If the end of file 
1 has l>een reached, then close the file 
and go to line 570 for the next file." Un- 
less a program has an EOF statement, 
you'll get an error when the program in- 
puts values and tries to find material 
past the end of the sequential file. 

LOC is a sector counter. The com- 
mand PRINT LOC( i ), with 1 standing for 
the buffer number, will print the number 
of sectors — 256-byte blocks— that you 
have written to or read from a file since 
you opened it. Line 525 of Roster returns 
a zero. 

You can think of the buffer numbers 1 
to 15 as code numbers for files. In Roster, 
I've used buffer 1 for all examples, and 
that's why 1 was always careful to close 
the file (CLOSE 1) before opening an- 
other under the same buffer number. In 
more complex programs, you can open 
several files at once under different 



buffer numbers, and send data fiying 
back and forth among all these files. For 
example, you can open an address file as 
1, load its contents into the system as 
string array entries, sort by zip code and 
send to a zip file as 2. 

Is this all there is to sequential -access? 
No, but it will get you into the experi- 
mental stage. And what I've covered this 
month is prelude to next month's look at 
direct -access disk files. 

WhereWolf 

Now for some free software. Where- 
Wolf is a Model 4/4P meeting scheduler 
suitable for creating calendars for events 
and the like. It sorts by time, adds and 
deletes items, line prints, recognizes 
scheduling conflicts, and has a few other 
features that may help you learn sequen- 
tial-access techniques. To get it. send a 
formatted Model 4/4P disk, along with a 
self-addressed mailer or envelope bear- 
ing $1.10 in stamps. Canadians, coins 
are OK, I'll save the program on your 
disk and return it along with documen- 
tation. ■ 

Address correspondence to Richard 
Ramella. 1493 Mt. View Ave.. Chico. 
CA 95926. 



CKCle 292 on Reader Service card. 




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designed to work the way your 
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Begin by brainstorming KAMAS 
enables you to jot down ideas 
quickly as you think of therTi If 
you want to elaborate you can 
odd text with full screer^ eaiting 
Then develop your ideas using a 
familiar outline format. Change 
the structure as easily as you 
change your mmd Mcxe an idea 
and oil aflocfied text moves 
with it 



KAMAS puts full control at your 
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your main line of thought b/ col- 
lapsing the details from view 
Then, exoond the outline to devel- 
op the specifics when you need 
to. By collapsing and expanding 
portions of the outline, you con 
maintain an overview and literally 
see how your ideas tit together 
And KAMAS is fast Your ideas re- 
main at your fingertips KAMAS 
can locate and retrieve by 
keyword— even a misspelled 
one— in less than a second per 
topic tile 

Use as much ot the power as you 
feel comtorlable with KAMAS is 
menu-driven with over 100 on-line 
help screens. But you can also 
open the hood to find a high 
performance programming 
environment with the additional 
horsepower you may need to 
get theiob done An active user 
community and the KAMAS 
Report newsletter keep you in 
touch with the latest KAMAS 
applications 

Achieve a commanding van- 
tage point . 



Get ytxir hands on KAhVS now Send SW7 plus Sd 
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2525 SW224rh Ave. Dept 151 

Aloha. OR 97006 



...with 



80 Micro. September 1985 • 89 



THE NEXT STEP / by Hardin Brothers 



Getting a Line 
On Your TRS-80 



Drawing a straight line on paper is as 
simple as connecting two points. 
But drawing one on a computer screen 
can be marvelously complicated. While 
you can easily draw smooth horizontal 
and vertical lines, the block-like picture 
elements [pixels] of your display often 
make other lines look like stair steps. 

This month's program lets you draw 
uniform graph lines with a Model I, III. 
or 4 (in Model III mode). The first time I 
ran this program. I was astounded at the 
quality of graphics I could get, and I 
spent a couple of hours playing with it. 
Unless you've been spoiled by a special- 
ized graphics package, you'll probably 
feel the same way. 

The Theory 

Program Listing 1. the Une-drawtng 
subroutine, uses an algorithm that first 
determines the ideal line between two 
points and then translates that ideal into 
pixels. As the program picks each pixel. 
it calculates the pixel's distance from the 
ideal; when that difference becomes too 
great, the program picks a neighboring 
pixel to straighten out the line and keep 
It running in the right direction. The re- 
sult is a line that's as smooth and thin as 
possible. 

The Model I/III screen comprises a grid 
of 128 horizontal by 48 vertical pixels. In 
Basic, you can address any of these pix- 
els with the Set, Reset, and Point com- 
mands by its horizontal (x) and vertical [y] 
coordinates, where x is a value t>etween 
zero and 1 27 and y a value between zero 
and 47. This month's program uses the 
same addressing conventions. 

Suppose you want to draw a line from 
the screen's upper left-hand corner 
(point 0,0) to the lower right-hand comer 
(point 127,47). The pixels must have 




System Requirements 

HodelB m and 4 

Disk Basic 

Assembly language 

E^tor/assembler 





Program Listing I . The 


!ine-draujing subroutine. 


BBBfll 










eeeez 


t Kodel 1/ 


III Line CerieiratQi: | 


0Bee3 










B0Be4 


Calling 


sequence: DIM ftrtay%[7): I* - varptr [Array* ( B) J 1 


zeaib 


; Z = [ISR(I%) 






00eB6 




Ari:avt(B) 


xl. 


AiraylU - x2 


0BB07 




Array*(2) 


x2. 


Array*[3) -y2 


BBBBB 




Ariay«(4) 


B or -1 (B - set line ) | 


eesBS 








(-1 "^ reset line) 


BBBIB 




Xl.yl iB the 


star 


Ling point of the line 


BBBll 




x2,y2 iB the 


end! 


ng point of the line 


BBS12 




(6 <- itl,x2 < = 


127) 


BBB13 




(B <- yl,y2 <- 


47) 


BBB14 










ieeib 


ERROR EQU 


1E4AH 




[Illegal function call 


BBB16 










BBBIV 


ORG 


0F0B0H 




fWill relocate 


BBBIB 


CALL 


eA7FH 




iGet acgunent in kl 


aBB19 


PUSH 


RL 




jTranEfer array address 


eBe2B 
BBZ21 
BflB2Z 
BeB23 
BBB24 


POP 


IX 




} to IX 


1 Check range of airgiiiiientB 




LD 


A,(IX+1) 




FGet H5B of xl 


00025 


OR 


Uit*3) 




iHerge HSB of yl 


BBB2e 


OR 


lIX+5) 




iKerge HSB of xZ 


0BB27 


OR 


(IX+7) 




fMerge MSB of y2 


e0B29 


JP 


NZ, ERROR 




lErior if not all 


BBB29 










B0B3B 


LD 


A, (IX+fl) 




{Get LSB of xl 


B0B31 


OR 


(IX+4) 




iHerge LSB of x2 


BflB32 


CP 


BBH 




(Both less than 1287 


0B033 


JP 


NC , ERROR 




tErcor if not 


BBB34 


I 








BflB35 


LD 


A,(IX'f2) 




jGet LSB of yl 


00036 


CP 


30H 




;LeBs than 48? 


BB037 


JP 


NC, ERROR 




[Error if not 


BBB38 


LD 


A, (IX+6) 




[Get LSB of yZ 


0BB39 


CP 


3BH 




[Less than 48? 


BBB4B 

B0a4i 

0BB42 
00B43 
0flB44 


JP 


NC , ERROR 




[ Error if not 


; Pick up xl 


yl and x2,y2 


and 


determine Elope 


LD 


D, (IX+fl) 




;Get xl 


0BB45 


LD 


E, (IX'f2) 




jGet yl//DE-starting point 


00046 


LD 


H, ;ix+4i 




J Get xZ 


B0B47 


LD 


L,CIX+61 




;Get y2 HL'-end point 


0B04B 


PUSH 


DE 




f Save start , , , , , . 
Listing 1 conilnued 



90 • 80 Micro, September 1985 



THE NEXT STEP 



Listtnq 1 (-ontlnued 










00049 


1 










flBBSe 




LD 


A,K 




(A « x2 


00051 




LD 


H,l 




}1 ' positive step 


B0052 




SUB 


D 




;A - z2 - xl 


00053 




JR 


HCLINEie 


:Go if x2 > xl 


00054 




NCG 






;A - zl - x2 


0B0S5 




LD 


H,-l 




j-1 - negative step 


0BB56 


LINEle 


LD 


B,A 




;B - 1 distance 


00057 


I 










00050 




LD 


A,L 




;Now get y2 


00059 




LD 


L,l 




;1 " positive y step 


0B06B 




SUB 


E 




jA - yZ - yl 


00B61 




JR 


ik:,line20 


iGo if y2>yl 


B00e2 




NEG 






lA - yl - yZ 


00063 




LD 


L,-l 




l-l ' negative step 


0BB64 


LINE20 


LD 


C,A 




;C ■ y distance 


0BB65 


t 










BB0«6 




LD 


DE,0 




jD ■ alternate x step 


B0067 










jE ■ regular y step 


00068 




CP 


B 




ils dx > dy? 


00069 




JS 


C,LIHE3B 


[Go if dx > dy 


B007B 




LD 


C,B 




1 Else dx in c 


00B71 




LD 


B,A 




jand dy in B B >■ C 


B0B72 
00073 
00074 




EX 


DE.HL 




] exchange steps 


;How 


B " 


iBiger distance 




07 5 




C - 


stiortei; distance 




00076 




K - 


regular x step 




00077 




D - 


alternate * 


step 




00078 




e - 


regular y step 




00179 




L - 


alternate y 


step 




000B0 


( all steps 


are 1|B, or 


-1 




0000: 












BOB 82 




Save 


all values 






BBB83 

0BBB4 












LINE3e 


LD 


{1X*1B) 


H 


tSave regular x step 


0BB8S 




LD 


(IX+llJ 


D 


; alternate x step 


00086 




LD 


(IX+12} 


E 


; normal y step 


00BB7 




LD 


(lX+13) 


L 


I alternate y step 


00088 




LD 


L,B 




]L has long distance 


0B0B9 




LD 


H,C 




iH has short distance 


00 90 




LD 


C,B 




jC also has long dlst. 


00091 




SRL 


C 




;C - long dist / 2 


00092 




INC 


B 




;B - 1 of paints on long axla 


00093 




POP 


OE 




)DE has starting point 


00094 


LIHE40 


PUSK 


HL 




jSave distances 


00095 
00 96 




PUSi 


BC 




]And counters 


00097 


r Cslculat 


e screen location o 


'. y coordinate 


00098 
80099 












i 


LD 


L,-l 




) Initialize for quotient 


BBioe 




LD 


A,E 




;Get y coordinate 


OOIBI 










jdivide y by 3 


00102 


LINE5B 


INC 


L 




;Start with L - B 


B0103 




SUB 


3 




;A - A - 3 


00104 




JR 


HCLINEie 


;Loop until A < 


0B1B5 




ADD 


A, 3 




tA - 0,1, or 2 


00106 




LD 


C,A 




iC has remainder 


0O1B7 
0O1BB 




LD 


fl,B 




iHL - screen line 


00109 


1 KQltiply 


HL • 64 






OBllB 

eoiii 












' 


LD 


a, 6 




iCounter 


0B112 




OR 


A 




tCleac carry flag 


B0113 


LIHE6B 


RL 


L 




|L - L • 2 


00114 




RL 


» 




IHL - HL * 2 


00115 




DJNZ 


LINE60 




iDo (HL*2) • 6 


0B116 




LD 


A,3CH 




jScreen starts at 3C0BH 


00117 




ADD 


A,K 




]Add HSB of screen line 


00118 
00119 




LD 


H,A 




iHL"> beg. ot acreeil line 


00120 
00121 

B0122 


; Now 


find 


address of x coordinate 


J 


LD 


A,D 




)Get z coordinate 


00123 




SRL 


A 




)A - x/Z, CP has remainder 


00124 




RL 


B 




tBenainder to B 


00125 




ADD 


A,L 




(Add line position to L 


00126 
00127 

00128 
00129 

00130 




LD 


L,A 




jHL»«> correct pixel 


: Find 


pixe 


I at HL 






) 


RL 


C 




;C ' C • 2 


00131 




LD 


A,C 




;Get value fron C 


00132 




ADD 


A,B 




|A has bit nunber (0-51 


00133 




LD 


B,A 




iPixel number to B 


00134 




INC 


B 




jB - bit number • 1 (1-6) 


00135 




XOR 


A 




;A - 


00136 




SCF 






iCarry flag has bit 


00137 


LIHE70 


RLA 






(Rotate carry bit until 


00138 




DJNZ 


LINE70 




J bit is correctly positioned 


00139 
00140 
00141 
00142 












; Kake 


HL a 


graphics chaiactei 


if It isn't already 




BIT 


7,(HL) 




lis high bit set? 


00143 




NOP 






(Pause for 32-cjGo if dx > dy 


00144 




LD 


C,B 




;Else dx in c 


00145 




LD 


B,A 




jand dy in B B >- C 


00146 

00147 
00148 




EX 


DE.HL 




(exchange steps 


rNow 


B - 


larger distance 




00149 


1 


C - 


shorter distance 




00150 




S - 


regular x step 




00151 


[ 


D - 


alternate x 


Step 




SB152 


; 


E - 


regular y step 




00153 


I 


L - 


alternate y 


step 


LAstt7ig I conliniied 



128 X and 48 y values. The algorithm 
first recognizes that the x value changes 
mort often than the y value. It defines a 
"normal" step from one pixel to the next 
as "Add 1 to the last x ix)sition: add zero 
to the last y position." However, the pro- 
gram takes the normal step only five out 
of every eight times. It uses an alternate 
step the other three: "Add 1 to the last x 
position: add 1 to the last y position " 

The program determines whether to 
take a normal or an alternate step by 
adding up the cumulative error of the ac- 
tual line from the Ideal line after every 
step. When the error is smaller than half 
a pixel, the algorithm selects a normal 
step to find the next position to set. But 
when the error is larger than half the 
width of a pixel, the program selects the 
zdtemate step and reduces the error sum. 

The Program 

I designed the source code so you 
could add it to the Basic program in Pro- 
gram Listing 2. To call the routine, you 
must dimension an integer array of at 
least seven elements. Put the starting x 
value in array element zero, the starting 
y value In element 1, the ending x value 
in element 2. and the ending y value in 
element 3. You should put a zero In cle- 
ment 4 if you want to turn on ("set") all 
the pixels in the line; put a - 1 in ele- 
ment 4 If you want to turn off ("reset") 
the line. The program needs elements 5 
and 6 for a storage buffer. Be sure you 
include them in the array or the line rou- 
tine might change other values stored in 
memory. 

Lines 240-490 check the values 
you've sent to the program and ensure 
that they're within the screen's limits. If 
the program finds a value that would 
take the line off the screen. It Jumps to 
the ROM routine that reports an Illegal 
function call and stops the program. 

Next, in fines 530-810. the routine 
calculates the x and y steps for your line. 
Either the regular or alternate step for 
each direction will be a zero: the other 
will be a 1 or a - 1 depending on the di- 
rection of the line. The same section de- 
termines the error correction ratio, 
which it stores In the B and C registers. 

Starting In line 930, the program 
saves the step values in the extra two 
elements of the array, puts the error ra- 
tio in the HL register pair, and holds the 
number of steps needed for the full line 
in the B register. The program will use 
the value in the C register to calculate 
when it should select alternate steps. Fi- 
nally, it recovers the starting point of the 
line from the stack and saves the error 
ratio and counters. 

The middle section of the program, 
lines 1080-1750. finds the memory ad- 
dress of a screen pixel and whether that 
pixel Is on or off. You might have trouble 



80 Micro, September 1385 • 91 



THE NEXT STEP 



understanding this section— writing 
math functions in Assembly language 
can be complex. 

First, the program divides the y coordi- 
nate by 3 to find the correct screen row. A 
subtraction loop that starts on line 1 1 10 
does the division. The HL register pair 
holds the quotient and the C register holds 
the remainder. 

The routine then determines how far 
the beginning of that screen row is from 
the start of the screen by multiplying the 
value in HL by the 64 characters p»er row. 
Since 64 is 2 to the sixth power, the pro- 
gram multiplies HL by 2 six times. Fi- 
nally, the program adds the result of the 
multiplication to 3C00 hexadecimal 
(hex), the beginning address of screen 
memory; by line 1270, HL points to the 
beginning of the correct row on the 
screen. 

Once the routine finds the row, it has to 
determine which column in that row 
holds the correct pixel. The program di- 
vides the X coordinate by 2 and adds the 
result to HL, and HL finally points to the 
correct byte. However, you still have to 
find out which pixel to set or reset. 

The C register still holds the remainder 
of the first division and it must t>e zero, 1, 
or 2. The program multiplies that value 
by 2, adds the remainder of the second 
division (either zero or 1), and ends up 
with a pixel number in the range of zero 
to 5. The routine completes calculations 
by rotating a single bit through the A reg- 
ister until it moves into position to address 
the necessary screen pixel. 

By line 1510, the HL register points to 
the correct byte in video memory, and the 
A register has the necessary value to turn 
on the pixel addressed by the x and y co- 
ordinates. The hardest part is finally over. 

Two tests, beginning in line 1510. de- 
termine whether the screen displays an 
ASCn character or graphics character at 
the current location. If the program finds 
an ASCII character, it erases the character 
and replaces It with a graphics blank. 

Then, in line 1640. the program tests 
the fifth array element to find out whether 
it should turn the pixel on or oil. In either 
case, a simple logic operation either sets 
or resets the correct bit, and the program 
has finally taken care of one point on the 
line. The last section of the program, from 
lines 1790-2070, decides whether the 
program takes the regular or alternate 
step and adjusts the DE register accord- 
ingly. Then the program loops back to 
find the next pixel on the line. 

Using and Modifying 
The Line Routine 

Program Listing 2 shows how you can 
load, initialize, and call the line routine 
from a Model 111 Basic program. Lines 25 
to 90 demonstrate how fast this program 



Listing J continued 

B0154 
00155 
00156 
09157 
00158 
00159 
00160 
00161 
00162 
00163 
00164 
00165 
00166 
00167 
00168 
00169 
00170 
00171 
00172 
00173 
00174 
00175 
00176 
B0177 
00178 
00179 
00180 
00181 
00132 
001 B3 
001B4 
001 B5 
001 B6 
001 B7 
001BB 
00189 
00190 
00191 
00192 
00193 
00194 
00195 
00196 
00197 
O019B 
00199 
00200 
00201 
00202 
00203 
00204 
00205 
00206 
00207 
0020B 
0B209 
00210 
00211 
00212 
00213 
00214 
00Z15 
00216 
00217 
00218 
00219 
00220 
00221 
00222 
00223 
B0224 
00225 
00226 
00227 
0022B 
00229 
00230 
00231 
00232 
00233 
00234 
00235 
00236 
00237 
0023S 
00239 
0B240 
0B241 
00242 
002*3 
00244 
02245 
00246 
00247 
00248 
00249 
00250 
00251 
00252 
00253 
00254 
00255 
00256 
90257 



all steps are 1,0, or -1 

Save all values 



LINE30 LD (IXtie),H ;Save cegulat x step 

to (IX+11),D ; alternate x step 

LD [IK+121,E ; normal y step 

LD (IX+13),L ; alternate y step 

LD L,B ;L has long distance 

LD B,C jH has short distance 

LD C,B iC also has long diet. 

SBL C ;C - long dist / 2 

INC B ;B = t Of points on long axie 

POP DE ;DE has starting point 

LINE40 PUSH HL ; Save distances 

PUSH BC jAnd counters 



Calculate screen location of y coordinate 



LD 
LD 

INC 

SUB 

JR 

ADD 

LD 

LD 



L,-l 

a,f: 



NC,LINE51 

A, 3 

C,A 

H,0 



;Inltlalize for quotient 

;Get y coordinate 

(divide y by 3 

(Start with L = 

(A - A - 3 

jLoOp until A < 

;A ■ 0,1, or 2 

(C has remainder 

;HL " screen line 



I Multiply HL • 64 



LD 

OR 

RL 

RL 

DJNZ 

LD 

ADD 

LD 



&,6 



H 



LINE60 
A,3CH 
A,H 
H,A 



(Counter 

(Clear carry flag 

JL = L • 2 

(HL - HL • 2 

(Do (HL*2) • 6 

jScreeii starts at 3C00H 

(Add MSB of screen line 

;HL-"> beg. of screen line 



Nov find address ot x coordinate 



LD A,D 

SRL A 

RL B 

ADD A,L 

LD L,A 



(Get X coordinate 

jA - x/2, CP has remainder 

(Remainder to B 

jAdd line position to L 

jHL— > correct pixel 



I Find pixel at HL 



RL 

LD 

ADD 

LD 

INC 

XDR 

SCF 

RLA 

DJNZ 



C 
A,C 

A,B 
B,A 
B 



JC - C ' 2 

[Get value from C 

;A has bit number (0-5) 

fPixel nuBber to B 

jB - bit number + 1 [1-6) 

(A = 

(Carry flag has bit 

(Rotate carry bit until 

( bit is correctly positioned 



( Make HL a graphics character if it isn't already 

( 

7,(HL) 



BIT 
NOP 
JR 

BIT 
ttOF 
JR 

I 

LINEBB LD 
NOP 



J, LINE 80 
6,(HL) 
:,LINE90 
(HL) ,BBH 



(Is high bit set? 
(Pauee for 32-chac, mode 
(Go if not set 

(Is this bit reset? 
(32-ctiar. Kiode pause 
(Go it already graphics 

(Haice a graphics blank 
(Another 32-chac. pause 



Set or reset correct bit 



LINE9B BIT 0,(IX*8) jGet Set/Seset flag 

JR NZ,LIK1B0 ;Go to reset 

OR (HL) (OR pixel with set bit 

NOP (Pause 

JR LINllB (And skip reset code 

( 

LINIBB CPL jComplement A for reset 

AND (HL) (Mask out OUC pixel 

NOP [Pause 
( 

LINllB LD (HL) ,A (Set new value On Screen 

WOP (One more pause 

J — — 

I One pixel is set — find «,y address of ne»t 



POP 

POP 

LD 

ADD 

LD 

LD 

ADD 

LD 



BC 

HL 

A,D 

A, (1X4-10] 

D,A 

A,E 

A,(IX+12) 
E,A 



[Recover counters 

[ Recover distances 

[Get current x coordinate 

(Add regular x step 

[Store new k coordinate 

(Get current y coordinate 
(Add regular y step 
(Store new y coordinate 



Is it time for alternate step? 



LD 
ADD 



A,C 
A,H 



(Get check value 
(Add short distance 



Lisfing 1 continued 



92 • SO Micro. September 1985 



THE NEXT STEP 



Listing 1 continued 












01253 




LO 


C,A 


iSave bacK In C [register 




00259 




CP 


L 


iConpace long disCance 




■ 0260 




JR 


C,LIN120 


iDon't adjust if L. > C 




■0262 ( 


AdjuBt with 


alternate steps 






B02G4 




SUB 


I< 


|A - C-L: adjust cbeck value 




00265 




ID 


C,A 


tStore new check value 




00266 




LD 


A,D 


iGet new x coordinate 




00267 




ADD 


A, (1X411] 


lAdjuat by alternate step 




00266 




LO 


D,A 


iSave as new x coordinate 




B0269 ( 












00270 




LD 


A,E 


tGet new y coordinate 




00271 




ADD 


A,(IX+13) 


tAdjuHt by altecnate step 




00272 




LD 


E,A 


;8ave ae new y coordinate 




00274 , 


Repeat untlJ 


line La dcavni 


then return to Basic 




00276 LIN120 


DJNl 


LINE40 


iLoop until B ■ 




00277 




RET 




(Back to Basic 




00278 ; 












00279 




END 








EOF 










End 



Program. Listing 2. The Basic demonstration program. 



1 'Model I/III Line-Drawing 
DemonsttAtion Program 

IB CLS: DIH A«(7),I%,K% 

2B GOSUB 601BB: DEFIJSR-VARPTR(Qt (0) ) 

21 ' Warning 1 

If you use any variables that have not already been 
given a value oc DIKenaloned, you KUST redefine 
the USR address: DEFUSR = VARPTR(Q«{0} ] 

25 A%(4]-e 

38 FOR lt% = B TO 47 

31 A%(e}-B: AI(1}=0: At (2) -127-K%*2.7 1 A%(3)'>K% 

32 I%-USR{VARPTR(Al(fl) )) 

33 NEXT K« 

3* FOR K»=47 TO B STEP -I 

35 A*(B]=127tA%(l)-47!M(2)-127-lt%«2.7!A%{3)-K% 

36 I%-USR(VAHPTR(A*(B) ) ) 

37 NEXT K» 
3 8 A%(4)=-1 

3 9 FOR K% - 1 TO 47 STEP 4 

4B A%(0)-0: At(l)=K%: At(2)>cl27i A%{3)-KI 

41 I%-USR(VARPTR{AI(fl)) ) 

42 NEXT Kt 

43 FOR K% - 1 TO 127 STEP 4 

44 A%(0)-Kli A«(l}-B: A%(2}'Kt: A«(3}-47 

45 It-USR(VARPTR(At(B))} 

46 NEXT R% 

90 CLS: GOTO 25 
IBB ■ 



60000 


' Data for IJ 


ne-dcawJ 


ng routi 


ne 






600B1 


DATA 


32717, 


-6 902, 


-7715, 


32477, 


-8959, 


950 


6BB02 


DATA 


-187 23, 


-8955, 


197 4, 


19138, 


-B930, 


126 


6B003 


DATA 


-187 23, 


-50B, 


-1164B, 


7754, 


32477, 


-518 


60004 


DATA 


-11728, 


7754, 


32477, 


-586, 


-11728, 


7754 


60005 


DATA 


22237, 


-8968, 


686, 


26333, 


-B956, 


1646 


60006 


DATA 


31957, 


294, 


12434, 


-4 860, 


97 96, 


18431 


60BB7 


DATA 


11901, 


-27903, 


1072, 


17645, 


-218, 


4431 


60088 


DATA 


8, 


14528, 


1B435, 


-5385, 


29917, 


-8950 


60009 


DATA 


2930, 


29661, 


-B948, 


3445, 


24936, 


-13496 


68018 


DATA 


10 Bl, 


-6783, 


11973, 


31743, 


-10708, 


12291 


68811 


DATA 


-14597, 


28227, 


38, 


1542, 


-13385, 


-13547 


68012 


DATA 


4116, 


16122, 


-316 B4, 


31335, 


16331, 


4299 


68013 


DATA 


28549, 


4555, 


-32647, 


1895, 


14255, 


4119 


68014 


DATA 


-13315, 


126, 


1320, 


30411, 


10240, 


13B27 


68815 


DATA 


12B, 


-13347, 


17 92 6, 


1856, 


182, 


7 92 


68016 


DATA 


-22993, 


38464, 


-16128, 


31457, 


-31011, 


222B2 


60017 


DATA 


-8837, 


3286, 


31071, 


28356, 


14525, 


-273 80 


6001B 


DATA 


31311, 


-31011, 


22283, 


-B837, 


3462, 


4I9I 


60019 


DATA 


-13938 












60108 


DIK Q%[1B8) : 


RESTORE 










60101 


T-8 














60118 


FOR It-B TO 188: 












READ QKIt; 














T-T-K1*(I») 














NEXT 


It 












£0115 


IF T 


<> 43 9331 TUEII 












FRIMT "Chec 


ksuB error — Verify Data': 






STOP 












60120 


RETURN 













End 



can draw 140 lines on the screen. 

You can use essentially the same rou- 
tine on a Model 4 with a few modifica- 
tions. The error-checking section will 
have to allow x values between zero and 
159, and y values between zero and 71. 
for example. You will also have to decide 
how the routine should address video 
memory. You have at least three choices: 

• You can dedicate a 1.92abyte buffer 
{perhaps an Integer array of 960 ele- 
ments or a series of file buffers) to hold 
an image of the screen, use the @VDCTL 
SVC to copy the screen there, draw the 
entire line, and then copy the buffer 
back to the screen. You would have to 
ensure that the buffer begins at address 
OECOO hex or lower. 

• You can determine the row and col- 
umn, but not the absolute address, of 
each pixel and then use ®VDCTL to get 
a copy of a single byte. You would then 
set the correct pixel in that byte and 
again call @VDCTL to put the new byte 
back In screen memory. 

• If you're adventurous, you can use the 
information in the hardware section of 
the Model 4 technical manual to bring 
video and keyboard memory Into the top 
3K of addressable memory space and 
deal with the screen directly. If you take 
that approach, be sure to turn off all in- 
terrupts until you restore the normal 
memory configuration. 

Model 4 graphics present one problem 
that is impossible to solve without com- 
pletely rewriting the line-drawing algo- 
rithm. Model I/III pixels are all the same 
size but the Model 4 has two different sizes 
in each byte. Therefore, any line you draw 
will look sUghtly out of proportton. 

You might also want to rewrite Listing 
1 slightly so that you can call it from an- 
other machine-language routine. You 
would need to put the line's parameters 
into a buffer that the routine can find, 
and then call it. You would only have to 
change the first few lines of Listing 1 to 
do so. 

Depending on your own programming 
needs, you may or may not find the line 
routine useful on a day-to-day basis, but 
you will probably enjoy experimenting 
with It. And you might want to use the 
program to educate your friends who 
may mistakenly think that the TRS-80 
is incapable of displaying graphics. ■ 



You can contact Hardin Brothers 
through CompuServe. Go PCS-117 to 
the Writers' and Editors' SIG (WESIG) 
and leave your message addressed to 
him. Feel free to Join In discussions 
started by others. 

You can also write to Hardin at 280 
N. Campus Ave.. Upland. CA 91786. 
Enclose a stamped. self-atMressed en- 
velope if you uxint a reply. 



80 Micro, September T985 ■ 93 



SPREADSHEET BEAT 



On Your Marks: Your 
Spreadsheet as Gradebook 



by Doug Peterson 

As a teacher, I And a good spread- 
sheet Invaluable for calculating 
and printing out my students' marks. I 
can update marks whenever I want or 
monitor a student's progress throughout 
a term. Because my computer does the 
averaging, it's as easy to process a (est 
with 27 questions as one with 50. 

My VlslCalc template. Report Card, cal- 
culates student marks based on tests, as- 
signments, and class performance (see 
Fig. 1). Once you understand how the en- 
tries work, you can customize the tem- 
plate to suit your own grading system. 

The Setup 

Start by entering the relative weight- 
ing for tests in cell C5. Type In weight- 
ings for assignments and class marks in 
cells C6 and C7. Enter students' last 
names in column A and first names In 
column B. If you need more room, use 
the global command /GC# to adjust col- 
umn width. 

Type in each student's grade on test 1 
in column C. In cell CIS, type in the test 
total; that Is. the numlier of questions or 
maximum possible score. Repeat this 
procedure for each test and assignment. 
and for class performance. 




The Formulas 

Report Card calculates the average 
test 1 score In cell C 1 7 using the formula 
@AVERAGE(Cn...C15). The command 
/F$ formats the result to show only two 
decimal places. 

Since the formula is the same for the 
rest of the tests, assignments, and class 
marks, replicate this formula for cells 
D17 through K17. using /F$ to format 



each answer. Figure 2 shows Report 
Card's formula listing. 

Because my VisiCalc version llinlla 
formula lengths, the template calculati-s 
the test and assignment totals In sepa- 
rate cells. To calculate the test total, en- 
ter the formula @SUM(C18...F18) in cell 
Ml. Enter the formula for the assign- 
ments total. @SUM(G18...118). in cell 
M2. Because they're so far to the right. 



Pe I i od 3 


19B5 01 Bl 






















Height ingE 


s 

B 




61% 

Bit 
111 


















Teats 

Aaaiijnnent 
Class naiK 




Nane 




TOEt 1 


Teat 2 


Test 3 


Test 4 


AEBign 1 


ABSlqn 2 


Ae B 1 g n 3 


Class 


Average 


U>le, 
Rtown, 
Ca r ney , 
Dent, 
Edwatds, 


Joan 
Bar ty 
Maty 
Getty 
Eddy 




21 

24 
21 
23 
IS 


B 
7 
B 
9 
IB 


47 
2S 
3H 
39 
41 


19 
18 
17 
17.5 
11 


39 
37 
41 
4B 

32 


21 
22 
24 

IB 

12 


27 
21 
29 
38 
20 


7 
B 
6 
7 
B 


B7,6B 
75,15 
B2,92 
84. BS 
73,49 


Avetatje 

Total 




21 


2fl 
25 


9.4B 

Ifl 


38.lfl 

sg 


16. SB 
21 


37.61 


19. 4B 

25 


25.41 
30 


7.2B 
IB 


a0.B2 
100 


Highest Ha 
Lowest Hd 


cK " — -> 


87 
73 


6S 
49 



















Figure I. Report Card template. 



94 • dO Micro, S^ember 1985 



circle 406 on Reader Service card 



Circle 216 on Reader Service card. 

TRS-80+ MOD I, III, COCO, TI99/4a 
TIMEX 1000. OSBORNE, others 

GOLD PLUG - 80 

Eliminate disk reboots and data loss due to oxi- 
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GOLD PLUG 80 soktofs to the board edge con- 
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GOLDPLUG80lwk)dl(6) 
Keyboard/El (mod I) 
kxjividual conr>ectors 
COCO Disk Module (2) 
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Disk Drives (all R.S) 
GokJ Disk Cable 2 Drive 
Four Drive Cable 
GOLD PLUG 80 Mod III (6) 
Internal 2 Drive Cable 
Mod III Expanston port 
USA shipping $1.45 
Foreign $7. 



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• COMPLETE USER MANUAL-with examples 

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I DOS IS d rpgivtcfcd irsrii-mdri i)t 1 o^ic jl S\.tHm lilt PLEASE SPECIFY VERSION 



PowerSCRIPT 4.2 

The state-of-the art UNIVERSAL add-on 

enhancement for SCRIPSIT^ users! 

Now supports TRUE Model 4/4P 

80 column version ot SCRIPSIT 

Supports ALL released versions of 

SCRIPSIT^ for 4/III/I. 

Get the MOST from your printer! 

Our PowerSCRIPT modiftcation lor SCRIPSIT (all versions) gives you 
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With all the smarter printers out there, it doesn't make sense to use 
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Some features that get added to SCRIPSIT via PowerSCRIPT 4.2: 

■ Send commands to printer to activate special formats and lurKtions. even 
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• Got an ALPHABETICAL Directory (rom wrthm PSCRIPT and FETCH. KILL, or 
CHAIN, any file righl from trie display' No more going tjack to DOS' 

■ KeyDoard can be customized for special needs or keys 

• Special characters can be generated fiom keytjoara witt>out using special 
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■ END returns to DOS READY quickly instead of rebooting operatirtg system 

• Buiit-in HELP command' HELP can be rrmditied by user 

■ Optionally select lir>e feed after carnage return. 

• Support for user -definable fillers included 

For Model 4/4P. Ill or I (lower case only ) Works with most Mode4 l/tll operating 
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except for DIR from PSCRIPT Purchaser must own appropriate verswn of disk- 
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■Most all EPSON compatibles ' 
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All features of SuperSCRIPSIT are supported to the fullest capabili- 
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17060 OalM Pafliway, Suite 114 
Daltaa, TX 75248 

(214)733-4475 






^ 



BO Micro. September 1985 • 95 



SPREADSHEET BEAT 



A4, U0 — K18 

cn 

D17 

KIT 

D5, D6, D7 

C!e 

C21 

HI 

N2 

Kll 

Kl2 

K15 



/FS 9AVERAGEtCll...ClS) 
/F$ ?AVERAG£(D1I...D1S) 

/F$ WVERAGE{Kll..,Ki5) 

/FL 

@HAX(K11...K15) 

?HINiKll.,.K15) 

^SUH(C1H...F18) 

iSUH(G18...IlB) 

/PS ?SU(l(Cll...Fll)/Hl'CStt»SU«[Gll...Ill)/M2*C6)+(Jll/J18»C7) 

/FS ?5lJmC12...F12)/Ml'C5*(eSUmG12...I12)/ll2*C6) t[J12/JlB*C7) 

/FS gSUH[C15. ..F15)/m*C5*ieSUn(G15...Ili)/K2*C6)+lJ15/Jia*C7j 



Figure 2. Report Card's /ormu/a listing. 





(ST*W1) + (SA'W2) + ICM*W3) 




TT TA 


TC 


ST 


= Number of tests W2 


= Weighting for assignments 


TT 


= Maximum possible test score CM 


= Student's class mark 


Wl 


= Weighting for tests TC 


= Maximum possible class mark 


SA 


= Numljer of assignments W3 


= Weighting for class mark 


TA 


- Maximum possible assign- 
ments score 






Figure 3. The formula for 


student averages. 



cells Ml and M2 don't show up when 
you print out the template. 

Now you can enter each student's aver- 
age. Figure 3 shows the formula and de- 
scribes the variables. Format cell Kll 
with the command /F$ and enter the for- 
mula ©SUM (C 11 .. .Fl 1 )/M 1 'CS + 
(©SUM (G11...I11)/M2«C6) + (J11/J18 
•C7). The spreadsheet calculates and 
displays the first student's average. Rep- 
licate the formula for each student. 

To determine the highest mark, enter 
the formula ©MAX[K1 1 ...K15) in cell 
C20: use the formula ©MIN(KU...K15) in 
cell 21 to find the lowest mark. Again, 
you should format these cells as /FS.B 

Doug Peterson teaches data process- 
ing at SanduJich Secondary School in 
Windsor. Ontario. You can contact him 
at 62 Boardwalk. Amherstburg. Ont.. 
Canada N9V 3H3. 

Send your templates or spreadsheet 
tips to Spreadsheet Beat. 80 Micro. 80 
PineSt.. Peterborough. NH03458. We'll 
pay $50 for each one we publish. 



System Requirements 

VlslCalc 



I Circle 470 on Reader Service card. 



Cifcle 490 on Readef Service card. 



96K JV\0DEL100 

The PG Design 64K RAM mcxiulo adds two addilional 32K RAM 
banks to your existing Model 100. The firmware that comes in 
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You may transfer files from one RAM bank to any of (he othtT 
R,\M banks by using the function keys. 

We designed uur RAM module to allow clear access to the ROM 
slot and we provided a forty pin, male connector to utihze Radio 
Shack's DVl or other disk drive systems. We have installed a 
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months if you should remove it from your Model KKI. But, while 
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The RAM module snaps easily into the expansion port in the 
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form. Statements ,, n t^ printed at any lime> 

iMVEmwrr ..^. "- $i3s 

Allows up to 4,00(1 pans, Keep^ 3,munth history 
of unit sales as well as year to date. With AR. can 



(6W 339-2521 



be used as poinl ol sale system (prints invoices, 
handles cash). liepoHs include inventory Value 
and Stock Report, Interna! ,ind Customer I'rice 
List, 

ACCOUNTS PAWBLC $12S 

Allows up to ?0D vendors and 600 invoice* mo. 
Records invoices and handwritten checks. Pnnts 
computer checks on any pre-printed form, ICeeps 
vendor names and jddres.ses 

FAYROLL SttS 

Will liandli- up lo 100 employees with six deductions 
pir employee. Deductions may be determined as 

itted do'^Al amounts or percentages, u ■.\i to- 

a taWe toi automatic look-up. Tax tal.i' lU v.asift' 
entered. *f urit.isod s.'?.rn-c|-,. -^: 

«UV OH Hl^CPMim flf»^ 

vpaq Mi-' !■ liH: Tei^visi-;^ 

JameswerCrc^p 

-^ H ■ a f ' t * t • ' ' ^ 



DEMO DISK 
$iB.OO 






frt j» 5 pmgrjms jhove (CI. AR. AP. I\. PRI- 
Order our DhMO UlSk for SIS.OO (includeo ship- 
pingt Coitdcmed tvnion* ol the pwgnmi give 
Kiu Ihe "feci" ol diU entry Jitrf jccea. Includes 
sjnipir rrporlsjnd inilrudions. Specify machine. 



sBTOFmm . 



HH ■>■•••'< 



.,.^*4«5 

„.„... MM 
......... S32S 



^K 




HWTO MlDfff: Elesht' .p-r,:dy rnxMine nnd disk 
fe^rmat-■i'clll:^■p4^ ■>v>:luui. !-vV(SA(«Ma-li-rCard 
{weM»diT.ur cxpL-j;ion djic andcarf nu-vuvr), or 
t'V't'^ COD (add K.SO COD diar^ei. < 'nr price 
iududos shipping Minnesota rwidenf- uid 6% 
salp5 !axl. rW ship iiifs! order* ^.i' -ame day, 
or ORDEM Bit mOHi! ti2-339-2521 



125 North First Street 
M'lnneipolia, M\ 55401 



80 Micro. September 1985 • 97 



CIrcte 82 on Reader Service card. 



$777 



NEW! 



Comes complete with cable 
and choice of software driver* 
{CPM, LDOS, TRSDOS) 

10 Megabyte Hard Drive $o99 

15 Megabyte Hard Drive I V9d 

30 Megabyte Hard Drive I 4«70 

SYSTEM FEATURES 

• For TRS-80 Model 3-4-4P 

• One Year Parts & Labor Wan-anty 

• Size Hated After Format 

• Continuous Duty Power Supply 

• EiTor Checking & Corectirig 

• Continuous Duty Fan 

• Size 11.5' X 12,5 x 5.0' 

• All Contacts Gold Plated 



-UnM 3 nqiJraa LAOS 

Moom 4 rrcivw inSOOS e 2 or Moitaifm Uoro CP/W 2 1 




5 MEG 
HARD 
DRIVE 



There are firms which offer benefits, experience or products seemingly 
too good to be true. Now why would you want to expose yourself to 
unhappiness when Aerocomp has a proven record of thousands of 
happy, satisfied TRS-80 customers. Just take a minute to look through 
back issues of this magazine. You won't find many companies that have 
been around as long as Aerocomp. We fully support TRS-80 computers 
and most all operating systems including CP/M 22. Aerocomp leads the 
way to low hard disk prices so you can afford to enjoy the benefits 
of increased storage and faster disk I/O. These units are precision 
engineered, tested and delivered complete and ready to use. right from 
our stock. Each unit is guaranteed for one year parts and labor. You 
can count on us to be here if you should ever need us. As always, 
your satisfaction is assured with our 1 4 day free trial offer. If, for some 
reason, you are dissatified with our drive merely return it for a full refund 
{less shipping). How can you go wrong'? Specify the software driver of 
your choice and start enjoying your computer's real capability. Do it 
today! Call our toll-free number now! 



MODEL I 

DOUBLE DENSITY BOARD 

Add 80% more capacity to your disk 
system with the Double Density 
Controller (DDC) from Aerocomp. 

The Story 

Some products have what it takes to seem to lasi forever Our * DDC' is 

one of those products What it does is allow you to operate your TRS-80 
Model 1 disk system in double density In this case doutXe density means 
almost dout)ling the storage capacity ot your diskettes. Single density, ttiats 
the way Radio Shack designed your Model I expansion interface, organizes 
your disk into 10 sectors per track. Each sector contains 256 bytes of data 
for a total storage capaaty of 2,560 bytes or 2 5K per track times ttie number 
of tracks your dnve is capat»(e of adressing Double density, on the other 
har>d, wntes 18 sectors per track each containing 256 bytes (or a total of 
4,608 bytes or 4 5K That is 80% more data in the same space wny diCn I 
Radio Shack do that in the beginning, you ask'' Well it costs money to do 
doubte density because it is more difficult to do than single density and the 
data IS harder to capture reliably. That means more cost and the Model I 
was meant to tie a tow-cost computer for the masses Therefore, no double 
density for the original Model I. 

The Facts 

Other companies Introduced double density controllers for the Model I but 
they were not so good We waited and waited but. ever r>ew models failed 
to correct problems with data separation that kept cropping up. So we went 
to work and came up with a new design to cure the oW protjiem. At last' 
A double density controller for the Model I with a higher probability ot data 
recovery than with any other double density controller on the market then 
or since Our analog design phase lock loop data separator has a wider 
capture window than the digital types the others use This altows high 
resotution data centenng Our DDC analog circuit altows mfinalely variable 
tuning. The attack and settling times are optimum tor 5 25" diskettes The 
oft-slated fears of adjustment problems rumored by digital dilettantes have 
been proved groundless by thousands of satisfied users the world over The 
bottom line here is state-of-the-art performance and reliability 



See opposite page m ^ > ^ 




Ctvyngrn i9SS 






ORDER YOURS TODAY 

TRS-80 Model I disk system owners who are ready for reliable double density 
operation will get 80% more storage per diskette; single and doutjie density 
data separation with far fewer disk I/O errors; single density compatibility; 
simple plug-in operatkxi. You will rwed a disk operatir>g system that has the 
r>ecessary double density software AH the popular DOS's (encepl TRSDOS) 
have the dnvers. We have put together two special packages in the event 
you Oon't already have one of the more popular DOS s 

"DDC" 



by itself $ 99 

"DDC" and LDOS 159 

"DDC" and NEWDOS 80 2.0 ....179 






98 • 60 Micro. September 1985 



Ci'Cle 83 on Reader Service card. 



ly 40 Track 
(T 80 Track 
[^ Single Head 
cy Dual Head 
l5= Bare 
Cj- Complete 
ly- Full Size 
13- Half Size 



DISK 
DRIVES 



Aerocomp leads the way to the BEST value in disk drives and related periphery products 
on the maritet today. Sound engineenng, high performance, quality construction, no-risk 
free trial, outstanding wan'anty service and a reputation for doing the right thing make 
your decision to buy Aerocomp ttw correct one. Please took over our offerings and 
make your setection. When you have made your choice caB our toll-free number and 
place your order. If you need assistarKe in making your setectkm, please call our 
informatkxi number, tfs listed in the box at the txjttom of this ad along with the technics 
assistance number for those of you who want to get n^t to the ratty-gritty. Thanks, 
we all appreciate your busir^ess arxl will continue to do our very best to support 
you. 



BARE DRIVES AddM»H 

These drives are comptetety fl 

bumed-in and tested for your ■ fl^l ^| 
ultimate satisfaction. Add that I^HH 
exb^ drive today! These are new H ^H ^B 
factory drrvas No t}lems. seconis B ^H ^1 
or ctoseouts. lnstr\x:tton marHial irx^luded at no 
extra cost. Service manuals are available. See 
'Miscellaneous Goodies " for info. 

40tk SS tun size Tandon TM100-1 S 129 

40tk OS fu< size Tandon TM100-2 169 

40tk SS htfl high TEAC FD55-A 129 

40tk DS half high TEAC FD55-B 169 

eOtk DS full size Tandon TM101-4 289 

BOtk DS half high TEAC FD55-F 239 

B" SS Thinline Tandon TMW8-1E 260 

8" DS Thinline Tandon TFA848-2E 335 



8" FLOPPY DRIVES A<><>tizs>H 



■ 



These 8 " Ttwihne dnves work 
with the Model 2 vk) 16 plus 
others that use standard 
drives. The rugged all-steel 
catxnel has an extra heavy 
duty power supply rated for continuous operation 
A removeable air filter allows only dean air to 
circulate. CatMnets with single drives are supplied 
with a blank panel to cover the unused space. A 
second dnve can be added at any time. Service 
manuals are available See " Miscellaneous 
Goodies " tor info. 

1-8" SS Tandon TM848-1E & case $389 

2-8' SS Tandon TMe48-1E's & case 649 

1-8 ' DS Tandon Tf^e48-1E & case 439 

2-8- DS TwKton TM848-2E s 1 case 699 



MISCELLANEOUS QCX>DIES u s4h 

Model 1 TRSOOS 2.3 disk & manuai $25 

Model 3 TRSDOS 1.3 disk & manual 25 

Model 4 TRSOOS 62x disk & manual 20 

LOOS (specify Model I or III) 69 

NEWfX)S 80 v2.0 (specify Model 1 or lit] 99 

Montezuma Micro Model 4 CP/M 2.2 169 

Tandon TM100-1/2 Service Manual 20 

TwKlon TM&48-1/2 Service Manual 20 

TEAC FD55A/B/F Service Manual 20 

10 SSOO disks in library box. Lifetime Guar 16 
10 OSOD dislts m kkrary box. Lifetime Guar. 19 

5,25" drive power ajpply & enclosure 59 

8" dnve pwr sply & end w/fan 5V-24V 150 

5.25" 1-dnve cable, a nice length 19 

5.25" 2-drive caWe. a 44 Incher 24 

5.25" a^lrive caWe. just the right size 29 

5,25" 4-drTve cable, the top dog 34 

5.25" Extender cable with gold contacts... . 10 



COMPLETE DRIVES aoowsih 

Fits TRS-80 Models 1.3.4 tfid the H| 

Cokx Computer plus ttw others ^H 

that use starKlard drives. The drive ^H 

of your ctXMce is rrKHXited m a ^^ 

stuitly, aN-steel cabinet. An external gold plated 
dnve connector alkms cabling without disassembly 
of ttie catwwt. Half-high doves come in a full-size 
cabinet tfiat win hold and power our halt-high 
drives. Single drives have a panel covenng the 
unused space aJk)wihg a second drive to be added 
at any time. All are shipped (utty assembled ready 
to use. Spedfy silver or white enckisure. 

40tk Single Skle full size (TM100-1) $169 

40tk Double Side full size (TM100-2) 199 

BOtk DS fufi size fTM101-4) 299 

1-40tk SS half-high FD-5SA in dual case 169 

2-40tk SS half-high FD-55A's in dual case .319 

1-40tk DS half-high FD-55B in dual case 199 

2-40tk OS hall-high FD-55B s in dual case .359 

l-80tk DS half-high FD-55F m dual case 219 

2-80tk DS haH-high FD-55FS in dual case .389 



FREE TRIAL OFFER 

Use your Aerocomp hardware pfoducl for up to 14 days 
If you are nol satisfied for ANY REASON (except misuse. 
damage or imprapef handiiiig). return il (insured) m the 
original sTiipfNng container tor a fun purchase price returxl. 
less sr^ipping. Sorry, iMa offer does not apply to 
software. DefecHvo aoftware wn be replacod. Ar^y 
hardware /scttv are specal-s win Cw prorated and tt>e 
software will be ctiarged at Itie regular urAurxltod price. 
We have oonltdaKm n our products and we know you wiU 
be satasfw) 

WARRANTY 

We offer a one year warranty on pans arxl latxK against 
delects r\ matenats and workmanship In tr>e everft servwe 
becomes necassary lor any reason you wilUnd our servxx 
department lest, tnerxty wxl cooperative. We warn to keep 
you happy Out of warranty repairs are also availatsle 

100% BURN-IN and TEST 

AH our products are bumed-m anO tully tested prior to 
shipment. We want you to receive an item ready-to-go. 
AEROCOIvlP meww reUbilltyi 

ORDER NOWI 

CaX our loA-free numtjer service and place your order Have 
your Amerx:an Express. Masterctiarge or Visa number 
ready We w« not ctiarge your card urnil the day we ship 
yoir order You may order by mail using your cnOH card 
check or money order. Personal and company checks are 
welcome and cause no shiptmg delay as kxtg as ttwy are 
tjanM printed and (tie signature exactly agrees witn tt>e 
rume pnntad on tt>e check We will ship surface COD with 
no deposit txit al COD s require cash or a earner s ctieck 
on delivery Texas resklents add 6% Slate Sales Tax. f4o 
tax collected on out of state shipmems. Canadian 
addresses add S20 to your order if over $550 for customs 
documentation. 



TRS-80 Model III & 4 

DISK CONTROLLER 

and 

DRIVE KITS 



Convert your cassette Model III or 4 to 
disk operation with one of our complete 
kits. You receive our own advanced disk 
controltef board with goW plated edge 
contacts capable of 4-drlve operation; 
our own power suppty: plated steel 
mounting towers complete with RFI 
stiieU plus all the cables and hardware 
necessary. Detailed instructkins are 
irKluded. All you need is a screwdriver 
and a pair of pliers. System kits come 
with 40 track single-side drives or just 
order the basic kit and pick the drives 
you want from the seiection in the next 
column. 

CONTROLLER KIT $199 

|E«ry1hing tai nmO ■ Mu ilmt*/OOS) 

1 DRIVE SYSTEM 319 

2 DRIVE SYSTEM 439 

AOO SB S&H 

MOUNTING KIT & 

POWER SUPPLY 95 

Add SB saH 
CONTROLLER BRD. ONLY ..110 
RS-232 BOARD & KIT 69 

Ada M stH 



OUR FAMOUS 

MODEL I STARTER 

PACKAGE 



11 you have a Model I am an ExpansKxi 
Interlace this is wtiat you need to gel stwted 
with disks Induiled is one 40 track single-side 
disk drive comptete with matching silver case 
and power supply, a 2-drtve cable, a TRSDOS 
2.3 disk operating system and TRSDOS 
manual plus all lnsurar>ce arxJ delivery charges 
to your door {lower 4S states). 



Yours tor onty 



$199 



You can add our rerx>wn ■'ODC' double 
density controHer to either the Radio Shack or 
ttw LNW Expansion Interlace tor 80% more 
storage capacity on your dnve. Order it at the 
same time as our starter package above arxl 
we'll pay the shipping. Go atiead. you deserve 
increased density See the opposite page for 
the latest technical details 



$99 



CALL TOLL-FREE 

800-527-3582 usa 
800-442-1310 TEXAS 

For inquiries or information 

or to check on or change an order 

call 214-339-6324 

Redbird Airport, BIdg. 8 
P.O. Box 24829 
Dallas, TX 75224 



80 Micro. September 1985 • 99 



REVIEWS 



Continued from p. 34 

Teach Your TRS-80 
Some New Tricks 

by Terry Kepner 

• ••• 

Teach Your TRS-80 To Program Itself 
by David Busch. Tab Books Inc.. Blue 
Ridge Summit, PA 17214. ISBN 0-8306- 
1798-1. $11.50. A disk of Che programs 
costs S 16. 

Writing: * • * • ^ 

Organization: ir it ir it ii 

Thoroughness: ■*■♦♦♦♦ 

Underslandabillty: • • • • -iV 

While Teach Your TRS-80 to Pro- 
gram Itself doesn't really do 
what the title Implies, it does reduce 
some of the drudgery Involved in writing 
programs by supplying modules and 
utilities that do part of the work for you. 

For example, designing visually appeal- 
ing program menus is always a chore: 
You have to count message lengths and 
put in tabs to center the text horizon- 
tally, then center It vertically. That task 
would be much simpler if you could de- 
sign a screen with a word processor and 
tell a program to generate the code nec- 
essary to reproduce that screen. 

Your computer can do this and dozens 
of other similar tasks, but it doesn't. 
That's where Busch 's book comes in. It 
provides programs that do the task men- 
tioned above and more. In all. Teach 
Your TRS-80 provides 1 6 uOlitles to sim- 
plify your programming. Teach Your 
TRS-80 is designed for the NEWDOS/80 
system, but you can use it with most 
other DOSes. The programs work on the 
Models 1 and 111 and the Lolxi Max -80. 

The Programs 

In addition to the screen formatting 
utility cited above. Teach Your TRS-80 
includes a word counter to determine 
the number of words in a text or ASCII 
file, a boiler-plate data base manage- 
ment generator, a print routine that 
prints out programs with a right-hand 
margin and Indented continuation lines. 
a master menu program that lets you 
load and run any one of 26 programs, 
and an error-trap routine you merge 
with your programs so you get full text 
explanations instead of just "Illegal 
function call" errors. There are also pro- 
grams that let you specify DOS or pro- 
gram zaps and check for entry errors 
before invoking the fixes, that let you 
program in Spanish, and a utility that 
scans text files and produces a list of the 
words used (for indexes and glossaries). 

Teach Your TRS-80 also includes util- 
ities to remove remark statements from 



a program, automatically add a title to 
your programs {for copyright state- 
ments), scan your program and auto- 
matically calculate the tabs needed to 
center indicated prompts and messages, 
generate program documentation, and 
proofread your programs for syntax er- 
rors in Basic reserved words. You can 
also create a graphics screen (mixed al- 
phanumeric and graphics blocks) for vis- 
ual presentations, and scan your 
program for a specified string and re- 
place it with a new one (global search 
and replace). 

Some of these programs require that 
you answer some prompts. The boiler- 
plate data base manager asks you a few 
questions about the size of your data, how 
you want it stored, the number of menu 
choices, and so forth. From this informa- 
tion, you create a boiler-plate program 
with a main menu, disk save and load ca- 
pabilities, and screen-clearing code al- 
ready In place. AH you add arc the data 
input, update, and start routines. 

The master menu program is simply a 
program in which you put the names of 
frequently used programs (such as the 
ones in this book) and use it to select the 
particular one you want to use at a given 
time (sort of a disk menu program). 

The chain zap program is designed 
mostly for NEWDOS/80 users, but you 
can adapt it to other EtOSes. When you 
run it, you specify the file you want 
zapped, the starting location of the zap. 
and the replacement code. After you fin- 
ish specifying these parameters, the pro- 
gram creates a chain file that automati- 
cally loads the NEWDOS/80 zap program 
and steps through the entire zap proce- 
dure. This is a real time-saver and much 
more accurate than trying it yourself, es- 
pecially if you're not sure how to use the 
NEWDOS/80 zap program. 

Compatibility 

You can adapt many of Teach Your 
TRS-80's concepts, if not the actual pro- 
grams, to other computers. The only 
problems will be with the programs that 
use the PEEK command to read the 
screen (the screen editing program and 
the graphics screen program) and the er- 
ror-trap program (the error numbers will 
be wrong). 

Conclusion 

As far as program errors are concerned, 
1 found remarkably few in either the text 
or the programs. For convenience, a vari- 
ables list, with explanations, comes with 
each program so you can easily make al- 
terations. Overall, 1 liked the book very 
much. And while the book doesn't reallv 
teach your computer to program itself, it 
provides enough useful programs to 
make it a worthwhile purchase. ■ 



Getting 
Some Answers 

by Gary A. Shade 

• ••* 

Bralnstormer runs on the Model III 
(48K) and requires two disk drives. Soft 
Path Systems, c/o Cheshire House. 105 
N. Adams. Eugene, OR 97402. 503-342- 
3429. $75 single-user license; SI 00 in- 
stitutional license. 

Easy to use: -k it it '^ ii 
Good docs: it ir ie -i^ -C^ 
Bug free: • • • • • 

Does the job: it it ic i^' ij 

If you've ever been stuck with a prob- 
lem and couldn't figure oul a solution, 
Bralnstormer can help. It's a combina- 
tion thought organizer and mind Jogger 
that lets you figure possible solutions to 
problems. Bralnstormer provides a 
structured environment in which you 
break a problem down into its compo- 
nent parts and indicate factors that af- 
fect those parts. By pairing a problems 
components and influences in different 
combinations. Bralnstormer gives you 
new insights and perspectives on the 
problem . 

While 1 found the pn^ram well thought 
out. its rigid structure limits its flexibil- 
ity in suggesting problem solutions. 

Starting Out 

Figure 1 demonstrates how Bratn- 
Btormer considers a problem. First, you 
name the problem of interest. I wanted 
to use Brainstormer in my job as a sys- 
tems integrator to figure out the different 
ways I could combine computer prod- 
ucts from various manufacturers into a 
complete system. 

Once you state the problem, you de- 
fine components of the problem 
("themes") and factors that affect those 
components ("variations"). You can de- 
fine up to 10 themes (each with up to 10 
relative factors) for a maximum of 
3.628,000 permutations. The program 
refers to these permutations as probes. 

Figure 2 lists the themes 1 used in test- 
ing Brainstormer. the hardware that com- 
prises a computer system. Figure 3 
contains the different types of central pro- 
cessor to which 1 have access (those with 
VME-bus CPU boards that Motorola. Sig- 
netics, and Mostek manufacture). Figure 
4 represents the program's final sug- 
gested solution for integrating a system. 

The probability of a particular CPU 
card appearing in a given configuration 
is 1 in 10 (.010) because I listed 10 differ- 
ent cards. You can edit these probability 
numbers to prohibit a variation from ap- 
pearing in the probe by setting the prob- 



100 • SO Micro. Septomber 1985 



REVIEWS 



J 



1 Problem of IntereBt 
Themes —> Variations 


—> Probes 


1 xxxxx 




1 xxxx 




2 xxxx 


1 


10 xxxx 




2 xxxx 




1 xxxx 




2 xxxx 


2 


10 xxxx 
10 xxxx 


3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 


1 xxxx 




2 xxxx 


10 


10 xxxx 




Figure 1. The levels at which you 
can state a given problem using 
Brainstormer. 



ability to zero. Naturally, the sum total 
of all the probabilities must equal 1 . 

You can easily move about within the 
program by selecting the proper screen or 
area of the program. You execute com- 
mands through the mode screen with a 
help screen explaining the mode com- 
mands. Brainstormer controls disk access 
through a file screen and a sejjarate help 
screen elaborates on the file commands. 

Negatives 

Although the software was helpful in 
providing additional ways to view a 
problem, it really did nothing more than 
mix and match themes and variations. I 
found this two-dimensional matrix of 
combinations limiting in describing 
large and complex problems. 

Also, since you're limited to 10 themes 
and variations each, you're further re- 
stricted in certain applications, those 
where the total number of themes or var- 
iations exceeds 10. 

In the application I used. 1 could easily 
expand the total number of themes by 
including specialized board-level prod- 
ucts, like optically isolated digital input 
and output modules or tape controllers. 
In fact, I couldn't configure a complete 
system with the 10-theme limitation 
Brainstormer imposes. 

I would suggest that after you buy 
Brainstormer you read the manual from 



Theme : CPUIBoard 


Max probes: 


3,628,800 












Variation 


Variation number 


Variation name 






probability 


1 


MVME 110-1 






0.10 


2 


MVME 101 






0.10 


3 


MVME 115M 






0.10 


4 


MVME 120 






0.10 


5 


MVME 128 






0.10 


6 


MVME 130 






0.10 


7 


SMVME 2000 






0.10 


8 


SMVME2010 






0.10 


9 


VME-SBC 






0.10 


10 


MK75602 






0.10 


Theme command : MFACDRO? 








Figure 2. Theme 


screen for making a 


system 


configuration. 



Interest : System 






configurations Haz probes: 


3,628,800 


Number 


Theme number Theme name 




of variations 


1 Host computer 




3 


2 Remote system(s) 




4 


3 CPU board 




10 


4 RAM board 




9 


5 System controller 




4 


6 Serial board 




4 


7 Parallel board 




7 


8 Mass storage controller 


5 


9 Disk drives 




6 


10 Printer(s) 







Interest command : MIFACDO/NQ 






Figure 3. Variation screen of the CPU boards. 



Probe for Interest area 


System configurations 


Theme 






Variation 


Host computer 






VME/10 


Remote system(s) 






1SI5160 


CPU board 






SMVME 2000 


RAM board 






MVME 211 


System controller 






MVME 050 


Serial board 






MVME 331 


Parallel board 






MVME 625 


Mass storage controller 






MVME 320 


Disk drives 






TM 65-4L 


Probe command : MFGCO? 






Figure 4. A probe by Brainstormer 


ofapossibi 


e system configuration. 



beginning to end as you use it. Com- 
pletely work the examples presented be- 
fore attempting to enter your own 
application file. You'll find the process of 
stating and working with a particular 
problem much easier after working with 
the examples provided. 

Conclusion 

1 would recommend Brainstormer to 
those who can state their problems 



within the program's constraints. The 
manual states that you can use the pro- 
gram in two areas of the problem-solving 
process: problem description and idea 
generation. Strategy selection, testing, 
and implementation are left to more 
specialized software. 

Brainstorm er's concept Is fascinating, 
but I wish that the authors had taken 
Brainstormer to a level beyond the sim- 
ple permutations. ■ 



80 Micro, September 1985 • 101 



EXPRESS CHECKOUTS 



The Offix Personal 
Office System 

• ••• 

The Offix Personal Office System 

runs on the Tandy 2000 (256K) and re- 
quires two disk drives. Emerging Tech- 
nology. 2031 Broadway, Boulder. CO 
80302. Radio Shack catalog number 26- 
5325. $99.95. 

Offix integrates a word processor, file 
manager, and report generator in a sin- 
gle package. It features a clever display 
of drawers and filing cabinets on-screen, 
making it easy to find and search 
through your files. The most surprising 
thing about Ofilx is that it doesn't have 
any external documentation and doesn't 
need any. 

To use Offix, you open the drawers and 
flip through the folders, take a folder out. 
and open it to see what's inside. The fold- 
ers contain either text files or forms. 

A function key calls up a help screen 
for the current operation, while a pop-up 
menu summarizes the commands avail- 
able for the next Of>eratlon. 

Offix's full-featured word processor 
provides advanced features like block 
move/copy, document merge, full cursor 
control, and complete page formatting. 

You use Offix's word processor to de- 
sign the data base forms. Each folder 
contains one blank form you can modify 
without losing information on the other 
records in a file. 

Ofiix's forms selection and reporting 
features are particularly powerful and 
an unexpected plus in such an inexpen- 
sive package. You generate reports by in- 
dicating on a blank form what informa- 
tion you want to retrieve. You can select 
records for review or for either the report 
generation system or form letters. 

While Offix supports Tandy primers. I 
don't appreciate their philosophy of not 
sup[X)rting non-Tandy printers for their 
software. 

Oflix is software protected, requiring 
the master disk In drive B to load the 
software properly. There is no restriction 
to copying the software to a back-up disk 
or to a fixed disk but you still have to put 
your only master in the computer each 
time you use Offix. 

Color implementation on the Tandy 
2000 uses the high-resolution graphics 
color mode and is slow. If you use this 
mode with any MS-DOS version other 
than 2. 11. XX, you'll surely return to 
black-and-white mode. 

Offix's ease of operation is due in large 
part to its superior tutorials and help 
files. It's perfect for people who don't 
have a lot of time to leam an advanced 
system. 

—John B. Harrell lU 



IDEA! 

• ••• 

IDBAI runs on the Models 100 and 200. 
Traveling Software, 11050 Fifth Ave. 
N.E., Seattle, WA 98125. S49.95. 

Just as a word processor stores, ma- 
nipulates, and organizes words, so 
IDEA! handles ideas. It provides a frame- 
work for generating organized lists. You 
can add as many levels as you need, with 
as much room for elaboration as you re- 
quire. IDEA! copies, moves, expands, or 
deletes any particular item and sub- 
ideas associated with it. 

You receive a package of three pro- 
grams — one provides the full-featured 
IDEA! package (9.5K); another Is a 
smaller version (8K) with fewer features; 
and the third is a memory-management 
program. MEMMGR (2.5K). for manag- 
ing DO files. MEMMGR lists IDEAls file 
names and their sizes with easy-to-use 
options for making the files invisible, vis- 
ible, and renaming or killing them. 

Like the Model 100/200 built-in soft- 
ware. IDEA! is simple and logical in op- 
eration. You invoke all commands with 
function keys. 

The primary difference between the 
Model 100 and the Model 200 versions is 
that the Model 200 version lets you see 
more headings at one time and view two 
parcigraphs simultaneously (but you can 
only edit one at a time). 

Unfortunately IDEA! has several prob- 
lems. The first is size. The program uses 
almost I2K when running (not counting 
the size of the file you're editing), se- 
verely restricting its use with other files 
or programs in memory. In fact, you 
can't load MEMMGR.BA, IDEA!.BA, and 
the IDEAS. DO sample file in the same 
memory bank on the Model 200. 

The second problem is speed. As your 
files get larger (8K or more), you'll notice 
a marked reduction in speed. This is due 
primarily to using Basic instead of ma- 
chine-language for IDEA!. 

I like IDEA! despite Its problems and 
recommend it to anyone who must 
make lists or wants to organize ideas, 
plans, or their writing. Its organizational 
advantages outweigh its disadvantages. 
I just wish I could get a version for my 
Model 4P so I could directly swap files 
between the Model 100 and my desktop. 

— Terry Kcpner 

HomeworD 

• •••• 

HomeworD runs on the Tandy 1000 
and 1200 (128K} and requires two disk 
drives. Tandy/Radio Shack. One Tandy 
Center, Fort Worth, TX 76102. Radio 
Shack catalog number 25-1116. $69.95. 



If you feel that DeskMate's word pro- 
cessor doesn't cut the mustard, but you 
don't want to shell out much money for 
a replacement, consider HomeworD. 
HomeworD is inexpensive but powerful 
and capable of performing extensive 
word processing. 

Menu-driven HomeworD uses icons to 
represent printer control, document lay- 
out, customizing, file manipulation, ed- 
iting, and program exit. (The control key 
with other keys alternatively provides 
the same functions.) Each icon has a 
submenu of special functions. 

The display starts out in 40-column 
text mode with a small box in the lower 
right-hand comer called the Page Sketch 
section. This displays a miniature rep- 
resentation of your printed page, with 
the selected margins and spacing as- 
signments. 

The Print icon displays submenu se- 
lections consisting of document print- 
ing, dumping to the screen, printing to 
disk, and selecting the starting page 
number. Some of these selections re- 
quire you to go to the Customize menu 
and answer specific setup questions. 

The Edit icon lets you erase, copy, 
move, find and/or replace and insert 
erased text. HomeworD highlights the 
text so you know exactly how much to 
erase or edit. 

The File icon takes care of all normal 
document file-handling tasks such as re- 
trieve, save, erase, and Insert docu- 
ments. You use the arrow keys to scan 
the directory, and hit the enter key to 
select documents. 

The Layout icon lets you dictate doc- 
ument alignment, top/bottom margins, 
line spacing, tab stops, side margins. 
headings/footings, and page numbering. 
You can also select the print style such 
as boldface, normal, and underline. 

With the Customize icon, ynu can 
change the selected document drive (A 
or B|. make back-up documents, toggle 
40-/80-column text, assign the type of 
printer, and change preset layout or 
margins, and tabs. You may also save 
any customized setup to disk to use at a 
later date. 

Function keys invoke special func- 
tions such as changing the current direc- 
tory. File conversion utilities are also 
supplied with which you can convert 
non-HomeworD files to use with Home- 
worD and vice versa. Which conversion 
routine you use depends entirely on the 
type of document you're converting. 

HomeworD is easy to leam and use. 
bug free, and the addition of an audio 
instruction cassette is an excellent idea. 
The manual is well done and to the 
point. This is a very capable word pro- 
cessor at a reasonable cost. 

— David Engelhardt 



102 • SO Micro, September 1985 



Circle 303 on Reader Setvlce card. 



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EXPRESS CHECKOUTS 



Inside CP/M Plus: 
A Guide for Users 

• •••• 

inside CP/M Plus: A Guide for Users. 

By David Cortesi. Holt, Rinehart. and 
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David Cortesi has written extensively 
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Inside is organized Into three parts: a 
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Cortesi fully explains complex com- 
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system to its fullest capacity (such as file 
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PIP (peripheral interchange program) is 
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This powerful utility is clearly explained 
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Many operating systems can automat- 
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few books really explain that process 
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The last part of the book covers ad- 
vanced topics of system management: 
disk organization, data Integrity, and 
data security. If you haven't used a com- 
puter before, this area is particularly 
helpful and points out many Ideas for 
your implementation. 

I thoroughly enjoyed reading another 
of the fine works on CP/M by David Cor- 
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minology and clearly Identifies all 
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Plus easy to understand. 

—John B. Harrell III 



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80 Micro. September 1985 ■ 103 









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106 • 80 Micro. September 1985 



circle 488 on Reader Service catd. 



FULL SCREEN EDITOR 

TRS-80 MODEL 1-2-3-4-4P-12 

' Speeds Programming ' Become More Productive 

' Corrects Errors Easily ' Word Processor Type Commands 

' Copy Unprotected ' Repair Vour Programs 

* Insert-Delete-Modilv Characters, Words.Lines 

* Convert Program Lines to Immediate Commands 

* Duplicate Program Lines 

With a few simple keystrokes, you position the cursor any- 
where on the screen ancJ key in your desired changes simply 
and quickly. The somewhat slow BASIC edit feature is no 
longer requred Co directly to the problem and make your 
changes Crab a problem program line and make it an im- 
mediate statement that you entered for debugging and make 
It part of your program Fliminate excessive keystrokes and 
save time (Requires 2 drives to install) 

Becomes part of your Radio Shack c BASIC 
1-800-334-9612 U.S.-Alaska-Hawaii 
1-800-922-5904 in South Carolina 



MICRO-LINK 

PO Box 2666 
Sumter, SC 29151 

VISA 



Only $33.50 

Plus $5,00 Shippin&'Handling 

for COD Add $3 00 
Shipments by UPS Blue Label 



Visd-Mastercard-COD Due to our low prices, all sales are final 



Circle 250 on Reader Service card 



nil mflRYfnflC 



INDUSTRIES INC 



800-231-3680 

Radio Shack TRS-80's 
EPSON PRINTERS 

People vou Trust to give you the very best! 



Lowest 

Discount 

Prices 

Reliable 
Service 

Quality 
Products 



"World's largest Irtdependent 
authorized Tandy Dealer" 

22511 Katy Fwy , Katy (Houston) Texas 77450 
(713) 392-0747 Telex 774132 







Circle 440 on Reader Service carO. 



-""- ADD THE piC TO YOUR PORTABLE* AND GET P"^ 

DESK TOP COMPUTER PERFORMANCE 



HARDWARE FEATURES: 

• Lightweignt (4.5 lb.) battery powered 3.5 inch micro- 
floppy system. 

• 360K bytes/diskette {same as on the IBM PC). 

• Approximately 20 hours on a single battery charge 
assuming normal disk access 

• 32K bytes additional RAM In the PICDISC — convert- 
ing your portable to a 64K byte CP/M 2.2 micro- 

compuler 

• Includes all cables, mounting hardware and battery 
charger. 



SOFTWARE FEATURES: 

• Filer — A menu driven LOAD/STORE program for 
transferring individual files (or total memory) to disc 

• The industry standard CP/M 2.2^*^ operating system, 
which provides for access to all popular CP/M based 
software (including dBASEII^"^. Supercalc''"" and 
T/MakerTM). 

• Modem — Public domain communications package 
(both terminal and disc file transfer modes) 

• Utilities - DISKCOPY, COPY, FORMAT, and CP/M 

Complete System described above — Only $599* 

SAVE ON POWERFUL INTEGRATED SOFTWARE 
— when purchased with PICDISC: 

T/Maker — an integrated software package 
that provides: 

• Word Processing • Spreadsheet 

• Spelling Checker with a 50,000 word Dictionary 

• Relational Database Manager 

Complete System above with T/Maker for $799' 

•Does not include Compuler: M.C.,Vlsa or check, plus $5 shipping arxJ 6% sales tax CA residents only. 

•immediately available for the TRS-80 Model 100 (portable must have 32K bytes RAM) and the NEC8201 and OLIVETTI OM-10 pending FCC approval. 




^id. 



Call or write: PERSONAL INTEGRATED COMPUTERS (PIC) 

18013 SkyPark Circle, Ste. D., Irvine, CA 92714 (714) 261-0503 

CP/M, dBASE II, SuperCalc. & T/Maker are trademarks of Digilal Research, Aslilon-Tale, Sorcim, & T/Maker respectively 



ZIICI 



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108 • 80 Micro, September 1985 



Circle 151 oti Reader Service card. 

CONVERT YOUR TRS-80 MODEL III OR 4 IMO A 

DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

Now you cjn aevelop Z 80 DaseO srana-Alone cltv«:eb iocr as g^mes roOoli 
lOstrume'iIS and penpner jl controllers Dy using your TBSSO as a development system 
The DEVELOPWATf piuys mio tie enc-insiO'i co'iif-dor o' vaur TRS-90 ano aOOs 
PROM PROORAMMIHC ar^d I N-CIRCU IT-EMULATION capabilities lo your 

syilem 

Complete mslruciions ana sample scoemaircs ate mcluflefl lo rieip you Qesign youi 
o*r> sinipie siana-aiiine miciocompuiet systems THESE SYSTEMS CAN BE AS 
SIMPLE AS FOUR ICs one TTL circuit (or clocK am) <eset, a Z-80, an EPROM and 
□ne peripderal mtertdn-; chip 

Wtien trie tn-Cifcuil-Emulation came 15. pluijqeo 
jnio Ihe Z 80 vrfx.liL'l til your sland i^loni- syslcm 
the by^tum tH-'iiumt^a d pari ol your TRSBC Vod 
can use ine lull powisr at youi eCitot assemtxet s 
deouq and trace programs lo c^eck out Doin trie 
fiafdvvjce jio (fio so'/*dre Simple lesi loopi 
can De useo to cfetn out tne nardware then rue 
system progra*" can be run iq debug the logiC ut 
your siana-aiorM.' device 

Since tne program is kepi m TRS-80 RAM 
cnanges can Df made quickly anO easily Wtien 
yOur stand alone oevice vrorks as des"eO you 
use ttie DeveMjpmate i PROM PROGRAMMER 
lo copy the program into a PROM Will this 
PROM and a Z-80 in place Ol trie emulalon 
catMe your stand akjne Oevice vuii! wc" Dy iiselt 

Ttie DEVELOPMATE is eittemeiy compact Boiti !tie PROM programmer and the 
InCiicuiI-Emuiaior are n o'le smdN piastic ixj> onjy 3 2-34 A line plug mouhlec 
pQ*et supply 15 included The PROM piogrammet has a personality module which 
Oetines Ifie voltages and connectioris ot the PROM ^O that 'ulure devices tan Di> 
accommodaied However the sysiem corner *ith .\ universal personality module 
whicn handles 275H^bOaiBKi. 2716 2S16ilt!Kl ZS3^i32Kl as *eli as ine -le* e)ec 
Ifically alterable 3816 and 4801 bneKEEPHOMsi 

The COMPLETE DEVELOPMATE 83 witti sottware, pow«r supply, emulation 
cable. TRS-80 cable, and "universal" personality module, is ONLY S329' 

PM2 PERSONALITY MODULE lor 273ZA EPROM S15 

PM3 PERSONALITY MODULE lor 3764 EPBOM SI 5 

ORION INSTRUMENTS 

702 Marshall Street «614 

Redwood City, CA 94064 

415-361-8883 

MastefCaid and Visa phone orders accepted. 

Caiilornia residents please add sales tax. 

Circle 544 ori Reaoer Service card 



Circle 363 on Headei Service card 




REAL QUALITY AT LOWER PRICES 

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FREE Color Coder Library Case with every box of 10 
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YV3FLIP Holds 25 3 5 Micros $12 95 

YV5FLIP Holds 50 5 . DiskeHes , $19 95 

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CONTINUOUS FEED LABELS-1 , 2, 3, or 4 across 

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Shipping-aOO To-Q plus SI '5 insurance 
Call O' w'rle (Df FrB« Catalog 



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""|lllf>lf HiTlfk'' VlHl bet 11 dmsV'-LW*™)™" Co.i>[i.»- snoww •«s i^," ••■-. 

"SupiTnHKll has lKiirtm-almi»l aM->*inii;il ,(-. 11U IK)S "' ~-« — ^IIZ' 

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Users aroufiQ '.Tie r/oiia agree SUPERM0D4 i!, trie mo^t valuatite software system you H I'wr o^n 

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TO 



Inte^lilec^ Corporation 

Finding [Pie sotTware ansme' ro f^e ha'd^are proD'e'*' 

21 Campbell On« • Dm HiHs, New Vork 11746 • (5^6) 462-6970 




A NEW VERSION OF LAZY WRITER 

The NEW Lazv Writer is packed with features, but a word proc- 
essor is more than a collection of features. Like a friend, its per- 
sonality must please you. Lazy Writer has been an excellent prod- 
uct since its introduction in 1980. and thousands of users have told 
us its design fits the way they write. 

Lazy Writer is an in-memory system, meaning you load your text 
(up to 36,000 characters) into memory and it stays there until 
you're finished. There are no disk drives grinding away as you edit. 
constantly repaglng and slowing you down. Does In-memory mean 
you can only have as much text as fits in memory? No! You can 
create multiple flies and "chain" them together for printing as one. 
You can even preview page breaks or see what's going to be on a 
selected page. 

We designed our word processor for one-key editing. Your fingers 
don't have to reach for two or three keys at once, nor do you need to 
remember which two or three keys are needed for a function like 
delete. All you have to remember is to press "d" for delete. All 
editing keys are this easy to remember ("1" for insert, "b" for block 
move, "f to find, etc.). It's this easy because you enter your text in 
the Text Entry mode, then switch to Edit mode to make correc- 
tions. There is no need to create or "open" a file before beginning a 
new document. Just type, then edit. 

Typing and editing are only two aspects of word processing. Print- 
ing out the text is the other part. Five years ago. Lazy Writer made 
history by being the first TRS-80 word processor to support em- 
bedded printer codes (any codes, anywhere in text, any number of 
times). With version 3.5. it's even easier to get bold face, small 
type, superscripts, and many other functions. The NEW Lazy Writer 
expanded PRINTER CDSTOMIZATION makes these tasks easy 
enough for anyone to use. Printing in elite type is as easy as the 
command " elite". 

But you can still send any code from text and you can easily 
change the codes for "elite" (or any other special printer feature) to 
fit your next printer. Lazy Writer doesn't become obsolete. If you 
bought it in 1980. you can still print text created then on a Model I 
with the 80 character Model 4 version today. 

People who would rather get on with their writing than spend 
hours memorizing commands or waiting for disk drives will like 
Lazy Writer. If that sounds like you, why not call us right now? Try 
Lazy Writer for 1 5 days and if you don't find it an easy-going friend, 
send it back for a refund. 

* ASK ABOUT A SPECIAL VERSION FOR THE HOT NEW 
MULTIDOS 80/64. 

* WORKS WITH ANY PRINTER. SERIAL OR PARALLEL 

* MODEL 4 VERSION HAS 80 X 24 CHARACTER SCREEN 

* COMES ON A MINI DOS OR A WELCOME PROGRAM 
TRANSFERS THE FILES TO THE DOS OF YOUR CHOICE 

Model I, HI. or 4 sHIl only $124.95 

MULTIDOS 80/64 - FOR THE MODEL 4/4P 

Send for information on this unique DOS for your Model 4. This Is a 
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MULTIDOS 80/64 now with 32K print apooler utility $99 .95 

AlphoBlt Conunnxiicationa, Inc 

13349 Michigan Ave. 
Dearborn. Michigan 48126 

C3133 S81-2896 

MasterCard /Visa Accepted 

80 Micro. September 1985 • ^^\ 




micro's List of Advertisers 



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1B 

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53B 

282 

204 

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91 

216 

85 



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295 



Aarocomp S6. 99 

Alcor Systems 39 

Man Getdec SoflwM* 81 

AlhwnlB 10 

AlphaBil Communtcations. Inc Ill 

Alpha Products 13. IS 

Alpha Tachnotogy Inc 81 

ALPS 27 

AHamate Choice (The) 103 

Anilak Soflware Product! 23 

Astro-Star Enterpmes 70 

AutoCad . , 35 

BCCOMPCO 123 

Blua Ridge Software 95 

Compulogtc Corp. 1 26 

Computer Discount of America 119 

Computer Fnends 41 , 77 

Computer Plus 68 

Cornucopia Software 1 

D & A Research 1 03 

Daaan Sound Inc 72 

DFW Computer Center 46, 47 

DiskCount Data 7 

□isptayed Video 87 

Ootwriter 9 

E AP Co S5 

Educeiional Micro Systems 32 

ao Micro 

CW Communicatians Inc 113 

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Load SO Subscriplion 64 

Eteciric Webster 1 

EnFleur Corp BO 

Evolving Technology Co 4 

Raid Magnetics Inc 124 

Ft. Worth Computers . 42. 43 

T Enterprises 97 



9 H & E Corrputronics CIV. 28 

9 H « E Computronics 65 

455 Hard Ortve Spaciahst 121 

355 HDP 115 

175 Howe Soflware SB 

46 Hypersoft 124 

401 Inlellitech Corp- (TTC) Ill 

101 J & M Systerra, Ltd Cllt 

126 JhtG Software Intentational 2, 3 

126 JMG Software IntemaUonal 63 

534 Jameco Electronics 53 

' James River Group 97 

485 Kalglo Electronics 119 

292 Kamasofl. Inc 89 

422 Kelly Enterprises 103 

Langley-Sl Clair 27 

159 Logical Systems 71 

493 Marathon Software 119 

250 Marymac Industries Inc 107 

383 MICOM 109 

338 Micro Data Products 103 

464 Micro Labs Inc 127 

488 Micro-Link .107 

137 Miller Microcomputer Services 69 

107 Mnoeys, Inc 55 

41 1 Moniazuma Micro 18. 19 

416 Monleiuma Micro 84, 05 

424 Montezuma Micro SO 

• NRI Schoob 117 

261 Ntbbia Notch 120 

232 Mocona ElectroTMcs 26 

151 Onon Instruments _ 109 

242 Oeicom Inc $1 

207 PKifk: Exchanges - 103. 117 

288 Palentir Software CH 

414 P.B.J. Inc. 125 

470 PG Design 96 

124 F^rry Computers 20 



176 Parsorial Computer Products 115 

440 F^rsonal Inlagraiad Compulers 107 

290 Pictdos & Trout 62. 77 

366 PICO 117 

406 PowMisoft 95 

508 Powersoft 44, 45 

249 Press A Software 70 

76 Producer, The ,24 

449 Professor Jor*es/FroQo House 120 

30 Proaoft 11 

490 Public Domain Software 96 

Software Support 74, 75 

427 SOTA Computing Systems Ltd 40 

71 Subtogic Communicatiorfs .86 

150 Summrt Software Technology IrK. 115 

285 Sun Research, Inc 81 

456 Sunk>ci( Systems 51 

496 Systems Support 72 

266 T/Maker ... ... .51 

544 TLC Computer Peripherals 109 

189 Tab Sales . . 97 

347 TaMey Communk:atiom ill 

81 Total Access 54 

196 Traveling Software , 125 

227 Trisoft . 122 

1 55 Ultinuie Software 1 1 B 

279 Zygotron 117 



for tiHllMr Intonnfltlon trocn our atfverlleera. 

pteeea um the P eed a r Service card. 

'This advertiser prefers to Im contacted dkactly. 

Advertising Sales (603) 924-7138 

or (800) 441-4403 

Waat Coast Sales (41S) 32»J470 



Tidbit #27 



Here Is a Model 4 Basic sort routine 
(lines 1 100-1540) that 1 find useful for 
printing out information from large 
data bases. The remark statements 
contain the data statements' source 
code. 

Lines 10-70 demonstrates how to 
use the sort routine; "file name" rep- 
resents an existing disk file. 

First, GOSUB the sort routine to in- 
stall the machine-language sort. Di- 
mension an array with one more 
element than the number of records 
you want to sort and define the last 
element as " ". Load the array with 
character strings long enough for a 
satisfactory sort (e.g., 10 characters 
for a last name), and concatenate the 
string with MKIS(R), where "R ' is the 
record number from which you get 
the data. 

To invoke the sort, use the com- 
mand CALL SORT(A$(S}). where AS 
is the array you want sorted and S is 
the location within the array where 
the sort begins. When the sort is 
done, use CVl to get the records in 
sorted order from the disk file. 

Edward F. De Mers 
El Cajon.CA 



It GOSUB lilt 








2i DIM A5I16} 


: AS(16)--' 






]i OPEN "»",1 


■f ilenime":FIEI,D 1, 15 AS XE 


18 AS YS 




tB FOR B-1 TO 


15: GET 1, R:AS(1)-LEFTSIXS,1B)»KKIS(R) ; 


NEXT 8 


50 CALL EOE)T|AS(l)) :REH call sort, routine 






6e FOR K-1 TO 


15:G-CVI (RIGHTS! ASfK) .21 :GET 


1,G:PRINT X 


, ITS: NEXT K 


70 CLOSE: END 








ill! S2-B2:D$ 


STH$ (SZ, 8) :DIH L ( SZ ) ! C-VARPTR ( □$) 




1128 FOR X-a TO SZ-liREAD E[X):NEXT X 






113B LS-256*PEEK1K(2)+PE£*; (Ktl) ; If LS>327B' 


THEN LS-LS 


65536!SOKT-LS 


IMi FOR X-B TO SZ-1;P0!(E LStX , E ( X ) i NEXT X 


RETURU 




IISB DATA 


t.MG5 


VEH BEGIN 


PUSH 


HL PoinLei Ar lay 


1168 DATA 


*HFD,iH£l 


II FH 


POP 


lY StDTcd hpie 


11TB DATA 


iHFD,LHE5 


wr.n AUIN 


PL'SH 


11 Htcovpr Statt 


11 SB DATA 


IHDD.lHEl 


REM 


POP 


IX Worliing pointer 


119B DATA 


iHBE,B 


vtn 


LD 


C,B Cleat Eicti Flag 


l^il DATA 


tHDD,iH7E,3 


ki:M next 


[.D 


A, (IX»3) Element Lenqth 


1211 DATA 


bHBT 


prx 


OR 


A Set FlaqB 


12Za DATA 


(ll2lj,kH]E 


HTJ^ 


JR 


I.LSTl.N Last Element 


123 a DATA 


bllD6,2 


hem 


SUB 


2 Cut utt 2 t>yt«B 


12*8 DATA 


iH47 


ncn 


LD 


B,A Set clew. length 


i;5B DATA 


(HDD, LH6E, 1 


HEH 


LD 


L,( IX'llAddi 1st Gtr inq 


126B DATA 


iKDD, t)<«6.; 


REW 


LD 


H,(lx-2; 


127B QATft 


tKDD, tH5E,4 


REM 


LD 


E, ; lX-4) Addi nit Etlinq 


12 88 UATA 


iHDD,lhi56,5 


REM 


LD 


D,(IX«51 


129B DhTA 


kHlA 


REM LOOP 


LD 


A,(DE) Byte to leq A 


1188 DATA 


iHBE 


KIX 


CP 


IHL) Conp. eet Cls^E 


1U8 DATA 


iH2e,4 


HOT 


JR 


2,EQAL Junp on equal 


U28 DATA 


iH]B,6 


RDI 


JR 


HC.HOSWPAlceady older 


1)38 DATA 


6H38,12 


REM 


JR 


C,SHAP Eichange elea. 


1!4B DATA 


4H23 


RCK EOAL 


INC 


HL Point nem byte 


13 '58 DATA 


*K13 


REM 


INC 


DE in stiinqs 


1368 DATA 


6Hie,tHF4 


RFM 


DJNI 


LOOP Coiap neit byte 


1378 DATA 


6HDD,fcH23 


REM NOSWP 


INC 


IX Adii tfitpe to 


liBe DATA 


iHDD,iH23 


REM 


INC 


IX pointer 


1398 DATA 


tHDD,iH23 


HEM 


INC 


IX 


Its 8 DATA 


klIlS,klID7 


REM 


JR 


NEXT Do next pair 


ItlB DATA 


bH4e 


REM SMAP 


LD 


C,B Set exch flag 


1428 DATA 


kHOD,kH66,2 


REM 


LD 


H,lIXi2) 


1(3B DATA 


hl1DD,k>l6E,l 


REM 


LD 


L, lIX'l) Enchange 


1448 DATA 


iHDD,tH56,^ 


REM 


LD 


D, 1 1X->5I pointei6 


1458 DATA 


LHDD,it<5E,4 


REM 


LD 


E, |IX>4) to Che 


1468 DATA 


fcHDD,tH72,2 


REM 


LD 


IIX*2) ,□ atiing 


1478 DATA 


taaTi.kaii.i 


REM 


LD 


{ IX'll ,t data 


14 88 DATA 


LHDD,i!l74,5 


REM 


LD 


(IX«5) ,H 


14 98 DATA 


tHDD,kH75,4 


REM 


LD 


UX-41 ,L 


1588 DATA 


iHia.kHDD 


REM 


JR 


N05UP Do next pair 


1518 DATA 


iHT9 


REM LSTLS 


LD 


A,C Get exch (laij 


152B DATA 


fcHBT 


REK 


OH 


A Jiggle [lags 


1538 DATA 


4HCa 


REM 


RET 


1 If « dll done 


rj4B DATA 


.HlB.iHBl 


REM 


JR 


AGI^ Rjn t^tj artjy 



1 12 • SO Micro. September 1985 



There's only one new^sstand 

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offering you this selection 

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::5 CW COMMUNICATIONS/INC. 




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Framingham, MA 01701 

(617) 879-0700 6C09-12-EM09 





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116 • 50 Micro. September 1985 



circle 307 on Reader Service card. 



Maxell Floppy Disks 

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PRINTER OWNERS 

Letters are received here on a regular basis 
from customers saying how much they really 
en)oy receiving our lists. 

It s probably safe to say that the price lists 
issued here are different from most of the 
others. Maybe it"s the chatty folksy style of 
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?J 



80 Micro, September 1985 • 1 1 7 



NEW PRODUCTS / edited by Mare-Anne Jarvela 



Wishful Thinking 

In Infocoms new fantasy, 
Wishbiinger. you play a mall 
clerk in a small seaside town. 
After you deliver a mysteri- 
ous envelope to the Olde Mag- 
Ick Shoppe things start to 
happen: A cat gets kidnapped, 
the town and Its people take 
on new characteristics, and 
the Evil One and her Boot Pa- 
trol lurk around comers. 

Wlshbrlnger differs from 
other Infocom stories in that 
the way you play affects the 
game's outcome— Wishbring- 
er has more than one end- 
ing. The game offers two lev- 
els of play. 

A Model III or MS-DOS disk 
is available for $39.95. For 
further information, contact 
Infocom Inc., 55 Wheeler St., 
Cambridge. MA 02138. 617- 
492-1031. 
Circle 55 1 on Header Service card. 

Great Idea 

Kamas Outline Processor 
from Kamasoft Inc. is avail- 
able for the Models II. 4, 12, 
and 16 running CP/M-80 ver- 
sion 2.2 or above. Kamas 
combines outline processing 
and information retrieval 
with word processing. 

Outline processing is an 
aid to organize ideas and cat- 
egorize information. It lets 
you classify information into 
a familiar, outline structure 
and then alter and access the 
information based on that 
structure. It lets you hide de- 
tailed information and focus 
on how the ideas fit together 
as you create and develop 
material . 

Word processing features 
Include a full-screen outline 
editor integrated with a full- 
screen text editor for Justify- 
ing text, setting margins, 
paging, line spacing, and 




Infocom s latest game. Wishhringer.for the Model lU and 
MS-DOS machines. 



printing out copies. 

For $147 plus $4 for ship- 
ping and handling you get 
Kamas. a three-volume 
User's Guide, reference 
cards, and a free subscription 
to The Kamas Report, an ap- 
plication newsletter. For 
more information, contact 
Kamasoft Inc., 2525 S.W. 
224th Ave. . Aloha. OR 97007. 
503-649-3765. 
Circle 563 on Reader Serulce card. 

Turbo Read 

Speed Reading Plus 
($49.50) will double your 
reading speed in 15 lessons. 
The program runs on the 
Models III and 4/4P with one 
disk drive and 48K. 

The lessons start with an 
entry-level survey that mea- 
sures your present visual 
skills and reading ability. The 
program then adjusts the pro- 
gram's difficulty level to your 
needs. At the end of each 20- 
minute lesson the program 
shows your performance. 
You can see or print out an 
overall progress report when- 
ever you want. 

The lessons Include full- 
length stories that practice 
vocabulary development, vis- 



ual skills, comprehension, 
detail recall, and generaliza- 
Uon skills. 

For further information, 
contact LSR Learning Asso- 
ciates Inc.. 707 Broad Hollow 
Road, Farmingdale. N'Y 
11735. 516-293-6700. 
Circle 556 on Reader Sen-lt-e cord. 

Teacher's Aide 

EduSoft has two programs. 
Teach It and Test It, available 
for the Models III and 4/4P 
with a disk drive. 

Teach It ($79.95) lets you 
create lesson units that in- 
clude introductory informa- 
tion; objectives: pretest, post- 
test, and unit test questions: 
lesson text: supplementary 
reading lists; and even graph- 
ics. You can choose from four 
different question formats: 
multiple choice, true-false. 
flU-in-the-blank, or modified 
true- false. 

Test It ($49.95) creates a 
different test for every class 
or student. You build a bank 
of test questions that you can 
expand and save. You ran se- 
lect questions for a particular 
test or indicate the number, 
difficulty, and mix of ques- 
tions vou want. In addition to 



the question formats in Teach 
It. Test It provides essay-for- 
mat questions. The program 
creates paper tests with an- 
swer keys or computerized 
tests. 

For more information, con- 
tact EduSoft, P.O. Box 2560, 
Berkeley, CA 94702, 800- 
338-7638. 
Circle 562 on Reader Service cord. 

Beautiful View 

Traveling Software's T- 
View 80 transforms the 
Model lOO's 40-column 
screen into a movable 60-col- 
umn window on a full 80-col- 
umn display. 

The display activates when 
you use the computer's built- 
in text processor and tele- 
communications program. 
Word wrapping adjusts to 
any width up to 80 columns. 

T-View 80 also includes 
the Traveling Memory Man- 
ager, which lets you keep 
track of file sizes. 

The $39.95 package re- 
quires 16K and is available in 
Radio Shack stores. For more 
information, contact Travel- 
ing Software Inc. , 1 1050 Fifth 
Ave.. N.E.. Seattle. WA 
98125, 206-367-8090. 
Circle 553 on Reader Seruic^ cord. 

Window Talk 

Window-Comm ($18.95) 
for the Models III and 4 |48K) 
is a communications package 
that uses windows to display 
such features as on-line help, 
date/time, disk directories, 
file text, automatic dialing, 
and system configuration. 
You can display up to seven 
windows on top of the origi- 
nal screen information. 

A multitasking print func- 
tion prints nics while you ex- 
ecute windowing functions. 
A single keystroke lets you 



118 • SO Micro. September 1985 



circle 485 on Readet Service card.- 



Circle 133 on Reader Service card. 



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SURGES! 

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nano seconds response, clamping at 160V, 8 individually swilchea sockets, 

fused, main swilch. 7 cord ano status lite S89.9S. 

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Dealer inquires invited j^tm> *»■''*'''« *' four local deatet ot Irom KalQle 
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If you re not lOOt satisfied, return witnin (71 seven days for a full refund 



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wimmm 



• 

• 

• 



A Complete Pro Football 

Prediction Program For The 

1985 NFL SEASON 




m Accurate vs Spread' Since 1981 

/O "r More Features — More Information In 1985 To 

BEAT THE SPREAD 



• • FEATURES • • 

Predicted Scores Each Week 

Season Schedule By Week/Team 

Records & Results: 
Scores By Week 
Scores By Team 
Division Standings 
Stats — Accumulated & Average 
1983-1984 Data Base 

Auto Opponent Input 

Auto Data Update 

Printed Copy All Screens 

Easy Update-Playoffs/1986 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



49 



95 INCLUDES DISC 
DOCUMENTATION 
Apple II - Me - III 
Connmodore 64 
IBM PC 

TRS-80, Mtll/IV 
Tandy 1000/1200/2000 



STATS NEEDED TO RUN PROGRAM 
AVAILABLE IN LOCAL NEWSPAPERS 

OR 
WE WILL FURNISH STATS BY MAIL & MODEM 
ALL 20 WE EKS - SEASON PRICE , . . 40^ 

PROGRAM COMES UPDATED THRU CURRENT 
WEEK OF SEASON ... NO EXTRA CHARGE 



VISA 






Orders Call Collect 
24 Hrs. 
COD. 

Marathon Software Dept. M 

P O BOX 1349 
JACKSONVILLE. TEXAS 75766 
(214)586-8212 



Cifcle 449 on Reader Service ca'd 



^^IP Professional ^^^ 

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Your S'-i" sirngle side disks are usable on the 
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easy ..won't harm existing data Try it, you'll 
be glad you did' 

.^nibble notch ll 

Cuts square notch and 'a ' round "inde)i 
hole!' For TRS 80 I, III. and IV, Osborne, 
Tl, Kaypro, IBM and others needing 
"index hole" 




$0190 



ONLY 



21 



Plus 



•Add S2 



($5 foreign) for 

postage & handling 

FL residents 

add 5 = sales tax. 

ORDER 
TODAY 



SATISFACTION GUARANTEED 

OR YOUR MONEY BACK! 

TOLL FREE 1-800-642-2536 

FL (305)748-3770, 9am-8pm ET 

or send check 
ormoney order to: 





O 



computer products 



4211 NW 75th Terrace • Dept. 2 03 -Lauderhill, FL 33319 



NEW PRODUCTS 




Epson's DX-1 and DX-20 daisy-wheel printers provide 
letter-quxility prtnting. 



select functions such as send/ 
receive files, capture Infor- 
mation, help, and baud/par- 
ity changes. 

For more information, con- 
tact Pacific Software Consul- 
tants, P.O. Box 5. San Luis 
Rey, CA 92068. 619-439- 
2577. 
Ctrcie 559 on Reader Service card. 

HandBome Prints 

Epson offers two letter- 
quality daisy-wheel printers 
priced under $500. The DX- 
10(S399}isan82-column, 10 
characters-per-second (cps) 
parallel printer. It also offers 
friction paper feed and bidi- 
rectional logic-seeking. 

The DX-20 ($499). a 1 la 
column printer, prints at 20 
cps and Includes all the fea- 
tures of the DX-10 plus a Dia- 
blo all-purpose interface {for 
RS-232C. IEEE-488 and par- 
allel connections) and a IK 
print buffer (expandable to 
7K). An optional keyboard 
lets the printer function as a 
typewriter. 

Both printers provide pro- 
portional spacing, underlin- 
ing, bold print, double strike, 
bold double strike, super- 
scripts, and subscripts. 

Fbr more Information, con- 
tact Epson America Inc., 
Computer Products Division, 
2780 Lomita Blvd., Torrance. 
CA 90505. 800-421-5426. 
Ctrcie 552 on Reader Serutce card. 



Word It Right 

Jeanette J. Bleber-Moses' 
SuperScripsit Word Process- 
ing for the TRS 80 Models III. 
4. and 4P describes the ins 
and outs of SuperScripsit, 
covering everything from ba- 
sic word processing to ad- 
vanced applications. 

It also contains detailed 
advice on how to use the Scrlp- 
slt and SuperScripsit diction- 
aries, time-saving produc- 
tivity tips, and a help section 
with over 100 solutions to 
common computer problems. 

The softcover hook costs 
$17.95. For more Informa- 
tion, contact Scott, FOresman 
and Company. 1900 E. Lake 
Ave.. Glenview, IL 60025, 
312-729-3000. 
Ctrcfe 558 on Reader Service card. 




All about SuperScripsit for 
ttw Models ni. 4. and 4P. 



120 • 80 Micro, September 1985 



Tandy 1000 



Model 1,3, 4 Hard Drives 



Circle 455 on Reader Service cafd 

TanPak^" 

The Ultimate Expansion for the Model 1000! 

The TanPak expansion board has been designed to allow 
expansion beyond the scope of the standard Model 1000 Seven of 
the most needed functions/features have been combined into one 
package using only one expansion slot Your remaining spaces 
are left free for future expansion needs And the best part of all, it 
will save you money over the Tandy Boards 
TanPak^" Ok S349 




ti^Higegi I VmIMBSI WMinSSlBnllHIik 



Fuocllont Includ*: 

riWA 

Memory up 10S12K 

Cii>cK.'Calenda< 

P' I flier Spooie' 

Memo'y Dis* 

Fipansion Pod lo' Fuluie Optioni 



TinPah fealurei Include: 

:". Ml T-!--' ' ,i';s 
a,.... I ,■■ .) ■-, lUware 
P'?-'esiKl ary) Bumw) In 
Full Oocumeniat'on 
One Ve«r Warranty 

EiipandaDieioSiZK 



TanPak^" Secondary 

Made to work with a Tandy 1000 memory board as the second 
memory board Featuring a Serial Port. Clock' Calendar, IWemory 
Expansion to 256K, Printer Spooler, and Memory disk 
TanPak^" Secondary $249. 




Tandy 1000 Hard Drives 

HOS Hard Drives (or the Tandy 1000 allow booting directly from 
the Hard Drive using the Tandy DOS All units are complete with 
controller, ready to plug in and use The Inlernat Hard Drive Units 
replace the top disk drive inside the 1000, or request an external 
unit for only S150. more. 

10 Meg Internal $549. 

20 Meg Internal $749. 

30 Meg Internal $1349. 

TanTel 

Internal 300/1200 Baud Modem $299 

8087 Board 

8087 Malh Co-processor board tor the Model 1000, 

Plugs in internally but does not use one of the 3 expansion slots 

$249 

Available Fall 85 i 




Model 1, 3, 4 Hard Drives 



5 Megabyte 
10 Megabyte 
20 Megabyte 
30 Megabyte 



Primary Secondary 

$795. $595. 

$1095. $895. 

$1295. $1095. 

$1895. $1695. 



Model ■ aac iSDi 



Hard Disk Subsystem Fealur**: 

• All Sizes rated after formatting. 

• Your choice of DOSPLUG, LDOS or TRSDOS 6 x Drivers| 
included 

• NEWDOS 80/Version 2,5 Systems Available 

• Up to two secondary dnves may be added. 

• Error checking and correcting controller 

• Buffered seek drives for improved access time. 

• Built in power up diagnostics. 

• Plated media for long disk life, 

• Heavy duty power supply 

• Gold connectors used throughout 

• 1 year warranty 



HDS Multiplexer 

Allows 4 Computers to use a HDS Hard Drive. 

Base unit $1295 



Model 3/4 RS232 Kit $69. 



Hard Drive Specialist 



16208 Hickory Knoll 
Houston, Texs 77059 
1-713-480-6000 
orderline 
1-800-231-6671 



Onlvring InfcxmaHon 

Uh our WATS Ikw lo p4ac* your ard*( ma VIm, MatterCard, or WIra Translc Of, you can mall | 
your paymcnl diractly lo u* Any no n -certified lundi will be held until proper cleararKtli made 
COD oiitert are accepled a* well (i purchaie oiden from goveiTimeni agenc^i UPS ground li 
our (tandt'd meini ol ihipplng unlex oifiernriie tpecltled Shipplrig cod are ••alMMe upon I 
requeil Tandy and Radio Shacli ire Trademam* ol Tandy Corporallon. TanPak. and TanTelar* | 
Tredemertit of Maid Drive Speclallil, ■ dIMWon ol Compukll Corporation 



NEW PRODUCTS 




Mount Hold'n Fbld copyholder to the right or left of your 
monitor. 



Holding and Folding 

The Hold'n Fold CRT 
Copyholder from Charles 
Leonard Information Process- 
ing Supplies provides a stand 
for papers or a book to free up 
your hands for typing. It 
mounts on the left or right 
side of your monitor. 

The holder doesn't take up 
any desk space as it folds 



against the monitor when not 
in use. Alternatively, you can 
remove It from the CRT 
mount and use It as a free- 
standing tabletop unit. 

Hold'n Fold costs $34.95. 
For more details, contact 
Charles Leonard Inc.. 79-11 
Cooper Ave.. Glendale. NY 
11385, 718-894-4851. 
Circle 555 on Header Service card. 



Key Change 

Data-Cals (S14.85/set) let 
you relabel keyboard keys for 
specific Job functions, to meet 
software program require- 
ments, or to remove present 
data with matched blanks. 

Two formats are available: 
opaque Data-Cals for chang- 
ing or covering up present 
keys and transparent Data- 
Cals for adding information 
to existing keys. 

For more information, con- 
tact Aspen Graphics, Overlay 
Division. 1032 W. 23rd St., 
Tempe, AZ 85282. 602-829- 
8443. 
Circle 554 on Reader Service card. 

Educational 
Directory 

Educational Resources 
for Microcomputers: The 
1984 Software Directory is 
available from Information 
Inc. for $27.50. 

The information in the di- 
rectory is from The Micro- 
search Database, the largest 
on-line data base in the coun- 




Data-Cals give your iceyboard 
a new appearance. 

try devoted to microcompu- 
ters and microcomputer 
products. The directory cov- 
ers educational software re- 
leased in 1984 and combines 
product specifications with 
objective product reviews 
from micro-related maga- 
zines. It contains about 900 
abstracts of information from 
265 software publishers, and 
digests of software reviews 
from over 60 publications 



Circle 227 on Reader Sefvice card. 



CP/M-68K 

TANDY-6000 Macintosh 

You purchased a computer with an MCGSOOO 1 6/32 -bit processor, one 
of the most powerful available. Now you need the software to make it 
run! 

You need a powerful operatmg system like CP/M-68K. You need full- 
featured compilers for FORTRAN-77, PASCAL, C, and BASIC. And you 

need the compatibility to run the many CP/I\/l-2.2 programs you are 
familiar with. 



You need 



TriSoft 

4102 Avenue G 
Austin, Texas 78751 



1-800-531-5170 
(512)453-2233 



VISA* 



MostefCard 



122 • 80 Micro. September 1985 



NEW PRODUCTS 



that cover educational soft- 
ware. 

The directory comes in- 
dexed by microcomputer and/ 
or operating system . manufac- 
turer, product name, publica- 
tion, and general subject 
classification. For more de- 
tails, contact Information 
Inc.. 1725 K Street. N.W.. 
Suite 1006, Washington, DC 
20006.202-833-1174. 
Clrde 565 on Reader ServUx card. 

Get Organized 

DlskPorter ($29.95} from 
Potomac Industries uses a 
stairstep design to store up to 
20 disks with the labels ex- 
posed. 

When you open its cover. 
DlskPorter stands up as an 
easel; closed, it fits into a desk 
drawer or on a bookshelf. 
Mounting brackets let you 
hang DlskPorter on the wall. 

For more information, con- 
tact Potomac Industries Ltd., 
2300 M Street NW. Suite 400. 
Washington. DC 20037. 202- 
955-9797. 
Circle 560 on Reader Service card. 




Keep DlskPorter on the desk, in the drawer, or on the 
wall. 



Code Name 

Code Quest, a new release 

from Sunburst Communica- 
tions for the Models 111 and 4 
(48K). focuses on children's 
fascination with codes to de- 
velop problem -solving skills 
and strategies. The program 
is suitable for grades 4 to 
adult. 



Code Quest encourages 
users to develop discrimina- 
tion, classification, and pat- 
tern Identification skills 
through codes composed of 
letters, numbers, and pic- 
tures. A special option lets 
students or teachers create 
their own mystery objects 
and clues. 



For $55 you receive a disk, 
back-up disk, and teacher's 
guide. Contact Sunburst 
Communications Inc. [39 
Washington Ave.. Pleasant- 
ville. NY 10570, 800-431- 
1934) for more Information. 
Circle 557 on Reader Servlcecard. 

Ship Ahoy 

Clear For Action Is a new 
48K Model I/II1/4 game from 
Microcomputer Games, a di- 
vision of Avalon Hill Game Co. 

You eire the admiral of epic 
sea battles In the age of 
wooden ships and Iron men. 
You command up to five can- 
non-laden sailing vessels and 
attempt to out-sall and out- 
gun an opponent or the com- 
puter. Clear For Action has 1 1 
predefined scenarios avail- 
able, or you can design your 
own. 

A cassette is $25. For fur- 
ther Information, contact Mi- 
crocomputer Games Inc., 
4517 Harford Road. Balti- 
more. MD 21214, 301-254- 
9200. 
Circle 561 on Reader Service cxird. 



Circle 152 on Reader Servicfl card 



NEW PRINTERS ADDED! FIND YOURS BELOW. 

Good TITS Mo"fM 



PRINTER 

MAKE MODEL NUMBER 

Co'>iari ii5 'f your cnnie' 15 

"OI isleil irte na.e mani' rpore in 5t[hc« 

We an groDaCly PELOAO your old caritiilaes 



RIBBON SALE 



BASE 2. DIP 0182-84-85, MPI 8&-99-GX 



C ITOH Prowrlter 1550-8510. NEC 8023-6025, APPLE DMP-imaoew 



EXACT REPLACEMENTS 



RIBBON 
SIZE 



NEW CARTRIDGES 

rT-,ani,'dfl„'ei5 0' maOe 
RtaUy \c use 



S20/2 S57/6 S108/12 



S15/2 S42/6 S 78/12 



RELOADS 

TouSEMDytij' uwO 

CARTHIDGESlcus Wt 

pui OUR NEW INSEHTS 

in I hem 



S7/1 



S6I 



S7/1 



S6m 2< 



INSERTS EZLOAD» 

OROP/N NO WINDING' 
EXACT REPLACEMENTS 

made ,n liu' {i*n shop 
Ca'iiiOo»i NOT included 



S15/3 S54/12 S288/72 



S15/3 S54/12 S288/72 



C ITOH 5TARWRITER F.ia-40 
DIABLO HYTYPE II 



Carbon Film Black 
Fabric Black 



VMk 130 



S18r3 S60ri2 S342/72 
S18/2 S5ir6 S 96/12 



S5»3-11 
S8/1 



S4 ■■ 1 2 or mori 
S7 ■■ 2 or mora 



S24/6 S42/12 S234/72 
S21/3 178/12 S432/72 



RADIO SHACK-TOSHIBA COMMODORE PANASONIC-RICOH 

Carbon Film - DWP210(Hvlyp« II) Black (1445) 

DW II, DWP 410 510. RICOH 1200-1300-1600 Black (1419) 

Rad. Green. Blue. Brown CotofS(1419) 

Fabric (Long Lire). DWP 210 (Hylype II) Black (14S8) 

DW II, OWP410S10. RICOH 1200-1300-1600 Btack(1449) 
DMP-100. LP VII. COMMODORE 1525. GORILLA BANANA (1424) 

DMP 200. 120, (430 Instrls & Reloads Only) (1296) (1483) 

DMP 400-420. LP VI-VIII, PANASONIC KXP-130 (1418) 

DMP500 (1482) 

DMP-2100, TOSHIBA P1340.1350-1351 (1442) 

LP-l-lt IV, CENTRONICS 730-737-739-779 (Zip Pack) (1413) 

LPIII-V (1414) 



114 I 145 
t/4i 130 



Vlf I 



lnt«r Loop 
1/3120 

SriBiK 
112 > 20 
1/2ji2Q 

9/16 ■ IB 
1I2ji 15 



S18/3 
S18/3 
S21/3 
S18/2 
SIB/2 
S18/2 
S20/2 
SI 5/2 
S22/2 
SI 5/2 



S60/12 

S60/12 

$72/12 

S51/6 

S51/6 

S51/6 

S57/6 

S42/S 

S63/6 

S42/G 



S342/72 
S342/72 
S420/72 
S 96/12 
S 96/12 
S 96/12 
S108/12 
S 78/12 
S120/12 
S 78/12 



S5*a3-11 
S5*a3 11 
S6*a3-11 
S8/1 
S8/1 



54 •• 12 or mora 
S4a.12o.rT.or. 

55 aa 1 2 or mora 
S7 aa 2 or mora 
S7 aa 2 or mora 



S24/G S42/12 S234/72 

S24/6 S42/12 1234/72 

$30/6 S54/12 S234/72 

S21/3 $78/12 S432f72 

S21/3 S7U12 S432/72 



S7/1 
S7/1 

17/1 
S7/1 



S7 ■■ 2 or mora 

S6 aa 2 or mora 

$6 aa 2 or mora 

$6 aa 2 or mora 



S15/2 $42/6 $ 78/12 



$7/1 



S6< 



' mota 



SI 5/3 
SI 5/3 
SIS/3 

SI 5/3 
SI 2/3 
$15/3 



$54/12 
$54/ 12 
$54/ 12 
S54/12 
$45/12 
$54/12 



$288/72 
$288/72 
$288/72 
S28B/72 
$252/72 
$288/72 



EPSON LO1500 

MX-FX RX 70-80, IBM PC (Standard Paper] 
MX-FX-RX 100, IBM PC (Wide Paper) 



1'3. H 
112 I 20 
112 I 30 



S22/2 

S14/2 
S18/2 



SG3/6 S120/12 
S36/6 S 66/12 
S51/6 S 96/12 



$7/1 
$7/1 
S8/1 



S6 •■ 2 or mora 

56 aa 2 or mora 

57 aa 2 or mora 



S15/3 $54/12 
$15/3 $54/12 
SIB/3 S66/12 



S2B8/72 
$288/72 
$360/72 



COMMODORE B023P. CENTRONICS 152-2 



112112 



S14/2 $36/6 $ 66/12 



S7/1 



SG aa 2 or mora 



$15/3 $54/12 S288/72 



ANADEX 9000 Series 



1'2i30 



S18/2 S51/6 S 96/12 



SB/1 



S 7 aa 2 or mora 



S18/3 S66/12 $360/72 



NEC SpJnwriterCartion Film 2000-3500 (RakiadiBCCOMPCOOnif) 

-550a7700 [On Ratoad Moil Typn) 

' Fabric -2000-3500 (Can Raioad Air) 

550a7700 (Can Raioad Air) 



S/IGiKS 

114 1 145 
1'2l14 
l'2ii t] 



S21/3 
SIS/3 
S1B/2 
S15/2 



$78/12 $450/72 

S60/12 S342/72 

$51/6 S 96/12 

S42/G S 78/12 



S5 aa 3-11 $4 aa 12 or mora 

S5aa3-11 S4aa 12 or mora 

SS/1 S7aa 2 or mora 

S8/1 S7 aa 2 or mora 



S24/6 S42/12 

S24/6 S42/12 

$15/3 $54/12 

SI 5/3 S54/12 



S234/72 
S234/72 
$288/72 
$288/72 



OK I DATA Pacemark 2350-2410 Black 

Microlina ML-80-82-83-92-93 iCaii lot ml m Pricaii 



112 I 100 
1f2ii 1G 



Spool 



$32 each 
S39/12 $216/72 



$20/1 



$ 1 8 aa 2 or mora 



36f3 S132/12 $720/72 



MANNESMAN-TALLY MT 160 
MT 180 
■Spirit 80 (5P80) COMMODORE 1 526 iMuHlstrihi) 



9m m 1 11 
9m m 1 1 3 
1'Zi35 



SI 9/2 
S20/2 

S1H2 



$54/6 S102J12 
S57J6 $108/12 
S45/6 S B4/12 



PANASONIC KXP-1090-1091 1092-1093 



5/16 » 3 



S20I2 S57/6 $108/12 



BROTHER HR-15-25-35 
COMREX DX-15, II 



Carbon Film (Mulllitnka or Corraclabla) 
Fabric ICall lor Comtai 420 P^icai) 



S<ieji82 
5/IGi 17 



SIB/3 S60/12 $342/72 
$15/2 $42/12 $ 78/72 



SENCJ CHECK MONEV ORDER ORG O D TO 

BCCOMPCO 

MVMK 800 South 17 Box 246 

5ljMMEnSVILLE,M0 6SS71 
(417)932-4196 

WE PAI UPS SHIPPING on PREPAID ORDERS 
PLEASE INCLUDE STREET ADDRESS ror UPS DELI 
FOREIGN HDD 15^- u S PUND5 



80 Micro. September 1985 • 123 



Circle 49 on Reader Service card. 



DISKETTE 
CLEARANCE 



Here's your chance !□ save BIG BUCKS on liisi- 

quality disks made by America s lap manutacturers iQf 

Iheir orivjle laOel customers Field Magnetics has 

warehoused thousands ol these FACTORY- SEAL ED disks' 

and can pass tremendous savings onto you 

ALL DISKS ARE SURFACE-TESTED. CERTIflED ERROR-FREE 

AND EXCEED ANSI STANDARDS IFYOU ARE NOT COMPLETELY 

SATISFIED WIIH THESE DISKS VOU MAY RETUHNTHEMTO FIELD 

MAGNETICS. INC WITHIN 30 DAYS FOR A FULL REFUND OURDWN 

LIFETIME WARRANTY APPLIES TO ALL DISKS (Copy o) waffanly 

available upon request ) 



NEW PRODUCTS 




5V4" 



In boxes ot 
10 disks 

SSSD, compares to S26, 00 

now $8.50 
SSDD. compares to S29. 00 

nowSg.SO 
OSDD. compares to S40 00 

nowsn.oa 



8 



■• forTRSaO* 

'' In boxes of 

10 disks 

SSSD, compares to $33 00 

nowS12.50 
SSDD, compares lo $39 50 

now SI 5. 00 
DSOD. compares to $45 00 

now $20.00 

'Sctl-sectoml rull ringpol riara-uctarpd 
Qrslis miliMf pleiscmiltaruii 



Rrst »■■ , Inl Mmri . n Drtcr M«i TMi ontr It 
■•M aiitT ai lant h tar tapf ly latti ) 

^ShtpUPS Add $2 OOtorlirsIbox.II Weacnaflilt- 
Iional. It ordering by pnone. please nave credit card # 

and enpiration date ready We accept Visa, MasterCard, 

American Express, money orders, and checks INC. 

5865 SW 21st St. . W. Hollywood, FL 33023. Call (305) 962-0707. 



FIELD 

MAGNETICS 



Circle 46 on Reader Service card. 



Wowl Over 170 Fonnatol 

*HYPERCROSS/XT TRSM - CP/M - MS-DOS Flto Tranalw' 
Now you can CROSS Ifie barrier between computersi Usmg HYPERCROSS you can COPY 
tilea twtween TBS-BO Disks and those Irom many ditterent CP/M and IBM-PC type 
computers. H you have access to more than one kind ot computer, or you are chanBing lo a 
new machine then you need HYPERCROSS lo transfer your le»l titas, BASIC, FORTRAN 
PASCAL or C programs, Viscalc liles, general ledger and accounting files, data basos and 
even binary files 

KYPERCROSSIatayoudathisdireclly onyoiif own TRS-SOor MAX-M without using cabiaa 
Just put a distilrom a CP/M or F>C/ US-DOS (Tandy 1000, 1200, 2000loa)inonBdriveanda 
TRS-BO type DOS disk in another drive and you can copy files bacli and lortti at will' You can 
copy multiple files in one go. and even copy directly from one alien disJi lormat to another You 
can also FORMAT an ahen disk, display the DIRECTORY, and KILL tiles 
■Formela awpporiad: IBM-PC and MS-DOS compatibles include DOS > 1 . 2 x / 3 single and 
douOle sided and Tandy 2000. CP/M Irom Aardvark lo Zorba. mcludmg Cromemco. DEC. 
Epson. HP. IBM CP/M B6, Kaypto. LNW, MAX-80 Morrow. NEC. Osborne. Otrona. Sanyo. 
Superbratn, Teleteh. Televideo, TRS-flO all Modft I, ill arid fV CP/Ms, Xerox. Zenith plus many 
otners N«wvanionXT/2.D-PluisupponaanaddWonai100tarni«tslnciiiiSngPCJ-tomiata. 
Hardwara required: 48K and 2 drives mimmum. Model i needs a doubter Some lor rnats need 
double SKled or BO track drives 8C track skip supported 
PRICES including disk, manual and shipping We will match any advertsed price 

Hypercross CP/M with 40 single sided formats 149-95 

Hypercross PC/MS-DOS standard sided formats only $49.95 

Hypercross XT 2.0 with 70 CP/M and PC formats 199.95 

Hypercross XT 2.Q -Plus. Now with 170 formats 1129.95 

Upgrade at any lime for price difference plus S5 plus old disk 
Ptoase apeclty TRS-W Model I, III, 4/4P, or MAX-SO. 

HYPERZAP 3.2c Disk MagicI 

Do you wantlo back up your precious copy ol Copycat 3orSU Do you wani to fix or modify a 
disk - If so then you need HVPERZAPI On the markel for over 2 years. HYPERZAP Is mora 
than juSt another disk copying program - 11 is the program for analyiing, copying, repairing, 
creating floppy disks or all kinds It will copy any TRS-BO lormat as well as many others such 
as CP/M, PC, CoCo etc Specially designed to handle mixed density sectors on any track in 
any sequence. Many features tor reading, writing, editing track and sector data Hyperiap is 
Iha tool that lets you be m charge 

Make yourown eelf booHngdlaks. Take your own CMD hie and turn It into a dual booting Mod 
1/lll'TVd'sk Autopilot mode allows learn, saves and repeats procedures Disk comes wTth 
lascinaling examples 

Hardware needed: 4SK 1 drive minimum. One version for all TRS-80 models 1. 3 and 4 
Manual and disk S49.9S ppd. Separate Max-H veralon avatlabla. 

Arranger II Disk Index System 

World's finest disk cataloging system Atlaslyoucanfindlhatflle when you wsnl it. Arranger 
will CATALOG, SORT and FIND up lo 11000 Tiles fast! Runs on any Model I, III or IV and 
aulorrtatically recognizes virtually any DOS even double sided ones! 
Highly recommended - Mt.99 - S3 iMp 

HYPERSOFT ^.^ 

PO Box 51 155, Raleigh, NC 27609 VSA 
(919) 847-4779 6-11 pn^ EST ^>g^ 
Check CQQ ^^stMrarjud and Visa Accepted 



DIFFERENT TRACK 




Your disks wiU be safe from Jire and theft In the Sentry 
Supreme Media Safe. 

Fire Escape 

John D. Brush & Co, Inc. makes a fire-resistant media 
safe to safeguard your irreplaceable files and data against 
fire. The safe holds up to 200 3'A-inch, 80 5-'/,inch. or 40 8- 
inch disks with storage space for system documentation. 

Sentr>- Supreme Media Safe comes in two models that 
cost $600 and $750. The safe is tested and classified by 
Underwriters Laboratories to protect the contents at tem- 
peratures up to 1 ,700 degrees Falirenheit for one hour. 

A three-number changeable combination lock and a bolt- 
ing system adds security against theft. For more informa- 
tion, contact John D. Brush & Co. Inc.. 900 1-lnden Ave.. 
Rochester. NY 14625. 716-381-4900. 
Circle 564 on Reader SerL'Ice card. 





New Products Index 




Reader Service 






Number 




Compuiy 


Pii«e 


554 




Aspen Graphics 


122 


555 




Charles Leonard Inc. 


122 


562 




EduSofl 


IIB 


552 




Epson America Inc. 


120 


551 




Infocom Inc. 


118 


565 




Information Inc. 


122 


564 




John D. Brush & Co, Inc. 


124 


563 




Kamasoft Inc. 


118 


556 




LSB Learning Associates Inc. 


118 


561 




Microcomputer Games Inc. 


123 


559 




Pacific Software Consultants 


118 


560 




Potomac Industries Ltd. 


123 


558 




Scott, Forcsman and Co. 


120 


557 




Sunburst Communications Inc. 


123 


553 




Traveling Software Inc. 


118 


Neiv Products listings are based on Information supplied in 


manufacturers' press releases. SO Micro has not tested or re- 


vtfiL^ed these prod 


lets and cannot guarantee any claims. 



124 • SO Micro. September 1985 



MS-DOS NEW PRODUCTS 




ProDesign II — designs on your computer. 



Fine Lines 

American Small Business 
Computers Inc. has a com- 
puter-aided design package, 
ProDesign II, available for the 
Model 1000 for $299. 

ProDesign II is designed 
primarily for engineers and 
architects, but you can use it 
for Interior design and pre- 
sentation graphics. It sup- 
ports a mouse and digitizing 
pads for data input, although 
they're not required. You can 
send drawings to most dot- 
matrix printers and plotters. 

You draw on a "virtual 
screen. " which gives you a 
drawing area four times the 
size of the physical screen. 
Drawing features include 
lines, curves, circles, ovals, 
arcs, area fill, and extensive 
text capabilities. ProDesign II 
has on-screen zoom and ro- 
tate, auto dimensioning, and 
complete editing capabilities. 
You can also move, copy, ro- 
tate, and expand or reduce 
sections of the drawings. 

The program supports 
user-created symbol libraries 
and overlay capabilities. You 
need a 512K computer with 



color graphics, two drives, and 
a printer or a plotter. For more 
information, contact Ameri- 
can Small Business Com- 
puters. U8 S. Mill St., Pryor, 
OK 74361, 918-825^844, 
Circle 578 on Reader Service cxird. 

Show Your 
Depreciation 

Depreciation Plus ($395) 
from Good Software Group is 
a fixed-asset management 
package for the Models 1000 
and 1200. It provides three 
applications for fixed-asset 
management: asset control, 
accounting and depreciating 
assets for tax purposes, and 
accounting and depreciating 
assets for financial reports. 

The package is available 
through Radio Shack. For 
more information, contact 
Good Software Group, 12900 
Preston Road. Dallas, TX 
75230. 214 239-6085. 
Circle 574 on Reader Service card. 

Board It Up 

The TanPak from Hard 
Drive Specialist is a multi- 
function board for the Model 
1000, It contains the Model 




One ROM chip con lams rhree acclaimed pfograms 
IDEAf'"— OuUioe procBssof Ooe ol the hottesi -selling programs )ix the Model 100 

and NEC PC-8201, 
T-lMne""— DataBase management. The database reviewers have rated as riumber 

one lor trie Model 100 
T.Wrlter'"— Text lormalter StiH tlie tavonte wilh owners of tfie Model 100 arxJ NEC 
PC-e20i 
Added memofy— 32K in program memory 
Added convenience -always ready— no need to load trooi cassette 
30-Obv Money-B*cti GuaranlM 
Introductory Special 
Only S199.95'— Save $30 
Traveling Software. Inc 
11050 Filth Avenue N.E. 
Seanie. WA 96125 
(206) X7-aO90 

•price after September 20, 1985 will be $229 85 
Trademark Guardian ROM, (C| 1985 Polar Engineering 



To order call loll tree 1-BOO-343-S080 



TRAVELING 

SOFTWARE 

^ 



Circle 414 on Reader Service card. 



Introducing 



MFB-IOOO'" 




Designed foi use u/ith the new Tandy 1000 Personal Computer, ihe MFB-1000 
contains three of the most needed functions on a single 10" eupdnsion card 
Using either 64K or 256K DRAM chips, the Mf"B-1000 can be populaled with 
up to 512K ol memory bringing the total syslem memory to 640K Additionally, 
the board also includes an IBM compatible s^nal communicahons port (identified 
as COMll and a batleiy backed real time clock Calendar As required by the 
design of the Tandy 1000. the MFB- 1000 also contains its own DMA Controller 
However, the DMA Controller can be disabled, making the MFB 1000 compatible 
with the Tandy 1200 as well as other IBM compafible machines 
■ 128K RAM S329.95 ■ 256K RAM $369 95 ■ 512K RAM U29.9S 
ORDERING INFORMATFON 

Vim 'Mastercard orders acccpifd Alb* 2 weeks lor personal checks lo clear Add i3 00 
shipping and handling COD orders add $2 00 NJ lebidenls add b% safcs lax 

PO Box 813 




inc. 



911 Columbia Avenue 
N. Beigen, NJ 07047 
(201)330 1898 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome 

fflW A the rvgiilfTtd BAcWrnorh ol InrRTUQorul Buu^pu M^chine^ 
Tand^ lOOU IjnO Bet Teg»:ered (TAdfrnark.'^ irf Tamlv C.irp 



BO Micro. September 1985 " 125 




.nt»tna( BS-232 txx'O mounii iiior "\r Mrnj^i iii nr 4 i^ -ne o.isipng wacKeu *ii 
caHei ic'ews and conwMle mounting instrud'oni a<« inciuMd Non racniicii 
[MOCM Hill l-nd mal inttaOalion is a^KK sl'a^t tonaa'a (id simoiF reauii>nQ i«» 
than 1 5 Timuivi to compete 

Tout comoaiatMlilr oiO^ Rado Shack* ant) ai> Fxsling sotwi'e i} miiniampa 
Sot«»feprofl'»mmab«et>a ml 'a'«lr«n 5010 19 200 tjauda'eiuDDonaO along wim 
OrogiammaUe wo'd l«f>g*n. tioo Ma. and i>atii> May M ut<iii«9 m eilhe' >^ii< oi '-'' 
a>,B*». opvai-ofl OirtaUnding V«lu« 



C^mS^ff 



Gua'an<*Kl On* Full Yea' 
f)*J*' 'nou"«J rnnwa 

Pl«aa« lorwinl paymant by ■ ccchlar*! 
chach Of tnonay ordw. 
Visa o' Masleicnatge also accepted 
Add S3 OO snipping & handlirig 
[Foreign oide'S quoted on request) 



MS-DOS NEW PRODUCTS 



ij 80 MICRO 



FROM 80 




GET THE ATTENTiON 
YOU DESERVE 

Tell more than 200,000 dedicated, interested 
TRS80 users about your product or service with an 
efficient and economical 80 Micro classified ad. 

You'll reach the most people in Ihe market for 
the least amount of money! j j 

With 80 Micro's well-established audience of 

involved buyers, sellers, and swappers, your ad is 

bound to get test results! 

For more information, write to: 

. r 80 Micro 

Attn. Classified Managlr 

80 Pine Street 
Peterborough, NH 03458 




Enter a golf tournament on your computer and win 
prizes. 



1000 dirert memory access 
circuitry, a serial port, clock, 
and additional memory 
(128K, 256K, or 512K). You 
can get a 256K upgrade kit 
for the 128K and 256K 
boards. 

The 128K version costs 
S399. For more details, con- 
tact Hard Drive Specialist. 
16208 Hickory Knoll. Hous- 
ton. TX 77059, 800-231-6671. 
Circle 5 76 on Reader Service card. 

Incorporate Yourself 

Computerl^w Inc.'s Form- 
ing Your Own Corporation 
($25) for the Models 1000. 
1200. and 2000 helps you in- 
corporate your business with- 
out paying unnecessary legal 
fees. 

The disk includes articles of 
incorporation, bylaws, min- 
utes, sample corporate pur- 
poses, waivers, transmittal 
letters, addresses of state in- 
corporation agencies, and a 
commentary to the language 
of incorporation forms so you 
can complete the papierwork 
necessary for incorporation 
without having to consult an 
attorney. 

For more information, con- 
tact ComputerLaw Inc.. 1087 
Taft St.. Rockville. MD 20850. 
301-34a8100. 
Circle 575 on Reader Service card. 

Picture Show 

Bottomllne Graf ($99) pro- 
duces graphics presentations 
in pie, bar. and line formats 
from numerical data on MS- 
DOS-compatible computers. 
It provides up to 12 intervals 
on the X- and Y-axcs along 
with clustered or stacked bar 
graphs, multiple line graphs. 



and combined charts. 

The menu-driven program 
can send output to a monitor, 
printer, or plotter. It requires 
64K and one disk drive. For 
more information, contact 
Venture Software. 16200 
Ventura Blvd.. Encino, CA 
91436.818-986-4110. 
Circle 573 on Reader Service card. 

Tee Totaler 

Golfs Best simulates the 
world's top golf courses on 
your MS-DOS computer. You 
challenge the course by se- 
lecting clubs, force of swing, 
direction, and so on. 

Golf's Best features color 
graphics, sound effects, close- 
ups, aerial views, regular and 
championship tees, periodic 
changes in pin placements, 
and scorecard. 

The package comes with 
registration forms so you can 
enter the 1 STEP computer 
golf tournament. You play a 
specified course as many 
times as you want and send 
in your best score. 1 STEP 
Software offers trip and cash 
prizes. 

One to four players can 
play Golf's Best. The package 
costs $49.95. For more infor- 
mation, contact 1 STEP Soft- 
ware Inc.. Charlotte Plaza. 
Suite 1300. Charlotte, NC 
28244. 800-525-4653. 
Orc(e 577 on Reader Service card. 

Convert That Basic 

TRSTOMS ($50) lets you 
convert Basic programs for 
the Models II. in. 4. 12. 16. and 
100 to PC-DOS and MS-DOS 
Basic. It saves you up to 90 
percent of manual conversion 
time. 



126 • SO Micro. September 1985 



MS-DOS NEW PRODUCTS 




Softerm 2000 lets your computer do the talking. 



MS-DOS New Products Index 


Reader Serricc 






Number 


Company 


P*ge 


577 


1 STEP Software Inc, 


126 


578 


American Small Business 






Computers 


125 


575 


CompuierLaw Int- 


126 


574 


Good Software Group 


125 


576 


Hard Drive Specialist 


125 


570 


Ramona Enterprises [nc. 


126 


571 


Softronics Inc. 


127 


573 


Venture Software 


126 


Nl'iv Pr(xlitcts listings are based on information supplied in 


manufacturers' 


press releases, 80 Micro has not tested or re- 


viewed these products and cannot guarantee any 


claims. 



The program operates on 
any MS-DOS machine, in- 
cluding the Models 1000. 
1200. and 2000. You must 
transfer a TRS-80 Basic pro- 
gram to an MS-DOS disk be- 
fore you can use TRSTOMS 
on it. Then TRSTOMS changes 
most Basic instructions to 
conform to MS-DOS Basle. It 
converts file names, adds 
spaces where required, and 
converts instructions like 
PRINT®, OPEN "D ■. POS. 
and others. It also adjusts Tab 



and Locate commands to 
compensate for the different 
notation system. 

TRSTOMS also prints out a 
conversion report indicating 
the conversions it made and 
flagging graphics or control 
codes that may present prob- 
lems under MS-DOS. 

You need a 64K MS-DOS 
machine with one disk drlvc 
and a printer to run TRS- 
TOMS. You can buy a demo 
disk for S7 and later credit 
that to a future purchase. For 



more information, contact 
Ramona Enterprises Inc., 
1087 Tafl St.. Rockville. MD 
20850. 301 340-8100. 
Circle 5 70 on Reader Service card. 

Term Talk 

Softronics Inc. offers their 
terminal program, Softerm. 
for the Model 2000. Softerm 
2000 ($195) includes key- 
board macros, a built-in phone 
book for automatic dialing, 
and simultaneous capture to 
print on disk. It also supports 



popular transfer protocols 
like Xmodem and emulates 
24 popular terminals so you 
ran access mainframe com- 
puters. An additional emula- 
tion lets the Model 2000 act 
as a terminal for a Model 16 
Xenix multiuser system. 

You can buy Softerm 2000 
in your Radio Shack store, or 
contact Softronics Inc, (3639 
New Getwell Road. Suite 10. 
Memphis. TN 38 1 18. 901 -683- 
6850) for more information. 
Circle 57J on Reader Sen>ice card. 



Circle 464 on Reader Servtce card. 



Graphics Solutions 

High-Resolution Softujore and Hordujore 



GBASIC 3.0 Radio Shack Mod^l 
4/4P/III hi res board owners take note of 
an enhanced graphics Basic; GBASIC 3.0 
not only has an equivalent for each of the 
BASICG commands but adds a number of 
important new commands while using less 
memory The hi res screen can be printed 
on any of 20 popular printers or saved to 
or loaded from disk without leaving Basic. 
The software works with TRSLKJS 1,3, 
6 12. 6 2. LIX)S, NEWDOS80, and 
DOSPLUS The disk contains 40 graphics 
programs/ files Also included is a detailed 
manual which includes assembly language 
entry addresses. $49 95 (Specify Model 4 
or HI mode or add $10 for both ) 

The following nine programs run on a 
Model 4/4P/ill equipped with a fiadio 
Shack graphics board and GBASIC 3.0 or 
a Micro-Labs Grafyx Solution board: 

DRAW A powerful full screen graphics 
drawing and editing program $39 95 

BIZGRAPH - Create business graphs from 
hand entered or VisiCalc data. $98 00. 

xT.CAD - Professional drafting aid which 
outputs to a printer or plotter. $449 95 



CHESS - A very powerful program with 
10 skill levels, 40 play options. $49.95. 

REVERSI Play Othello with 10 skill 
levels. 20 execution options. $39 95. 

3D Tic-Tac-Toc Play the computer or 
a friend on a 4 > 4 ■ 4 matrix. $29 95 

3D-PLOT - View three-dimensional data 
from any perspective or angle. $39 95 

MATHPLOT Plot equations of the form 
Y-F(x) with auto scaling $39 95 

SURFACE PLOT Plot three dimensional 

equations of the form Z-"F(x,y). $39.95 

GRAFYX SOLUTION. Plug in. clip-on 
board enhances any Model 4/4P/III to 
provide 640 x 240 / 512 x 192 dot 
graphics Comes with over 40 programs 

and files including GBASIC 3.0 which adds 
over 20 new commands, $199.95. 

JOY-MOUSE. Allows a Radio Shack 
CoCo joystick, mouse, or touch pad to be 
connected to any Model 4/4P/II1, Hardware 
provides X. Y position values from to 
255 A built-in speaker produces sound 
from the cassette port $129 95 



•m 












^ 


^? 


■ 1 


X 






1. 
± 


1 

JL 


1. 


1 






^ 
















1 


>* 

< :• 




A 








i^^' 














^M 9H V - 






,„ 
■ . 




\' W ^ 




■■■ 










El"'' 


..^ 




d 


, - , 







G.I.N.A. Software program for the Model 
4/4P/I1I/I which uses the standard block 
graphics screen to display a window to a 
larger 65536 ■ 65536 dot tablet The 
arrow keys are used to draw two or 
three-dimensional figures The display can 
be scaled, shifted, or rotated in any 
dimension The final picture is printed in 
hi res on Radio Shack, Epson, Gemini, NEC 
8023. or Prowriter printers $75 00 

Please specify your exact system 
configuration when ordering or requesting 
information Payment may be by check. 
Visa. Mastercard, or COD Domestic 
shipping is free on prepaid orders Texas 
residents add 5'.% sales tax 

Micro-Labs, Inc. 214-2350915 

902 Pinecrest. Richardson, Texas 75080 



ASK TANDY 



A Little Light Pen 
Musing 



Send your questions dealing specifi- 
cally with Tandy products, services, or 
policies to Ask Tandy. 80 Micro. 80 Pine 
St.. Peterborough. NH 03458. Be sure to 
specify which model computer you use. 
A representative at Tandy's Fort 
Worth. TX, headquarters supplies all 
answers published here. 

9 m I've waited breathlessly for an an- 
• nouncement about a light pen for 
the Tandy 1000. In the June 1985 Ask 
Tandy column. I read that Tandy Is only 
"considering" bar code systems for com- 
puters other than the 100/200. Tell me it 
isn't so. Is this a change in intention, 
since Tandy included a light fxrn port on 
the 1000? Can 1 use other pens on the 
1000 without modification? 

A^ First ofalL don't confuse a light 
mpen. which works with your 



computer's screen, with a bar code 
reader, which reads those little en- 
coded, printed stripes. One has nothing 
to do with the other. 

We included a light pen port on the 
1000 for future expar\sion. Right now. 
we feel light pens are too expensive. 
When they get more cost effective, 
chances are good we'll have one. Sorry. 
I have no information about other light 
pens that might work. 

99 How long after buying a Tandy 
• computer can I buy a service con- 
tract? After my equipment is repaired, 
can I see it before leaving the store? 

A^ Seruice contracts are available 
»any time. If your unit isn't still 
under warranty, we require a check- 
out at a fee of $25 per system. If we find 



any defects, you must have them re- 
paired before you buy a contract. 

Small systems are easy to check out 
prior to your picking them up. Complex 
systems usually aren't in the store 
prior to delivery, but your store can 
probably work something out with you. 
depending on the circumstances. 
Check with them. 

9 •You've traditionally offered com- 
• puters in various configurations. 
Why no 128K version of the Model 4? 

A^A couple of reasons: First, since 
• Basic won't address the second 
64K except as a RAMdisk. we expected 
the 64K version to be far more popular. 
And. it mould be prohibitively expen- 
sive to have our stores carrying two 
versions of a computer so easy to up- 
grade. ■ 





micro 



DISKS & 
SUPPLIES 



Disks, Program Packag- 
ing. I:OW prices t)i^ BAS?\ 
Memorex. Verbatim. Dy 
san. Binders. Slips like 
Tandy 1000. 2000. Much 
more. Free Catalog. An- 
thropomorphic. 376 East 
Saint Charles. Lombard. 
IL 60148 (312) 629-5160. 



DoUar Difkettea! DS DD 

w Hub ring. Dollar Brand 
are available in packs of 
10 for $10,00. Add $2.00 
postage and handling to 
total order, No minimum 
no maximum lifetime gar- 
uantee, 4831 S, Hampton. 
LB-41 Dallas, TX 75232. 



SOFTWARE 



Coin Collectors! Unique 
program uses built-in 
market value file and 
prices your U.S. collec 
tlon. Brochure available. 
Compu-Quote 6914 Ber- 
quist, Canoga Park,. CA 
91307 (818)348-3662, 



Masonic Lodge Secretar- 
y's Programs Models III 
and Native 4 4P versions. 
«65.00 ppd. John Taylor. 
106 Busch Hill. We- 
tumpka. AL 36092. 



Pageone Quick, easy. 
Model 1. Ill word proces- 
sor S49 95 or SASK for In- 
formation Roy Scott. Box 
1508. Bakersfleld. CA 
93302-1508. 



Powerful Hailing List Pro- 
gram Complelely menu 
driven. Specify LOGS. 
NEWDOS, TRSDOS. 

TRSD0S6, 819.95 Mail 
check or money order to: 
Zarchy Data Processing. 
P.O. Box 1012. Wood- 
bridge. NJ 07095, BBS 
support at £01-494-3558 



SERVICES 



Oet the attention you de- 
serve. 80 Micro is now of 
fering classified ads at a 
special intoductory price. 
Reach over 100.000 read- 
ers with news of your 
product or service. Class- 
ified ads on the pages of 
SO Aficroget results. Write 
to 80 Micro 80 Pine St. Pe- 
terborough. NH 03458 
attn: Classified manager 
for lnform.ation and dead- 
lines. 



PUBLICAnONS 



Close-out Sale! TRS-80 En 
cylcopedia by Wayne 
Green Inc 10 volume 
hardcover was $199 SO 
now $79,99. 10 volume 
softcover was 8109.50 
now $58.99 Mail to 
DlskCount Data see page 7 
for address. 



HARDWARE 



Model 100 64X RAM mnd 

ules only 8375 each. 8K 
RAM modules $34 95 
each. 24K RAM modules 
for T^ndy 200 $139 each. 
PG Design Electronics, 
Inc. 66040 Gratiot, Rich- 
mond. Michigan 04862 
(313)727-2744. 



Circle M9 on Reader Service Card 



circle 101 on Reader Service card. 




Select any one of seven tests to perform 
preventive maintenance or to isolate problems. 
Simple, single-letter commands make MM easyj 
to use! Use MM to align the head, adjust the / 
liKlm hole detector, or adjust the speed. / 



IW3 J»H Syltaixt Urt 



SP£€0 SCOPE 



ITD ItO IW 300 310 310 ]]: 



Olive - Hud ' TrKk - 00 



[>5*t«cr <Sfi4 S^Un itop df<t* 'n -n«iurn lo mum mvnv 
EnMi HMclian '- - 



Check the motor speed of your drives. Or. you 
can even use the Speed Test to adjust the drive 
speed. No need for any test equlpmeflt! 

PROTECT YOUR DATA. 

Now you can make sure your data is being 
recorded properly by the use of the revolutionary 
Memory Minder. 

The Memory Minder from J & M Systems, tests 
your disk's performance and calibration without 
any additionol equipment! It measures your 
disk's performance and dispkxys it on your 
scr»«n. 

This is the most comprehensive disk diagnostic 
program available for your TRS-80 microcomputer. 
-¥»» con even otlttfst dnve alignment wtnle watchtni 
the display! 

Spot problems before they endanger your data! 

If you own a disk drive, ypu neec/ the Memory 
Minderl [ 



Use the MM Radial Alignment Test to check the 
tiead alignment of your drives. No need for an 
o^illoscope or other expensive test equtpment! 





M_-..„,Mr,™., 


983JftMSrlUfni, Lid 


QUICK TEST 




Sn«4 t*|| 


D 


InMinoM liming mi 


D 


nMlw ulignnitnt mt 





] Ajimuiti roi«1ir>n 1«l 


O 


1 HirUoaiii tail 


o 


1 £7 tna 0\ IHL 




1 DrlvtO 




1 „. 


^ 



\ [VS«t*Cl dnw S-Slarl vlop dnvv .i 'Ailurn Id nvtti r 

Eniflr tattctton " ' 



Use the Quick Test to quickly and automatically ^ 
test five of the most important performance 
parameters of your drive. Monitor your drives 
for long term drift. Isolate problems quickly and 
automaticaliyi 

TRS-80 Model III/4 '^ 

1 - 48 Ipi Single Sid« (Standard) $7f 

2 - 48 Ipj Double Sid* \ SM 

3 - 96 tpi Double Sid* \ $129 
Includes 48 tpi & 96 Ipi program dislwttM 

TRS-80 Model -I 

1 - 48 Ipi Single Side Single Densily 

TRS-SO Color Computer and TDP-100 

1 • 48 Ipi Single Side (Standard) $79 

2 - 48 Ipi Double Side \ $99 

MM also available for other models 
J & M SYSTEMS IS THE DRIVING FORCE! 



U/ 



J & M SYSTEMS, LTD. 

I5I00-A CENTRAL SE 

ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO 87123 

505/292-41 82 



Clrcte 9 on Readef Sefvlce card 



Introducing the Most Powerful 
Business Software Ever! 



TRS-SO- (Model I. II. Ill, or I6)» APPLE ••IBM'-* OSBORNE "•CP/M"'»KAYPRO 



1 




ersaBusiness' Series 

Each Versa Business modulG can be purchased and used independently, 
or can be linked in any combination to form a complete, coordinated business system. 



VERSARECEIVABLES" $99.95 

Versa RFcfjvaBlEs" is a completp menu-diiven accounts receivable, invoicing, and 
monlhly slatement generating syslcm. Il keeps irack (ri all intoimaiion related to who 
o*'es v'ju or your company money, and can provide automatic bilbng lor past due ac- 
counts VtRSARECEiVASliS" prints .il! necessary statemenis. invokes, and summary 
reports and tan be linked with VEHSAUIXSER IP and VERSA NVEN TORY". 

VERSaPaYABLES'- $99.95 

VfrsaPa'-'ables"" is designed to keep track of current and aged payables, keeping you 
in loufh with all inlormation regarding how much money your company owes, and to 
whom. Wrsa Payables" maintains a complete record on each vendor, prints checks, 
check registers, vouchers, transaction reports, aged payables reports, vendor reports, 
and more, Wilh VEHSA PAYABLES-, you can even lei yout computer automatkrally select 
which vouchers are lo be paid 

VERSAPaYROLL'" $99.95 

V[HSApAvmi!i • is J [Kiweiful and sophericated, but easy lo use payroll system that 
keeps Itdtk of all government required payroll informaiion Compieie employee records 
ate maintained, and all necessary pdyri>ll idlculat ions are perlormedaulomatically. with 
totals displayed on screen for operator approval. A payroD can be run totally, aulomati 
CaDy. or the operator can intervene ro prevent a check from being printed, ot lo alter 
mfoimatkm on il If desired, totals may be posted lo the VtRSALELKitH IP system, 



VersaLedger ir" $149.95 

Versa L£DGER IP" is a complete accounting system thai grows as your business 
grows. VersaLedger IP" can be used asa simple personal checkbook register. 
expanded to a small business bookkeeping system or developed into a large 
corporate general ledger system without any additional software. 

• VERSALtUGER 11" gives you almost unlimited storage capacity 

(300 lo 10.000 entries per month, depending on the system), 

• stores all check and general ledger information forever, 

• prints Iraclorfeed checks, 

• handles multiple checkbooks and general ledgers. 

• prints 17 customized accounting reports including check registers, 
balance sheets, income staiemenis. transaction reports, account 
listings, etc. 

VersaLedger ir comes with a professionally written 160 page manual de 
signed (or first-time users. The VERSAL£Lx,hR l!'" manual will help you become 
quickly familiar with \*RSALedG£R IP. using complete sample data files 
suppKed on diskette and more than 50 pages of sample printouts. 



VersaInventory" 



$99.95 



Versa ^VTvroRY"' is a complete inventory control svstem that gives you instant access 
lo data on any item VtRSAtiyENTORY~ keeps track ot all inlormation related to what 
items are in stock, out of stock, on backorder. etc.. stores sales and pricirtg data, aieris 
you when an item talis bek)w a preset reorder point, and allows you to enter and pnni 
invoices directly or to link wiih t he VERSA RtC El VABliS" system. VERSAhVEmORY- prints 
all needed inventory listings, reports o! Hems below reorder point, inuenlorv value re- 
ports, period and year to date sales reports, pnce lists, mventory checklists, etc. 

■CQIVIPIJTHQMICS- 



SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! 



EvwvVERSABL SIMSS'-!iik;l.. -. ._-.-, i ■.-... r. . : --^r ■-. „ ■■■,-■ .rrp.-- - ,.- ..■^-.-t 
and^MU<iax^:-^-r.^A^.;: l:^^.....,,^ ,...■ ,^i sti^.H ..--.■.: ■.MR'iABt S1NE'.S-~i.«|-,,l,.,:.n . 
may telurnHwiihin 30 days tot flretund.t«l»nu*b1oi.i-i.Vms'i BUSINESS- module may t)« 
punhaicd lot Kb each, credited lowaid a later puf.-i->.'-' ■ ' h,.' viodule 
All CPM. based Compultrs miiM he equipped wil>- Mr< ■ i- - HAsIC 
(MBASICmliASICSOi 



To Order; 

Write or call Toll-free (800) 431-2818 
(N.Y S. residents call 914-4251535) 



■ add SS ;o CANADA or MEXICO 
• iiiid propft postage else»,^l■■^• 



ddii $J loi thippmg in UPS Hirers 
add M lot C O.D. or non UPS an 



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Alt priten a[Ki iix-iitnanorn juhtec I lo thange Delrvei^, subjeci lo availabihlv 



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